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AFTER a period of comparative tran- so quickly upon each other, nearer home, quillity, during which people had begun that many of us have probably forgotten to think our relations with the Chinese the “ Tientsin Massacre" of 1870, in were really becoming more sympathetic, which twenty-one foreigners, besides a we have been startled by a series of fresh good many native converts, lost their outbreaks, characterized by the old spirit lives. It will not, however, be superof hostility. As before, missionaries bave fluous to recall that atrocity ; for the been the principal objects of attack. One events which led up to it have been remission station after another has been produced, with variations, during the past menaced, or ransacked, or destroyed, twelveinonths ; and it is useful to realize from Ichang to Nanking, throughout tbe that the riot at Tientsin was not, any length of the Yangtze valley. The lay- more than the late riot at Wubsüeh, a inen bave not been treated with benevo- sudden or an isolated explosion. Four lence, for at more than one place bayonets years previously it had fallen to my lot to have had to be employed to fend off the strike a note of warning in the following mob ; but it is against inissions that the terms :original attacks have been commonly directed, and it is against missionaries that
“A proclamation has been extensively the libels by which the riots are worked posted throughout Hunan and in the adja
cent provinces, denouncing their (the misup have been mainly levelled.
sionaries') interference with established Unhappily, religious persecution is no new thing in China. Tolerant and easy- to rise and. exterminate them.
customs, and calling on all loyal subjects going up to a certain point, the Chinese with a sweeping denunciation against for
Beginning admitted the propaganda under the broad eigners generally, whose specific characinterpretation of the early Jesuits, but op- ter is half man, half beast,' and who, alposed it directly it touched the one cult lowed by the extreme kindness of the Emwhich has a hold upon their convictions.
peror to trade at Canton, have penetrated They might have accepted Christianity, as
into every part of the empire, the they accepted Buddhism, if it would have absorbed ancestral worship; but Clement's his wrath against missionaries in the fol
writer goes on to direct the whole flood of bull sounded the destruction of the edifice
lowing terms :which Ricci and Schaal and Verbiest had
"6" Those who have come to propagate rebuilt up ; the very claim of the Pope to interfere angering ihem not less, probably, masses, print and circulate depraved compo
ligion, enticing and deluding the ignorant than the dogına he asserted. Rome, bow- sitions, daring, by their deceptive extravaever, kept a foothold : one of the churches gances, to set loose the established bonds of that has just been burned down is said to society, utterly regardless of all modesty. have been ministered in by Ricci himself, worship only Jesus, yet, being divided into
Although the adherents of the religion and Huc showed us Christian congregations Catholic and Protestants, they are continually in Szechuen. But the proselytes have railing at each other. Daughters in a been subject to periodic molestation, with family are not given in marriage, but retained the sanction, at times, of the Imperial au
for the disposition of the bishop, thus ignor. thorities, at others by merely local insti- ing the matrimonial relation.' gation. The treaty of Tientsin finally “A hundred other enormities, some legalized the propaganda. The era of with a certain foundation in fact, others official persecution was then closed ; but existing entirely in the writer's imaginapersecution has gone on all the same, un- tion, are alleged against these teachers of der the auspices of the literati ; and a a new creed ; and, in conclusion, the vilretrospective glance over the years that lage elders are exhorted to assemble the have intervened may help us to appreciate population,more clearly the conditions of the recent outbreak.
* Shanghai correspondence of the Times, Events of paramount iinportance crowd November 28, 1866.
• that the offenders may be hurled beyond the called for. Then, as now, a
wave of seas, to take their place with the strange alarm ran through the Treaty ports wherthings of creation !'"
ever foreigners were settled, and grave apTwo years later, in October 1868, an prehension for the safety of all outlying attack was made on some members of the missions was felt. Ilappily, however, Chinese Inland Mission who had recently the force of the movement seemed to exsettled in Yangchow (famous as the city pend itself with that final convulsion; or where Marco Polo once held office), about rather, perbaps, the authorities were awafifteen miles north of Chinkeang. To ex- kened to the necessity of greater precaucite popular feeling against them, the tions. Placards inciting and threatening usual system of placarding had been em- hostile outbreaks were posted in various ployed. They were accused of kidnapping cities ; but the excitement gradually subchildren and boiling them up for inedi. sided. Certain terms of reparation, in. cine, of abstracting the heart and liver cluding the despatch of Chunghow on a from dead bodies, of administering to mission of apology to Paris, were exacted, Chinamen drugs and philters which turned and matters gradually resuined their northem into foreigners. Their religion, too, mal aspect. was foully abused.
As a natural conse- Now, twenty years later, we find ourquence, the popuiace became excited. selves in presence of a crisis remarkably kepresentations to the Prefect were futile ; similar, originating with procladiations and the excitement rose to fever heat. A emanating from the same hotbed of remob broke into the mission premises, actionary agitation. The stock stories of maltreated the occupants who escaped with stealing children and taking out their eyes difficulty, and made a bonfire of the con- to use for medicine, of the vilest immotents.
rality, of preaching tenets subversive of This proved to be only the first among social order, have been disseminated broada series of outrages that culminated in the cast. What is new is the rumor of political terrible riot at Tientsin, when the French conspiracy which has been adduced in exConsul and several French subjects, be- planation of the gravity and the synchrosides priests, sisters of mercy, and many nism of the outbreaks. Wubu, a town native inmates of the mission premises, on the Yangtze, fifty miles above Nanking, were massacred amid circumstances of enjoys the distinction of having first set horrible brutality. The excitement in the example. On the evening of Sunday, that case also had been wrought up in the the 10th of May, when two nuns attached same way.
Placards had been posted al- to the Roman Catholic mission were makleging the usual accusations of kidnapping ing their way home from a visit to a sick children for the purpose of using their convert, they were suddenly seized and eyes, breasts, and other parts of the body carried before a petty official, on the as medicine ; and an alleged kidnapper charge of having bewitched two children was brought forward, precisely as on re- and rendered them dumb. Influence was cent occasions, as proof positive that the of course exerted to procure their release ; charges were true. Then, as now, there and the Chinese magistrate, with a wiswere other outbreaks between and after dom worthy of King Solomon, decided those two notable explosions. Then, as that they should be set at liberty as soon now, a connected purpose was traced, and as the spell was removed. Naturally, becommon report went so far as to fix on a fore twenty-four hours had elapsed, the man named Chen Kwo-jui as the disturb- children became tired of obeying orders ing spirit who had fired the train. From —and spoke! Such a tame conclusion, Szechuen to Nanking and up the Grand however, did not suit the views of those Canal to Tientsin, where it was alleged) who had been laying the train. Two days he had been a guest of the Governor, and later, a woman presented herself before had led the rioters in person, this man, it the mission, accompanied by a score of was said, travelled, prompting violence as ill-looking fellows, and, screaming as a he passed ; and his execution, together Chinese woman can scream, claimed her with that of the Tientsin magistrates who child, whom the missionaries had stolen, had failed, as at Yangchow, to take pre- as they had done others whose corpses cautions or to afford protection when were within the wails of the establishurgently required, was at one time loudly ment! This succeeded. A inob rapidly assembled, and broke into the mission too considerable, and the prospects of oppremises. The graves in the enclosure position are too keen. The same thing, were opened, and the bodies of those who with the same result, bad occurred in were buried shown as proof of foul play. 1870. Prompt organization for defence They were clearly those of Chinamen who arerted danger, and confidence was quickly bad been cut up by the foreigners ! and restored. the mob thereupon cried out to destroy At Wasüeh alone, happily, has any life the premises, which were looted and been lost; but some of the tales of the burned. Some adjacent houses were set Indian Matiny scarcely exceed in dramatic on fire, and an attack on the Custom interest the experiences of the actors in House was repulsed only by the deter- that tragedy. On the evening of the 5th mined resistance of the Stat. The mob of June, a Chinese convert entered the remained in charge for three days, and city gate carrying four children destined was eventually dispersed by the fortuitous for the Roman Catholic orphanage. arrival of three Chinese gunboats escorting spirators appear to have seized the oppora high Mandarin to his seat of govern- tunity to collect a mob. The man was ment in the adjacent province.
hurried off to the nearest magistrate ; A fortnight after Wuhu came the turn and, despite the efforts of the latter, who of Nanking ; and so deliberate were the urged that the matter did not at any rate preparations that the officials are said to concern that establishment, rioters athave warned the missionaries of the very tacked, burned, and gutted the Wesleyan date of the attack. The women and child Mission. It chanced that the inissionaries dren accordingly withdrew, and were al- themselves were away on tour: only ladies lowed to get safely away ; but the Ameri- and children remaining on the premises. can Methodist Mission premises were de- There were, in fact, only two foreigners in streged. Up and down the Yangtze val- Wusüeh, and both were murdered while ley, explosion now followed explosion un- trying, like brave men, to make their way der similar conditions. At Tanyang, not to the help of their country women. Mrs. far from Chin keang, a mob burned down Warren and Mrs. Boden may best tell the the fine old French church, which had sur. tale* of their own experiences. — vived even the seventeenth century persecution, pillaged and burned the mission
“ The mob broke into the front gate and buildings, desecrated the cemetery, and through the back door, and made our way to
attacked us with long poles. We escaped offered violence to the local Mandarin when the main street ; while we were going there he showed a will to interfere. A few Mrs. Protheroe got separated from us. Mr. days later, the Jesuit inission at Wusieh, Fän, onr native teacher, stuck to us as long as in the same neighborhood, was attacked he could. We got to the residence of the
Makow sze (a small official) and got inside, and destroyed. An impending riot at but were turned out, the people striking and Kiukiang, on the 7th of June, was nipped hurting us. We made our way a little up the in the bud by the determined bearing of street, when Mrs. Warren with Mrs. Protheless than a dozen foreign residents, who roe's child in her arms was knocked down by formed in line, charged the mob, and a pole. She managed, however, to get up and
pick up the child. The mob turned us back drove them out of the foreign settlement; and made
us go down the street ; but in that after which Chinese soldiers took charge direction we were hemmed. Mrs. Boden, of the approaches. Briefly, there were Mrs. Warren, with the child she was carrying, riots and disturbances, of more or less and the Amah turned down a small alley, and
thus got separated from Fan and Chn and importance, during a period of a few
from Mrs. Boden's baby. We went into a weeks, at Chinkeang, Nanking, Nganking small mat-shed hat, and sat on the bed for an (the capital of Anhwei), Woosih, Wuhu, hour. The people in the bot pat ont nearly Tanyang, Wuchow, Yangchow, Kiukiang, all the lights, and gave us refuge. The Amah Wusüeh, and Ichang. Even Shanghai, we had been in the hut nearly an hour. Chu's with its considerable foreign population, brother found us, and then he fetched his was at one time threatened, and an attack brother and native clothes for us, and took us upon the great Jesuit establishment at to the Urh Fu's (prefect's) residence, where Sikawei
, in the vicinity, apprehended. we found Mrs. Protheroe and her baby.” But, how tempting soever an object of plunder, Shanghai is hardly a tempting * China ; No. 3 of 1891. Correspondence object of attack : the volunteer force is respecting Anti-Foreign Riots in China.
And here is Mrs. Protheroe's account accusations by which the excitement is of her experience in the interval.
wrought up? Is it true, as has been al
leged, that insurrectionary motives are at “After I was separated from Mrs. Boden a
the bottom of the trouble, and that politiperfect stranger took me to where he said the other foreigners were, namely, to the Makow. cal secret societies are promoting the tursze, when I was refused admittance. I got moil in the hope of facilitating their own in and was turned out. The mob got me designs ? back in front of our premises, which were As regards the first, we must conquer a now on fire, and told me they were going to tendency, in which Englishmen are not arms. They pulled my hair and slapped ny singular, to consider everything from our face, and asked me where the men (the mis- present standpoint. Absurd
as those sionaries) were. I told them at Hankow and charges sound io us, no foreigner in China Ki-chiao. One man said, 'Don't kill her ;'
seeins to suspect that they are too outthe others said, “If we don't kill her we will beat her.' Then they dragged me through rageous for the Chinese. Dr. Daly, who the street. A soldier in plain clothes, under is surgeon in a mission hospital at Ningpo, pretence of robbing me of my ring, got me affirms that “it is a popular belief all over gradually to the Fu's Yamên. I was a long China that foreigners extract the eyes and time before I was let in. While waiting I other organs from the dead, to make mediwas being beaten ; but the man who had
cine of." Ile has been himself accused dragged me through the street to the Yamên then told the mob to desist from beating me. of it ; and “for inonths the belief was Fân, meanwhile, was being badly beaten, and prevalent, over a large district, that he somehow lost the baby, which the Amah had extracted the liver and other organs found with a native woman, who gave it to
from a patient who had died in hospital, her."
healing up the flesh with miraculous mediBut, if one official disgraced himself by cine so as to leave no marks of the indriving away the women and children cision." Besides, are we ourselves so froin his door, another, the Lung Ping- very far removed from a similar stage of sze, did his utmost with the means at his folly? A glance at Mr. Lecky's chapter command to check the riot. It was he on magic and witchcraft will convince us who tried to dissuade the mob from their that it is not so long since beliefs equally purpose at the outset.
IIe appealed vainly absurd ranked as religious tenets, to questo the Prefect for help when they persist- tion which was heresy and was denounced ed, and was badly burt in trying to save "infidelity," in Western Europe. the lives of those who were killed. There Even in the spacious times of great Elizais something pathetic in his message to beth, Bishop Jewell, preaching before the the British Consul at Hankow that he Queen, could seriously affirm that did his best, but that he is only a smal! “ witches and sorcerers within these few Mandarin, and has but a few men ; that years are marvellously increased within he had urged the Prefect twice to send
Grace's realın. Your Grace's submen to quell the riot, but the latter re- jects pine away even unto the death ;
Yet this man was removed from their color fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their office ; and, though he is said to have speech is benumbeil, their senses are bebeen since reinstated through the interven- reft.” To believe that people could be tion of the foreign Ministers, the action done to death by sticking pins into a wax cannot but create a most unfavorable im- figure, and that old women could ride up pression. Still worse
was the case at chinneys on broomsticks, was surely as Ichang where Hunan braves are said to absurd as to believe that medicine can be have been actual rioters, and the officials made of children's eyes, or that certain stood by powerless or unwilling to inter- powders could weaken men's intellects, or fere.
that paper men were cutting off the queues More than enough has now been said to of the Emperor's lieges.* show the general character of the riots. It must be remembered, too, that kidThe stories vary in detail ; but the varia- napping children is, to the Chinese, a tion is chiefly in the behavior of the magistrates and in the violence shown by the
* These rumors were propagated at Soochow mobs. Two questions will probably sig
in 1876, and drove the people wild with ter
ror. They were attributed to a secret society gest themselves after a perusal of this
called “ Pah-sien-chiao,” and were ascribed retrospect. Can the Chinese believe the to a wish to create political turmoil.
familiar crime ; the stolen children find- working of the authors' own imagination. ing, it is alleged, a ready market with Celibacy, both of men and women, is, to brothel-keepers and play-actors. It is, the Chinese, a familiar idea : monks and therefore, not extraordinary that ear muns are common among the Northern should be given to charges of child-steal- Buddhists. But they hold the former in ing when preferred against missionaries small esteem, and the reputation of the whose proceedings are, to the Celestial, nunneries is scarcely better than that which in many ways peculiar. We have only to many such institutions had earned for remember that the education of children themselves in Europe at the time of the is one of the most powerful means of Reformation. There might be no great proselytism in the Roman repertory, and difficulty, therefore, in believing that the that, in China as in Europe, that Church people were willing to judge celibate forhas established orphanages in which waifs eigners by the native standard. But when and strays are collected, in order to realize we are told, as one familiar with the subthe connection of the two ideas. And ject has affirmed, that “the language of the excessive mortality in these institu- their placards is often too vile for transtions, which is said to result in soine de- lation into any living tongue ;" that the gree from a willingness to save a little soul foreigner“ is denounced as a perpetrator by baptism, how frail soever the hold on of the most unnatural crimes-crimes that its earthly tenement, may possibly encour. I never heard of till I came to China,”age the superstition. The suggestion has we are staggered as well as revolted by the been thrown out that the practice of ex- malignancy of the charge ; though we can treme unction* and our habit of closing readily believe that here is one serious the eyes of the dead may have furnished cause of whatever “ hatred exists to the the notion of extracting the eyes and foreigner among the masses of the Chinese brain ; but it would probably be more ex- people.' act to say that this slander also is an adap- Yet even those atrocious charges, like tation of a conception already present in everything else in that stereotyped emthe Chinese mind, for it is, I believe, a pire, seem of long descent ; having been fact that such crimes were alleged to exist formulated apparently for the purpose of before a missionary had set foot in the previous persecutions, and reproduced country ; while the surgical practice of upon occasion by the literati of successive post-mortems may have suggested the generations. Shortly after the massacre charges of mutilation. Neither is it un- of l'ientsin, certain American missionaries likely that the propensity of the Romish at a town in Shantung obtained possession Church for surrounding its premises with of a Chinese book, entitled Death Blow high walls tends to encourage the suppo- to Corrupt Doctrine, that brought forward sition of mystery. Extreme openness is all the accusations against missionaries characteristic of Chinese life. The tem- which had been the alleged motive of that ples and monasteries are open from day- outbreak. The book was believed to sight to dark ; you can wander into every have been written in 1862 by Tang Tzenook and corner. Official Yamêns are shing, one of the highest officials in the open : not only courts of justice, but the province of Hupeh, and is believed to halls of audience. Can it surprise us if, have been founded, in its turn, on a simito a people so accustomed, the practice of lar book written by one Yang Kwang.sien enclosure and seclusion seems suspicious ? which, Du Halde tells us, was the exciting
But when missionaries are accused not cause of the persecution of Christians in only of scooping out eyes and brains and A.D. 1621. Nor is the series at an end : other mutilations, but of the grossest im- similar charges are to be found in a standmorality, we are driven to assume the ard collection of important official docu
ments which was lately republished with * Clause 7 of the Hunan proclamation of 1866 runs thus :-“When a member of this the imprimatur of distinguished scholars religion is on his death-bed, several of his and ex-officials. co religionists come and exclude his relatives, Given those two forces—the malignity while they offer prayers for his salvation of the literati and the credulity of the The fact is, while the breath is still in his body they scoop out his eyes and cut out his heart, which they use in their country in the * Letter by Dr. Griffith John, in North-China manufacture of false silver, ...
Herald of August 7, 1891.