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upon them by their Philistine audience. confine their operations to England, where And their works have never achieved there are millions of souls to save, and cosmopolitan fame because they never where most souls will cheerfully accept dared to throw off the encumbrance—to such unofficial salvation. They carry the write for any but a limited section of their war on to the Continent, among the Latin insular public.

races, where the feelings and beliefs on Let me explain by an analogy. The which the Army bases itself are wholly Salvation Army is a peculiarly British and unknown and seem simply ridiculous. It's provincial product. It is Methodisin gone no use asking the average Frenchman or mad. It represents in its crudest and Italian or Spaniard whether he's saved or rudest form the universal English philoso- not-no use inviting him to accept weak phy of the divine economy. It takes for tea and the ministrations of a volunteer granted in its catechumens implicit accept- priesthood at the headquarters of the ance of a whole complex system of theol- Army. He has no such organized body ogy and morals. This system is endemic of beliefs for the captains to work upon. in England and nowhere else ; it has “Saved ?” he will answer if he has any always existed there and reigned supreme religion at all, “ why that's all been done in the public mind ; it will continue to ex. long ago. The modus operandi is perist, as long as any relic of Christianity sur- fectly simple. The way to get to heaven vives in Britain. It is wholly independent is arranged for us by authority. You comof formularies or creeds. When England municate three times a year ; you drop in was Catholic, it existed all the same. You to matins or vespers occasionally ; you beget it, full-fledged, in Wulfstan's Anglo- have in most things like a good sound Saxon sermons, in Piers Plowman's Catholic ; and when you're dying, the mediæval verse, in Bunyan's Grace priest of God gives you extreme unction. Abounding, in Wesley's hymns, in Mr. If you feel yourself a miserable sinner, the Spurgeon, in Father Ignatius, in the authoritative Church has an official remedy, Reverend Hugh Price Hughes, in General ready provided for you—confession, penBooth and his roving commissioners. ance, absolution, the priestly blessing.” Briefly, it is the enchorial Britannic form In short, while the Briton takes for of the Christian faith ; and these, reduced granted the need for hysterical conversion to very simple terms, are its chief tenets and personal conviction of sin, the Latin - You are a lost sinner and you need sal- races regard the plan of salvation as a matvation. You can get it by conversion, ter of etiquette, duly regulated beforehand which is a sudden and definite internal to the minutest detail by the recognized act, almost as physically recognizable as ordinances of a divine Lord Chamberlain. baptism or vaccination. Either you are Here, then, is our analogy. The Salvaconverted or you are not ; if you are not, tion Army is a means of grace for Englishthen of course you ought to be. The Sal- men, in Britain or over sea, which appeals vation Army, therefore, believing - and in vain to the deaf ears of Continental naon the whole rightly believing—that tions, because it puts forward an essenalmost every Briton implicitly accepts this tially insular and provincial scheme of strange insular theology, just boards its theology. Well, English literature as it man with the simple question, “ Are you exists at the present inoment_is, just in saved ?" It doesn't trouble about asking the same way, literature for Englishmen, him, “Do you swallow wholesale all this and for Englishmen only, because it is monstrous farrago of assumptions or not?” produced in deference to the narrow and It goes straight to its point-“ Are you stupid ideas of a wooden fraction of the saved ? If you aren't, you're in a very English people. It grovels in London fog. parlous way; come to our barracks at once It can only become cosmopolitan when it and get salvation !”

consents to trust its own wings and spread In Britain, I say, this procedure is per- its vans for wider flight in a purer æther. fectly effective. Nine people out of ten If ever a generation of men of letters arises whom the Hallelujah Lasses assail on the in England strong enough to snap their public street admit, in principle, every fingers froin the first at the dissenting item of their main contention. But the grocer, and defy from the outset the sentiGeneral and his staff are not content to mental girl of seventeen, then English lit

erature will be as widely read as Norwegian first omen of the coming time? Such or Russian, and will be worthy of the hun. things have been. Who knows? Perdred and odd million souls of English- haps so.-Fortnightly Review. speaking people. Is Rudyard Kipling a

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Sing on, sweet bird, pour out thy soul among

Yon darkling woods, and flood the vacant air

With thy rich melody! Thou knowest no care
As yet, no memories of thine ancient wrong
Sadden thee now; the brimming thoughts that throng

About thy heart, and prompt thy love-lay, wear

No tinge of woe as yet—thou hast laid bare
Thy heart to love, love's rapture thrills thy song.
Sweet bird, sing on ! too soon thy happy mood

Must change, thy song must fade, and thou wilt know
That love grows cold ; and, voiceless, thou shalt brood

Upon that bitter past of long ago,
Till at grief's bidding thy wild song renewed
Burst forth once more—an ecstasy of woe !

Academy.

A BASIS OF POSITIVE MORALITY.

BY P. G. HAMERTON.

(Concluded from the June number.)

II.

entirely abandoned in practice was a most

convenient help for subsequent periods of IDEALS of morality are interesting as recovery. That morality was always evidence of the heights to which popular ready, at least in theory; there it was, imagination may ascend, and it is never still in the keeping of the Church, ready safe to criticise them, because they are to be applied to common life whenever the sure to be vigorously and even indignantly world felt the need of applying it. No defended ; but their practical interest is one who has an ideal ought ever to abandon small until practice itself has approached it in despair. He may sorrowfully admit within measurable distance, and this is that it is not applicable now, that it may very rarely the case. The true utility of not be applicable within any future time professed ideals is that if there is a prac- that one can accurately foresee, yet it is tical decline in morality, the preservation always possible that a time may come of the ideal simply as a mental conception when his ideal or some part of it may be affords a chance of recovery where such within the range of improvements that recovery might be impossible without its begin to be practically attainable.

In help. It is like losing one's way on a morals, as in politics, there are hopes and mountain, when to have an ideal path in dreams of which nobody has yet seen the the mind may help in the recovery of the realization, and if ever the time were to real one. There can be no doubt that the come when men ceased to hope and to continued theoretical maintenance of Chris- dream, that time would see the end of tian inorality at times when it was almost human advancement. The way to mend is

first to long for what ought to be, then to at their proper value. Knowledge of the confess that, as a whole, it is unattainable, world does not consist in knowing what is finally to get some part of it and be satis- theoretically accepted, but what virtues fied for the present, while preserving the are really esteemed, and what laxities are hope of a fuller satisfaction in the future. tolerated.

Ideals of morality are still for the most I have not space to enter into detail part, though not exclusively, guarded by with regard to these special moralities, different priesthoods. It would be wrong and, indeed, do not profess to understand to undervalue their services even when them, but they have always this quality, their morality is not exactly ours. It is that they establish a common rule by pertrue that they are sometimes obliged to mitting some things and forbidding speak with much deference of very early others, so that a man who follows them is conditions of morality which have now be- no longer an isolated individual, but acts come repugnant to us and inadmissible as as a member of some social order or comexamples for our practice, but the more munity. It is in this, I believe, that we we study the subject the more we gain a find the basis of such morality as there is. spirit of tolerance for all primitive moral Man alone, acting by private impulses, is

The beginnings of human morality not moral, but he becomes so by his defdo at least manifest the presence of the erence to the corporate will of some assomoral sense, even when its action is but ciation of which he forms a part. Accordlittle educated and constantly liable to ing to this view, morality is strictly a soerror. It is not so much a perfect morality cial virtue, and this may help to explain that is needed as a morality of some kind, why hypocrisy is so often regarded as a suitable to the social state, and enough at moral virtue ; for, in fact, hypocrisy is a least to show that the moral sense exists, form of deference to the will of a majority, and that it is active. However, as a fact, though it may be practised for private it does unfortunately happen that priest- ends. In religion some stigma always athoods are somewhat burdened with ancient taches to those who express the opinions moralities that a cultivated moral sense of a minority, and the smaller the minority has in our time left behind it, and this is the deeper the stigma becomes, so that the one reason why many people are looking members of very small minorities are conelsewhere. Another reason is that eccle- demned as immoral men. Their offence siastical teaching of morals is

morals is not consists in shutting themselves off from the rigorously and every where the same. main current of national life, which is supSometimes one virtue is insisted upon, posed to carry the national morality along sometimes another; and when any partic- with it. ular vice is ingrained in local custom, it is In our own time there is a new source hard to fight against it with sustained en of anxiety. The national morality of Engergy; so that, by mere persistency, it land is connected with the belief in wins for itself a sort of tolerance. There miracle, indirectly, through the national is less hope than ever that at some future religion. But the belief in miracle is deday any one religion now known to us will clining ; in many minds, and those not the be able to impose its morality as a practi- least cultivated, it is entirely extinct, while cal rule of life on all the various popula- the number of those who no longer believe tions of the world. Even in theory the in miracle increases from day to day., For agreement is never complete, and as for some time it was possible to refuse to see practice, we all know that it differs widely, this change ; but now it is no longer posnot only between different localities, but sible, and every body recognizes it. The between different classes and trades. As a consequence is a profound anxiety for the matter of fact, each profession cultivates preservation of the moderate degree of its own virtues, encouraging them by re- morality which has been already attained. spect and esteem, whilst it allows itself a Men say : “We can give up miracle and certain liberty and latitude with regard to the supernatural ; we inay even resign oursome, at least, among the vices. In this selves to giving up the hope of a future way special professional moralities are es- state ; but we cannot do without morality tablished which seem perfect within the in this life, even if it is to end in annihilapale of the professions, but which it is ex- tion.” For those who speak of the mattremely difficult for outsiders to appreciate ter in this tone, and they are neither the

least intelligent nor the least respectable enough to resist the shock, the vessel is members of the community, there is an crushed between rock and wave, the men irresistible temptation to look for some are drowned, the causes and effects are all scientific morality, founded on what is physical, there is really no moral aspect of permanent and unquestionable, that is, on the matter. It would be easy to hold up what are called the laws of Nature. Mo- Nature as an example of everything that rality would then become a positive sci- human beings ought to avoid. It has been ence. There is, however, already a posi- said that she sets an example of incalculable tive science of morality which is entirely waste joined to what, in human beings, different from this. It states what the vari- would be criminal neglect. Millions of ous moralities have been in the past, and animals and thousands of poor or delicate what the surviving moralities are in the people perish every year from cold, while present ; but it supplies no rule for a fixed at the same time there is a prodigious morality in the future. It says simply dissipation of solar heat, lost in infinite that at such a time, in such a country, cer space, a very minute fraction of which tain actions were approved as right and would suffice to keep all shivering creatures others considered wrong. It studies and in comfort. Some philosophers have writdescribes the difference between the notion ten prettily about the beautiful economy of patriotism in the time of the great of Nature, the anxious care with which Condé, and the notion of patriotism in the everything is utilized, the merciful provi. time of Thiers and Gambetta. It observes sion for all creatures, and other such that the notion of honor for gentlemen and poetical imaginings. The only rational officers was quite different when

Manon

course is simply to abstain from attributLescaut” was written from the same no. ing either virtue or vice to the processes of tion when Octave Feuillet composed his the natural universe, as they have no connovels, and, again, that Feuillet's notion section with either. We, being human, of an artist's honor differed widely from ought not to follow Nature as a model. any English conception of the same. This She has her own work to do as we have is the scientific study of morality ; but ours. We may at least admire her great when you appeal to Science for any per- forces and her regularity ; but we are not manent and universal rule that is to settle called upon to imitate her indifference. It all moral questions whatever, her only an is only too much imitated already by the swer can be that Nature does not supply indifference of the conqueror, the trapper, the rule, and that morality belongs to and the vivisector. When Napoleon said human experience. This is the weak to Metternich,“ What do I care for the point of Natural Religion, which might lives of a million of men ?” he was going otherwise have had a considerable success, further in the imitation of Nature than any especially in the present day, when the human being has a right to go. Nature study of Nature has become general. The never disputes the right of the cleverest Universe is, no doubt, of inexhaustible in- and the strongest to torture and oppress terest as a study in mechanics, in chemis- the weak; but it is not a moral right. try, and in biology; but if we want to Slave-bunting in Africa is a convenient bestudy morality we find it only in the in- cause persistent example. I need not deperfect experiments of Man.

It may ex scribe the horrors of it, and indeed know ist elsewhere, beyond our world, among them only by the reports of others; but superíor races of whom nothing is known if these reports are even partially trne, to us. The disappointment caused by the slave-hunting must be a diabolical combiabsence of morality in Nature has led some nation of many cruelties, and it has been writers, especially M. Renan, to speak of going on from time immemorial. During her “ transcendent immorality.” To me all that time what bas Nature done, what it seems that the word “immorality” con- part bas she had in the matter? The an. veys also an erroneous impression in its swer could be little more than an account application to Nature. The action of the of physical processes. After the infliction natural forces is neither moral nor im- of wounds the natural processes have in moral ; it is perfectly neutral in this re some cases been followed by death, and in spect. When the sea dashes a vessel on others by tedious sufferings and partial or the rocks it does not commit murder ; the complete recovery.

When the slaves were wind raises the waves, the rocks are strong put into ships some were asphyxiated by

ful. *

want of oxygen in the hold, others were Sicilian settles the question in his own drowned after being flung into the sea. opinion by the answer, “ The beast has As for the slave-hunters they underwent not been baptized, it is not a Christian." fatigue ; they bore hot and toilsome If the Church does not teach him considmarches, and consequently they perspired. eration for animals (and she does not)

These bare physical facts constitute Na- there is nothing in Nature to remind him ture's share in the matter. An idealist of any duty toward “ the inferior kinds." anxious to prove some theory of retribu. They suffer, perish, and are replaced ; tion would tell us that the slave-hunters these are the simple facts, and Nature has were punished by becoming coarse and never inculcated anything beyond them.* brutalized as a consequence of their way of If it is objected that this view of Nalife ; but men never feel it to be an in- ture as morally a neutral power is degradferiority in themselves to be coarse and ing and discouraging, it may be answered, brutal ; on the contrary, they pride them- firstly, that it corresponds with all the selves on it as evidence of manliness, and facts that come within the range of obthey look down with unfeigned contempt servation, and, secondly, that so far as on the gentle, the tender, and the merci- human life is concerned it is not more dis

couraging than the ideas about Nature that The absence of a moral sanction in what have been prevalent in the past. Ever we call “Nature” may be a reason for since men have been able to perceive that the frequently narrow and partial acknowl- natural operations are wanting in moral edgment of moral obligation by mankind. perfection, they have attributed inany of It is, I believe, authoritatively taught by them to maleficent powers, dangerous not the Church of Rome that we have no moral oniy to the body but to the soul of man, obligation toward the lower animals ; this and the world has seemed to them like a is, at least, a doctrine generally accepted bewildering forest set with traps and pitby Roman Catholic populations both in falls by the agency of evil spirits. Since France and Italy, and it leads to horrible man began to be intelligent and to develop cruelty, especially in Sicily. When re his own moral sense, he has never really monstrated with for bis barbarity, the and heartily approved of Nature, and the

small respect he has paid her is shown by * An accident that happened to an acquaint- his constant disregard of what seem to be ance of one of my friends presents the sub

her plainest intentions, as, for example, by ject of natural and human action in a concentrated form. This gentleman was crossing a railway at a place where there were points.

* I once knew a French veterinary surgeon His boot slipped into the angle of the rails, so wbo described to me the education given at that it was held by the sole, and he could not Alfort which had been his own. Considered extricate it on the instant. A train was ap. as training only, it is excellent. The pupils proaching, and before coming to a standstill perform all sorts of terrible operations on liv. the engine knocked the unfortunate gentleman ing animals, the same horse undergoing as down and killed him. The incident was wit. many operations as it can recover from, till at nessed with extreme horror by many specta. last it dies. I protested against this on behalf tors on the platform. A rational account of it of the poor brutes, but my acquaintance an. is simply that a beavy body, set in motion by swered, “You are quite mistaken, there is no the expansion of steam, had acquired too much reason for regret whatever, the animals are of momentum for an instantaneous stoppage, very little value-fifty or sixty francs, per. and that it passed over a living obstacle too haps.' And I found it absolutely impossible weak to offer an effectual resistance. This is to make him understand that my protest had a sufficient explanation, without having re no reference to money. Compassion for ani. course to an imaginary justice, aecording {to mals was a sentiment of which he had no which the victim would have rightly incurred knowledge or experience, yet he was accu. capital punishment as a suitable penalty for rately acquainted with the physical processes his carelessness in letting his boot slip between of Nature which it was his business to ob. the rails. The incident was neither just nor serve, and he found nothing in these proc. anjust, but simply natural ; nor was there any esses to suggest compassion for the brute. supernatural intervention to save the victim My own feelings of pity would have seemed from his fate. There was ample time for a childish or womanish if he could have undermiracle, but it did not occur. We have no stood them at all, but they were completely unevidence of either cruelty or pity, except that intelligible to him. Now, I cannot conceal the human spectators were shocked ; the from myself that he was much nearer to Nahuman beings behave in their own emotional ture than I was. He took no pleasure in the way, and the natural forces with their exact torture of animals, but he had no objection to regularity and their absolute indifference. it, and in both he resembled Nature,

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