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minde. And seeking by all good means, but contrary to myne expectation, not finding any office or other particular presentlie voyde, either fitt for me to offer your lordship, or sure for your L. to receive at my hande, I have presumed in lieu thereof to present your good lordship with an hundred pounds in golde, which this bringer will deliver to your L. It is no recompense any waie proportionable, I confesse, to your lordship's great goodnesse towards me, but onely a sclender token of my dutie most bounden to your L. and a pledge of my service alwaies to be at your L. commandment afore and above any man alive, which I beseech your lordship to accept in such part as is simply and faithfully meant. And so desyring the continuance and encrease of your L. honorable opinion and favour, of the which I shall endeavour, by God's grace, your L. shall never repent yourselfe. I most humblie betake your good L. to the blessed tuition of the Almighty. Your Lordship's most humble and bounden, April, 1595. TOBIAS DUNELM.

To the Right Honorable my singular goode Lorde, the Lord Burleigh, Lord H. Treasurer of England.

Lansd. 72. Art. 72.

Good Mr. Hickes,-With my hastye commendations, and as many thanks as there ys farthings in twentye pounds, which I have sent ye by this bearer; and I pray ye be twice as bolde with me in any thing that I can pleasure ye withall. My Lorde Keeper hath preferred me to a greate offyce in this cuntry, that is, to be a collector of the ffyffteenths, which yf my lorde hadd known me very well, what for my ylnes and my unableness to travell, I have no doubte but that he would have pardoned me, but nowe there is no remadye. I must needs follow my collections, which will make me to vysite you this next terme; and therefore I praye you, if I chance to be behinde hand, I will require your friendshippe to be a meane to my lord to give me some dayes till I may get it up. I have no good thinge presentlie to pleasure you withal, but at my cominge up, if I do know of any good thinge in the country, you shall be sure if it lye in me to gett it to have it. And so I doe ende the 15 daye of Oct. 1592. Yo. assured friend, MAURICE BERKLY.

To the worshipful and assured good friende,
Mr. Michael Hyckes, geve theise.

From Mr. Michael Hyckes.

Although I had not received your kinde letter of remembrance by this gent. Mr. Buck, or had not been provoked by the cominge downe of so fit a bearer as he is to have written unto you, yet would I neither have forgotten my promise nor your many received friendships, who have nothinge else to requite them withal than an honest true affection towards you, whereof also I can make no other demonstration but in these pety kynde of offices now and then as occasions are offered (which I know are as welcome and acceptable to you as 20 faire angels laid in the hands of us poor bribers here in court).

(The remainder of the letter is on the preference of a country to a court life.) To Mr. Manners. (No signature.)

Justys Younge being onne your ould suter, well hopes you may soune dispach her. Shee hath twyse been sent for, and by the messengers assured that if she will give the sum you knowe of, her sute shall presentlie be dispached, but she refused to hearken to it, restynge upon me. Wherefore, I pray you, sende me worde what you will doe. If you will dispach it, what I said shall be performed; if not give her liberty to seeke other, which I wish she should not neede. I pray you to write me worde whether my lorde to the court before the remove. Your loving friend, GEORGE CUMBERLAND.

To my very loving friend, Mr. Hyckes,
Secretary to my L. Treasurer.

This letter sees a vive Mr. Secretary Hicks in a suspicion of bribery, In which case it is stage that it should exist, unless it be argued that its preservation is rater a isen of Mr. Hicks's innocence. But even his master was attacked in the manner. See the Duke of Wirtemburg's letter, No. 68. It is to be hoped the there the blame was altogether with him that sent the gyft.—Now by Mr. Douce, of the British Museum. 72 Lansd.

Siz,-Constiering with myself the absolute disposition of my I. I hold it under your allowance very material to your better successe, that after you shall have spoken with Sir Thomas, who will offer the occasion if he meet with you, that you let my jorde understande of his inclination to give over, giving your motion to him as for one whom my L. affecting so as that Sir Thomas may seem rather to resolve of resignation from my L. his likinge than first desire my lorde to like of his particular resignation.

Sir, I am boud to present you with a very little mullet of sack, the which I will send to-morrow to Rucholles, noe waie I protest unto you as a recom pense for your kindnesse, but as an obligation of my thankful disposition, the which, I know, you only regardinge, will receive with the same hande 1 give it, with the which likewise I presume to promise you fortie pounds either in golde or plate at your choyce, at my beinge possessed of the place with your good likinge and favor of my lorde your most honorable friend, neither will my thankfulnesse end in that and the interest in me in the worde of an honeste man shall for ever (continue) and howsoever it shall fall out, my ever respectes and thanks shall be in your good likinge: and so cravinge pardon for my boldnesse, I humbly take my leave, and rest your very lovinge and thankful friend to dispose of, RO, KAYLR,

My howse at Radcliffe, the 25 of Feb. 1604. To the Right Worshipful Sir Michael Hickes, knight in Austen Friere.

[MS. Lansdown. Mus. Brit. vol. 76. art. 68. original.]

Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg, to Lord Burghley.

Monsieur,-Je ne doubte que vous ne soyez aduertij de ce que j'ay par ci deuant, comme mesmes auec ceste commodite, escrit et demande humblement a La Serenissime Royne d'Angleterre et de me laisser passer environ 1000 pieces de trap hors le renommé royaulme d'Icelle, librement et sans auloun peage, et pource que je scay, que vous pourrez beaucoup en cest affaire, Je vous prye bien fort, vous ij ́employer. Affin que je puisse auoir vue bonne et brefue respounce, telle comme je le desire et demande, dont mon commis le present porteur a charge, vous je present de ma part vne chaine d'or pov. vos peines. Laquelle accepterez: s'il vous plaist de bon cueur. En tous lieux la on j'auray moyen de recognoistre cela en vre endroict j'en suis content de vous grattiffier a vre contentement, de telle volunte, comme apres mes affectionnees recommendatione. Prye dieu vous auoir.

Monsieur, en sa sainte digne garde. De Stuctgart ce 12me de Decembre, 1594. Vre bien affectionné, FRIDERICH.

A Monseigneur Monseigneur le Grandt

Tresorier dengleterre.

Bishop Williams.

The following is from Weldon :-This Williams, though he wanted much of his predecessor's abilities for the law, yet did he equal him for learning and pride, and beyond him in the way of bribery: this man answering by petitions, in which his servants had one part, himself another, and was so calculated to be worth to him and his servants £3000 per annum, by a new way never found out before.-Weldon, 450.

The explanation of this will be found in the following extracts from Hackett's Life of Bishop Williams:

minde. And seeking by all good means, but contrary to myne expectation, not finding any office or other particular presentlie voyde, either fitt for me to offer your lordship, or sure for your L. to receive at my hande, I have presumed in lieu thereof to present your good lordship with an hundred pounds in golde, which this bringer will deliver to your L. It is no recompense any waie proportionable, I confesse, to your lordship's great goodnesse towards me, but onely a sclender token of my dutie most bounden to your L. and a pledge of my service alwaies to be at your L. commandment afore and above any man alive, which I beseech your lordship to accept in such part as is simply and faithfully meant. And so desyring the continuance and encrease of your L. honorable opinion and favour, of the which I shall endeavour, by God's grace, your L. shall never repent yourselfe. I most humblie betake your good L. to the blessed tuition of the Almighty. Your Lordship's most humble and bounden, April, 1595. TOBIAS DUNELM.

To the Right Honorable my singular goode Lorde, the Lord Burleigh, Lord H. Treasurer of England.

Lansd. 72. Art. 72.

Good Mr. Hickes,-With my hastye commendations, and as many thanks as there ys farthings in twentye pounds, which I have sent ye by this bearer ; and I pray ye be twice as bolde with me in any thing that I can pleasure ye withall. My Lorde Keeper hath preferred me to a greate offyce in this cuntry, that is, to be a collector of the ffyffteenths, which yf my lorde hadd known me very well, what for my ylnes and my unableness to travell, I have no doubte but that he would have pardoned me, but nowe there is no remadye. I must needs follow my collections, which will make me to vysite you this next terme; and therefore I praye you, if I chance to be behinde hand, I will require your friendshippe to be a meane to my lord to give me some dayes till I may get it up. I have no good thinge presentlie to pleasure you withal, but at my cominge up, if I do know of any good thinge in the country, you shall be sure if it lye in me to gett it to have it. And so I doe ende the 15 daye of Oct. 1592. Yo. assured friend, MAURICE BERKLY.

To the worshipful and assured good friende,
Mr. Michael Hyckes, geve theise.

From Mr. Michael Hyckes.

Although I had not received your kinde letter of remembrance by this gent. Mr. Buck, or had not been provoked by the cominge downe of so fit a bearer as he is to have written unto you, yet would I neither have forgotten my promise nor your many received friendships, who have nothinge else to requite them withal than an honest true affection towards you, whereof also I can make no other demonstration but in these pety kynde of offices now and then as occasions are offered (which I know are as welcome and acceptable to you as 20 faire angels laid in the hands of us poor bribers here in court).

(The remainder of the letter is on the preference of a country to a court life.) To Mr. Manners. (No signature.)

Justys Younge being onne your ould suter, well hopes you may soune dispach her. Shee hath twyse been sent for, and by the messengers assured that if she will give the sum you knowe of, her sute shall presentlie be dispached, but she refused to hearken to it, restynge upon me. Wherefore, I pray you, sende me worde what you will doe. If you will dispach it, what I said shall be performed; if not give her liberty to seeke other, which I wish she should not neede. I pray you to write me worde whether my lorde to the court before the remove. Your loving friend, GEORGE CUMBERLAND.

To my very loving friend, Mr. Hyckes,
Secretary to my L. Treasurer.

This letter seems to involve Mr. Secretary Hicks in a suspicion of bribery. In which case it is strange that it should exist, unless it be argued that its preservation is rather a token of Mr. Hicks's innocence. But even his master was attacked in this manner. See the Duke of Wirtemburg's letter, No. 68. It is to be hoped that there the blame was altogether with him that sent the gyft.-Note by Mr. Douce, of the British Museum. 72 Lansd.

Sir,-Considering with myself the absolute disposition of my L. I hold it under your allowance very material to your better successe, that after you shall have spoken with Sir Thomas, who will offer the occasion if he meet with you, that you let my lorde understande of his inclination to give over, giving your motion to him as for one whom my L. affecting so as that Sir Thomas may seem rather to resolve of resignation from my L. his likinge than first desire my lorde to like of his particular resignation.

Sir, I am bould to present you with a very little mullet of sack, the which I will send to-morrow to Rucholles, noe waie I protest unto you as a recompense for your kindnesse, but as an obligation of my thankful disposition, the which, I know, you only regardinge, will receive with the same hande I give it, with the which likewise I presume to promise you fortie pounds either in golde or plate at your choyce, at my beinge possessed of the place with your good likinge and favor of my lorde your most honorable friend, neither will my thankfulnesse end in that and the interest in me in the worde of an honeste man shall for ever (continue) and howsoever it shall fall out, my ever respectes and thanks shall be in your good likinge: and so cravinge pardon for my boldnesse, I humbly take my leave, and rest your very lovinge and thankful friend to dispose of, Ro. KAYLE.

My howse at Radcliffe, the 25 of Feb. 1604. To the Right Worshipful Sir Michael Hickes, knight in Austen Friere.

[MS. Lansdown. Mus. Brit. vol. 76. art. 68. original.]

Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg, to Lord Burghley.

Monsieur,-Je ne doubte que vous ne soyez aduertij de ce que j'ay par cij deuant, comme mesmes auec ceste commodite, escrit et demande humblement a La Serenissime Royne d'Angleterre et de me laisser passer environ 1000 pieces de trap hors le renommé royaulme d'Icelle, librement et sans aucun peage, et pource que je scay, que vous pourrez beaucoup en cest affaire. Je vous prye bien fort, vous ij employer. Affin que je puisse auoir vne bonne et brefue respounce, telle comme je le desire et demande, dont mon commis le present porteur a charge, vous je present de ma part vne chaine d'or pov. vos peines. Laquelle accepterez: s'il vous plaist de bon cueur. En tous lieux la on j'auray moyen de recognoistre cela en vre endroict j'en suis content de vous grattiffier a vre contentement, de telle volunte, comme apres mes affectionnees recommendatione. Prye dieu vous auoir.

Monsieur, en sa sainte digne garde. De Stuctgart ce 12me de Decembre, 1594. Vre bien affectionné, FRIDERICH.

A Monseigneur Monseigneur le Grandt

Tresorier dengleterre.

Bishop Williams.

The following is from Weldon :-This Williams, though he wanted much of his predecessor's abilities for the law, yet did he equal him for learning and pride, and beyond him in the way of bribery: this man answering by petitions, in which his servants had one part, himself another, and was so calculated to be worth to him and his servants £3000 per annum, by a new way never found out before.-Weldon, 450.

The explanation of this will be found in the following extracts from Hackett's Life of Bishop Williams :

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Among the qualities of a good judge there is one remaining and fit to bring up the rear, which the king looked upon as to be presaged in his new officer, 'an hand clean from corruption and taking gifts,' which blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.-Deut. xvi. 19. It was loudly exclaimed, and the king was ashamed to have so far mistaken the persons, that there were sucking horse-leeches in great places. Things not to be valued at money were saleable, and what could not gold procure? As Menander writes, Φίλοι δικαςαι, μαφτυρες,

μονον διδε : αυτες γαρ εξεις τες θεᾶς ὑπερετας.

That is, friends and judges and witnesses, you may have them for a price ; nay, such as sit in the place of God will serve you for such wages. The wise king having little prevailed by monitions and menaces against this sordid filthiness, cast his liking upon a man whom he might least suspect for gripleness and bribery. The likeliest, indeed, of all others to shake this viper from his hand, and to be armed with a breastplate of integrity against the mammon of iniquity, for he was far more ready to give than to take, to oblige than to be beholdinge. Magis illud laborari ut illi quamplurimi debeant," as Sallust

of Jugurtha.

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He was well descended of a fortunate and ancient lineage, and had made his progress to advancements by steps of credit, a good bridle against base deviations. What then made an unsavoury historian call him country pedant? A reproach with which H. L. doth flirt at him, in his history of King Charles, a scornful untruth. So I shake off this bar, and return to the reverend dean, who was in a function of holy calling next to God. Among them I know all have not been incorrupt: the sons of Samuel turned aside after lucre, and took bribes and perverted judgment. 1 Sam. viii. 3. But commonly, I trust, they do not forget what a scandal it is if God's stewards, turn the devil's rent gatherers. He was also unmarried and so unconcerned in the natural impulsion of avarice to provide for wife and children. Our old moral men touched often upon this string that justice is a virgin Пapeeve ε51 din, says Hesiod, and therefore fit to be committed to the trust of a virgin magistrate. He was never sullied with suspicion that he loved presents: no not so much as Gratuidad di Guantes as the Spaniards phrase is, but to go higher, they are living that know what sums of value have been brought to his secretaries, such as might have swayed a man that was not impregnable, and with how much solicitousness they have been requested to throw them at his feet for favours already received, which no man durst undertake, as knowing assuredly it would displace the broker, and be his ruin. And it was happy for him, when five years after limehounds were laid close to his footsteps to hunt him, and every corner searched to find a tittle of that dust behind his door. But it proved a dry scent to the inquisitors, for to his glory, and shame to his enemies, it could never appear that the least birdlime of corruption did stick to his fingers.

Among the exceptions with which Lord Cranfield did exagitate him, one may require a larger answer than he thought him worthy of in that humour. He replies to him very briefly to him in the laconic form, because such brittle ware would break with a touch. The treasurer was misinformed or coined it out of his own head. That the Keeper dispatched great number of cases by hearing petitions in his chamber, and he did usually reverse decrees upon petitions. That £40,000 had been taken in one year among his servants by such spurious and illegitimate justice.

That he did much work by petitions and treble as much in the first year as in those that succeeded, it is confessed. First, the hindrances had been so great which the court sustained before he began to rectify them, that unless he had allowed poor men some furtherance by motions or petitions, they had been undone for want of timely favour.

Secondly, all high potentates and magistrates under them have ever employed some at their hand to give answers to supplicants that made requests unto them.

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