he saw a great multitude about them, and 2 Jesus is transfigured. 11. He instructeth his disa the Seand straightway all the people, when

ciples concerning the coming of Elias : 14 casteth
forth a dumb and deaf spirit: 30 foretelleth his they beheld him, were greatly amazed, and
death and resurrection : 33 exhorteth his disci- running to him saluted him.
ples to humility : 38 bidding them not to prohibit 16 And he asked the Scribes, What ques-
such as be not against them, nor to give offence to


'with them? any of the faithful.

17 And one of the multitude answered And he said unto them, 'Verily I say unto and said, Master, I have brought unto thee you, That there be some of them that stand my son, which hath a dumb spirit; here, which shall not taste of death, till they 18 And wheresoever he taketh him, he have seen the kingdom of God come with teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth power.

with his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake 2 f 'And after six days Jesus taketh with to thy disciples that they should cast him him Peter, and James, and John, and lead out; and they could not. eth them up into an high mountain apart by 19 He answereth him, and saith, O faiththemselves : and he was transfigured before less generation, how long shall I be with them.

you ? how long shall I suffer you? bring 3 And his raiment became shining, ex- him unto me. ceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on 20 And they brought him unto him: and earth can white them.

when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare 4 And there appeared unto them Elias him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed with Moses: and they were talking with foaming. Jesus.

21 And he asked his father, How long is 5 And Peter answered and said to Jesus, it ago since this came unto him? And he Master, it is good for us to be here: and let said, Of a child. us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and 22 And ofttimes it hath cast him into the one for Moses, and one for Elias.

fire, and into the waters, to destroy him: 6 For he wist not what to say; for they but if thou canst do any thing, have comwere sore afraid.

passion on us, and help us. 7 And there was a cloud that oversha- 23 Jesus said unto him, If thou canst bedowed them: and a voice came out of the lieve, all things are possible to him that becloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear lieveth. him.

24 And straightway the father of the 8 And suddenly, when they had looked child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I round about, they saw no man any more, believe; help thou mine unbelief. sare Jesus only with themselves.

25 When Jesus saw that the people came 9 And as they came down from the moun- running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, tain, he charged them that they should tell saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, no man what things they had seen, till the I charge thee, come out of him, and enter Son of man were risen from the dead.

no more into him. 10 And they kept that saying with them- 26 And the spirit cried, and rent him selves, questioning one with another what sore, and came out of him: and he was as the rising from the dead should mcan. one dead; insomuch that many said, He is

11 I And they asked him, saying, Why dead. say the Scribes that Elias must first come? 27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and

12 And he answered and told them, Elias lifted him up; and he arose. verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; 28 And when he was come into the house, and how it is written of the Son of man, his disciples asked him privately, Why could that he must suffer many things, and be set not we cast him out? at nought.

29 And he said unto them. This kind can 13 But I

That Elias is in- come forth by nothing, but by prayer and deed come, and they have done unto him fasting. whatsoever they listed, as it is written of 30 I And they departed thence, and him.

say unto


passed through Galilee, and he would not 14 'And when he came to his disciples, I that any man should know it. Matt, 16. 28. * Matt. 17. 14 5 Or, among yourselves. . Or, dasheth him. 7 Matt. 17. 23.

2 Matt. 17. 1.

3 Isa, 53, 24,


31 For he taught his disciples, and said 41 "For whosoever shall give you a cup unto them, The Son of man is delivered of water to drink in my name, because ye into the hands of men, and they shall kill belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he him; and after that he is killed, he shall shall not lose his reward. rise the third day.

42 "And whosoever shall offend one of 32 But they understood not that saying, these little ones that believe in me, it is and were afraid to ask him.

better for him that a millstone were hanged 33 | And he came to Capernaum : and about his neck, and he were cast into the being in the house he asked them, What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by

43 13 And if thy hand offend thee, cut it the way?

off: it is better for thee to enter into life 34 But they held their peace: for by the maimed, than having two hands to go way they had disputed among themselves, into hell, into the fire that never shall be who should be the greatest.

quenched : 35 And he sat down, and called the 44 15Where their worm dieth not, and the twelve, and saith unto them, If any man de- fire is not quenched. sire to be first, the same shall be last of all, 45 And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: and servant of all.

it is better for thee to enter halt into life, 36 And he took a child, and set him in than having two feet to be cast into hell, the midst of them: and when he had taken into the fire that never shall be quenched: him in his arms, he said unto them,

46 Where their worm dieth not, and the 37 Whosoever shall receive one of such fire is not quenched. children in my name, receiveth me: and who- 47 And if thine eye 'offend thee, pluck soever shall receive me, receiveth not me, it out: it is better for thee to enter into the but him that sent me.

kingdom of God with one eye, than having 38 l 'And John answered him, saying, two eyes to be cast into hell fire : Master, we saw one casting out devils in 48 Where their worm dieth not, and the thy name, and he followeth not us: and we fire is not quenched. forbad him, because he followeth not us. 49 For every one shall be salted with

39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for fire, "and every sacrifice shall be salted with there is no man which shall do a miracle in salt. my name, that can lightly speak evil of 50 18Salt is good: but if the salt have me.

lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? 40 For he that is not against us is on our Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one part.

with another.

8 Matt. 18. ). 9 Luke 9, 49.

14 Or, cause thee to offend.

10 1 Cor. 12. 3. 15 184. 66. 24.

11 Matt. 10. 42. 12 Matt. 18.6. 13 Matt. 5. 29, and 18. 8. 18 Or, cause thee to offend. 17 Levit. 2. 13. 28 Matt. 5. 13.

Verse 12. “ Elias verily cometh.”—Few things appear more conspicuously in the Gospels than the expectation of the Jews that Elias was to come among them as the harbinger of the Messiah. This expectation was founded on the prophecy of Malachi; which, however, they misunderstood, as they did the prophecies concerning the Messiah himself. Our Saviour himself explains the sense in which this foretold coming of Elias was to be understood—that is, of one who was not Elias personally, but who should come " in the spirit and power of Elias," that is, who should be the antitype of Elias, as the Messiah himself was of David. We are further told that this was accomplished in John the Baptist, who in spirit and power, and even in some personal circumstances, resembled Elias, and who came to prepare the way of the Lord, as it had been predicted that Elias should come. And here the small but not unimportant circumstance may be noted, that in the Old Testament history, Elijah is always distinguished as “ Elijah the Tishbite;" whereas in the prophecy, this mere personal distinction is dropped, and he is called. Elijah the prophet."

However, the Jews did, and do still expect the bodily appearance of Elias himself; and knowing that his coming must precede that of the Messiah, their prayers for his manifestation have for ages been most constant, and have formed indeed one prominent subject of the public prayers in their synagogues. In their expectations concerning Elias they do not forget that the Tishbite did not "taste of death,” but was taken away in a whirlwind : and hence an opportunity was offered, which the Jews, of all men, were least likely to neglect, of indulging in most ingenious conjectures concerniug his condition and employments, which conjectures at last became articles of fixed belief. They taught that although he retains a body, it is not like our bodies, all its moisture having been dried up by that whirlwind and faming fire in which he disappeared : and that in virtue of this change, he received a sort of semi-spiritual being, subsisting without meat or drink, or the necessities of human life. They held also that he was not taken to the

heaven of heavens," but to the earthly paradise from which our first parents were expelled, where his proper station is beneath the tree of life. Yet that he is not so there stationed, but that he is present in different places in this world-in many or in all places at once-interesting himself greatly in the affairs of the Jews, watchful of their conduct and constantly employed in doing good to Israel-redressing wrong, punishing injustice, and doing mercy. It is in particular believed that he is present at all circumcisions, for which reason an empty chair is always set on the right band of the person who holds the child, and on which, though invisible, he is supposed to sit. It is believed that Elias is visible to all those who are acquainted with the mysteries of the Cabbala: hence the Jewish books contain many ounts of interviews with him and instructions received from him. In these accounts he is described as a venerable man with a white beard ; but with nothing in his appearance to suggest that he is not as other men. Most of je views concerning Elias, if not all of them, were certainly entertained in the time of our Saviour. What therefore Jews seek is not the presence of Elias, for he is already present, but for the manifestation of his presence in the pernance of that high office appointed for him-to“ restore all things,” and “to make straight the way of the Lord.”


not receive the kingdom of God as a little : Christ disputeth with the Pharisees touching di- child, he shall not enter therein.

orcement: 13 blesseth the children that are 16 And he took them up in his arms, put tought unto him : 17 resolveth a rich man how

his hands upon them, and blessed them. le may inherit life everlasting : 23 telleth his dis

17 And when he was gone forth into iples of the danger of riches : 28 promiseth re"ards to them that forsake any thing for the

the way, there came one running, and inspel: 32 foretelleth his death and resurrection : kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Masbiddeth the two ambitious suitors to think ra- ter, what shall I do that I


inherit eterher of suffering with him: 46 and restoreth to

nal life? lartimæus his sight.

18 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest D 'he arose from thence, and cometh into thou me good ? there is none good but one,

coasts of Judæa by the farther side of that is, God. I dan: and the people resort unto him 19 Thou knowest the commandments, Do

in; and, as he was wont, he taught them not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not in.

steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud ! | And the Pharisees came to him, and not, Honour thy father and mother. ed him, Is it lawful for a man to put

20 And he answered and said unto him, пу uy his wife? tempting him.

Master, all these have I observed from my And he answered and said unto them, youth. lat did Moses command you?

21 Then Jesus beholding him loved him, 1 And they said, Moses suffered to write and said unto him, One thing thon lackest : ll of divorcement, and to put her away go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and

And Jesus answered and said unto give to the poor, and thou shalt have trea::·m, For the hardness of your heart he sure in heaven : and come, take


cross, ** te you this precept.

and follow me. · But from the beginning of the creation 22 And he was sad at that saying, and I made them male and female.

went away grieved: for he had great posFor this cause shall a man leave his sessions. er and mother, and cleave to his wife; 23 And Jesus looked round about, and

And they twain shall be one flesh: so saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall 1 they are no more twain, but one flesh. they that have riches enter into the king:: What therefore God hath joined toge- dom of God! , let not man put asunder.

24 And the disciples were astonished at ) And in the house his disciples asked his words. But Jesus answereth again, and again of the same matter.

saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for 1 And he saith unto them, 'Whosoever them that trust in riches to enter into the I put away his wife, and marry another, kingdom of God! mitteth adultery against her.

23 It is easier for a camel to go through 2 And if a woman shall put away her the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to band, and be married to another, she enter into the kingdom of God. mitteth adultery.

26 And they were astonished out of mea3 q 'And they brought young children sure, saying among themselves, Who then im, that he should touch them: and his can be saved ? iples rebuked those that brought them. 27 And Jesus looking upon them saith, I ( But when Jesus saw it, he was much With men it is impossible, but not with - leased, and said unto them, Suffer the God: for with God all things are possible.

? children to come unto me, and forbid 28 | 'Then Peter began to say unto him, La not: for of such is the kingdom of Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. HL.

29 And Jesus answered and said, Verily ' ; i Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall I say unto you, There is no man that hath & Matt. 5, 82, and 19. 9.

* Matt, 19. 16.

* Matt. 19. 1.

3 Matt. 19. 13.

• Matt. 19. 27.


left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, shall be given to them for whom it is preor mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for pared. my sake, and the Gospel's,

41 And when the ten heard it, they be30 But he shall receive an hundredfold gan to be much displeased with James and now in this time, houses, and brethren, and John. sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, 42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith with persecutions; and in the world to come unto them, 'Ye know that they which are eternal life.

accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise 31 But many that are first shall be last ; lordship over them; and their great ones and the last first.

exercise authority upon them. 32 l 'And they were in the way going

43 But so shall it not be among you: but up to Jerusalem ; and Jesus went before whosoever will be great among you, shall be them : and they were amazed; and as they your minister : followed, they were afraid. And he took 44 And whosoever of you will be the again the twelve, and began to tell them chiefest, shall be servant of all. what things should happen unto him,

45 For even the Son of man came not to 33 Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusa- be ministered unto, but to minister, and to lem; and the Son of man shall be delivered give his life a ransom for many. unto the Chief Priests, and unto the Scribes; 46 q "And they came to Jericho: and as and they shall condemn him to death, and he went out of Jericho with his disciples and shall deliver him to the Gentiles :

a great number of people, blind Bartimæus, 34 And they shall mock him, and shall the son of Timæus, sat by the highway side scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and begging. shall kill him : and the third day he shall 47 And when he heard that it was Jesus rise again.

of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, 35 | •And James and John, the sons of Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatso- 48 And many charged him that he should ever we shall desire.

hold his peace: but he cried the more a 36 And he said unto them, What would great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy ye

that I should do for you?

37 They said unto him, Grant unto us 49 And Jesus stood still, and commanded that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and him to be called. And they call the blind the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. man, saying unto him, Be of good comfort,

38 But Jesus said unto them, Ye know rise; he calleth thee. not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup

50 And he, casting away his garment, that I drink of? and be baptized with the rose, and came to Jesus. baptism that I am baptized with ?

51 And Jesus answered and said unto 39 And they say unto him, We can. And him, What wilt thou that I should do unto Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, of the cup that I drink of; and with the that I might receive my sight. baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye 52 And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; be baptized :

thy faith hath 'made thee whole. And im40 But to sit on my right hand and on mediately he received his sight, and followed my left hand is not mine to give; but it Jesus in the way. 7 Matt. 20. 17. 9 Luke 22. 25. 1° Or, think gooche

on me.

12 Or, sared thee, Verse 12. And if a woman shall put away her husband.”—This is a very singular clause, inasmuch as it appears to intimate that the wife sometimes exercised the right of divorcing her husband. Certainly there is nothing in the Law that can, by any construction, be made to sanction such a practice. We may therefore infer that the Jews had learnt it from the Romans, among whom it was deplorably common. It does not appear, however, that such a practice could have been common or popular among the Jews; that, however, it did exist, we learn not only from the passage before us, but from Josephus: and the instances mentioned by him lead us to conclude that the practice only existed in the higher ranks of society, which were most exposed to the contagion of Roman example ; and, seemingly, where the wife was by birth and connections superior to the husband, and could depend upon being supported in a measure so extreme; and which, as it appears to us, must have been so entirely opposed to the established habits of thinking in the Jewish nation. The instances afforded by Josephus are those of Salome, the sister of Herod the Great, who sent a bill of divorce to her husband Costobarus, and dissolved her marriage with him; and that of the notorious Herodias, who divorced her husband Philip, in order to marry his brother Herod, the tetrarch of Galilee. In both cases it would have been useless for the husbands to have made any opposition ; and both occur in the Herodian family, so noted for its disposition to adopt Roman customs. Probably these examples had some influence in the higher ranks of society: at

6 Matt. 19. 30.

8 Matt. 20. 20.

11 Matt. 20. 29.

all events, the matter had, in these examples, so lately and prominently been brought before the people, as to account for our Saviour's allusion to it. It ought to be observed, that Josephus, in mentioning the case of Salome, is careful to notice that her act was contrary to the Jewish law; under which a woman, even if she left her husband, was not free to marry another until her former husband had put her away. However, as he strongly remarks, Salome chose rather to follow the law of her authority than the law of her country. And we find that even she considered it prudent to gain the support of her brother Herod, by pretending that what she had done was out of regard for him. (* Antiq.' xv. 7, 10.) Philo assigns to the falsely-accused wife the liberty of putting away her husband ; but we do not know that this was generally allowed among the Jews; and in this and other cases it appears to us very doubtful whether, even in the most extreme cases, any right which the woman may have possessed of putting away.” her husband was not rather a right of demanding a bill of divorce from her husband, than of giving one to him. It appears, from the second Apology of Justin Martyr, that the first Christians limited divorce to cases of adultery, and considered that the wife had as clear a right to divorce her guilty husband, as the husband had to put away his criminal wife.

17. “What shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?—This person appears to have been, in doctrine, a Pharisee of that sect which were wont to say, “Let me know what my duty is, and I will do it:” an expression, the spirit of which admits of being differently understood; but which the Talmudical gloss interprets as equivalent to a boastful declamation, that none could point out in what he had transgressed. Both the Talmuds inform us that there were seven sorts of Pharisees ; and these, however much they were divided among themselves, seem to have entirely concurred in their enmity to Christ. The six besides the above were,-1. The Shechemite Pharisee— from a reference to the people of Shechem, who were circumcised not from regard to the truth, but for their own gain and profit. 2. The Dashing Pharisee, who walked in humility, scarcely lifting his foot from the ground, so that his feet were dashed against the stones. 3. The Bleeding Pharisee-one who shut his eyes when he walked abroad, to avoid the sight of women; and would press himself close to the walls, that he might not be defiled by touching those who passed by; whence he frequently hurt his person, particularly his feet, making them bleed. 4. The Mortar Pharisee—so called, according to some, from his wearing a loose coat, in the shape of a mortar with the mouth downward; or, as others, from his wearing a cap or head-dress of such a shape. 5. The Pharisee of Fear; who followed the law chiefly from the dread of punishment; and who, from the operation of that principle, paid most attention to the negative commands. 6. The Pharisee of Love, who obeyed the law from a principle of love, and paid more attention than the former to its affirmative commands.

None of these orders of Pharisees are specified by name in the New Testament; but it is possible that allusions to some of them may, on more than one occasion, be discovered. Matth. xxiii. 5, 14, for instance, may very probably allude to the Shechemite Pharisees.

46. Jericho."—We here introduce a representation of this interesting spot, for a note on which see the note on 1 Kings xvi. 34.

Bartimaus, the son of Timæus." — This is a name and its translation ; for “Bartimæus” means “the son of Timæus.” Bar is Syrian for "son,” equivalent to the Hebrew Ben; and it occurs rather commonly in the New Testament, in such names as Bartholomew, Barnabas, Barjona, Barjesus. It is incorporated with the proper name, as a patronymic, on the same principle as our “son” in such names as Johnson, Jackson, Thomson, Nelson, and others. The only difference is, that we place the term of relationship at the end rather than the beginning of the name.

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