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effect : 'Alas, poore, seely, weake, base, miserable man;' and then intreated my L. Cecill to read it, whoe tooke it, and delivered it to the clarke, wherby it appeared that the L. Cobham had, upon all the oathes that maie binde a christian, an honest, or honorable man, cleered Sir Walter of all the treasons."
“ Winchester, hast, 19 of November, 1603.
A postscript, “ Sir Walter is attainted of treason,” shews the letter to have been written under the impression of the moment and from the spot.
With respect to Coke's abuse, it is curious, as matter of critical observation, to note how his own expressions, “ English face” and “ Spanish heart,” suggest to himself through the association of face cards, and hearts, the offensive word “ deal.” As matter of moral observation, it is interesting to remark how quietly and effectively Raleigh gives his irritated accuser to understand that he is aware of the intended insult and retains his self-possession, by retorting upon cards a sarcasm derived from bowls : “ It will go near to prove a measuring cast between you and me, Mr. Attorney.”
NOTE Y Y Y Y.
When Coke indulged himself in these satirical lines he alluded to Sebastian Brant's “ Stultifera navis,” translated by Alexander Barclay, and then called, “ The Ship of Fooles.” This work opens with a most inviting satire, having for its title De Inutilibus Libris. “ Here beginneth the Ship of Fooles, and first “Of Unprofitable Bookes ;” to the company of which Coke, in his ungrateful spleen, consigned the Novum Organum. in addition to the obvious sarcasm conveyed in the happy title to which he alludes, he doubtless indulged himself in the recollection of some lines which followed, and which he associated with Lord Bacon's new dignity.
“ Eche is not lettered that now is made a lorde,
All that are promoted are not fully wise.” The spirit of his “ Auctori Consilium” he evidently caught from the lines which conclude the satire in the original :
“O vos doctores qui grandia nomina fertis
Non in candidulis pensebant dogmata libris,” &c. May we be forgiven for the surmise that this reference to Brant's book was accompanied by some secret mental application of a coarse jest supplied by the next page ? To the chapter “ De Inutilibus Libris” succeeds De Malis Consultoribus." Of Evill Counsellors, Judges, and Men of Law,” where the cut prefixed is an attempt to scald a live pig in a caldron. Now here, and in perfect keeping with the refined spirit which dictated many of the Chief Justice's classical displays of rhetoric, was Bacon on the brink of the hot water which the Coke had prepared. The uncharitable suspicion gathers strength from the fact that the whole satire “ Of Evill Counsellors” is directed by the translator to the Chancery Bar, in his L'Envoy, which opens thus, with some strength and much naiveté.
“ Therefore ye yonge studentes of the Chauncery
Endeavour you her bondes to louse or to brast.” That the personages engaged in forcing the hog into the pot were adorned with caps and bells, was an incident most naturally overlooked by the self-compla. cency of the Chief Justice.
From an indication which occurs in a collection of Poems in honour of Bacon, edited immediately after his death by Rawley, “ Memoriæ Albani Sacrum, 4to. 1626, good evidence may be adduced that the sarcasm contained in the lines,
“ Instaurare paras veterum documenta sophorum,
Instaura leges, justitiamque prius,” had been circulated,—and if so, most probably by the author himself—through the Inns of Court. Robert Ashley, of the Middle Temple, is one of the contributors, and thus indignantly refers to those very lines and the objection they convey :
Scripta docent; veterum queis hic monumenta sophorum
This was not ill done with respect to the Latin gibe, but with regard to English as well as Latin,—the taunt upon his wisdom, or the sneer at his knowledge of the principles of justice,-Bacon himself had already, and as it were by anticipation, done much better. Long ago had he given the very best reply to the ribbald allusion into which his device of a ship upon its adventurous voyage beyond the Pillars of Hercules, had tempted an ungenerous rival. Long before had he set an example which fixed the folly on him who would not or could not profit by it. In expressing his opinion of another's labours, he too had spoken of a ship; but it was in a strain of higher mood, where justice and admiration united to drown the jarring notes of rivalry and self. In 1613 thus did Bacon, then Attorney General, write to his king : " Had it not been for Sir Edward Coke's reports (which though they may have errors, and some peremptory and extrajudicial resolutions more than are warranted, yet they contain infinite good decisions and rulings over of cases,) the law by this time had been almost like a ship without ballast.”
(For the two preceding notes I am indebted to my kind and intellectual friend, B. H. Bright.]
NOTE ZZ Z Z.
Nicholls, in his Progresses of Elizabeth, says, in each year an exact inventory was made on a roll signed by the Queen, and attested by the proper officers. Five of these rolls are preserved at full length in these volumes; the earliest in 1561-2, the latest in 1599-1600. The following from page 45 is a specimen :
“ Anno Regni Reginæ 42 Eliz. 1599, 1600. New yeares guyftes geven to the Quene's majestie at her mannor of Richmonde, the firste day of January, in the yeare abovesayde, by these persones whose names hereafter ensue, viz.
By Sir Thomas Egerton, Knight, Lord Keeper of the greate seale of Englande, one amuylet of gold, garnished with sparkes of rubyes, pearle, and halfe pearle.
By the Lord Buckhurste, Lord High Treasurer of Englande, in golde, £10. delivered to Henry Sackford, esquyer, one of the groomes of her majestie's privy chamber. By the Lord Marques Win', in golde, £20.
“ Earles. · By the Earl of Nottingham, Lord Admyrall, one karcanett, containinge 29 pieces of golde, whereof nyne bigger pieces and tenne lesser, 18 pendantes like mullettes, likewise garnished with small rubyes and pearle, with a round jewell pendant in the myddest, garnished with one white topaz, and a pearle pendant, and nine small rubyes.
By the earle of Shrewesbury, parte of a doublett of white satten, embrothered all over like snakes wounde together, of Venice sylver, with wroughte and puffes of lawne embrothered, with Venice sylver like wheate eares.”
The list then contains gifts by marquesses and countesses. By the bishops, by lords, baronesses, ladies, knights, sundry gentlewomen and gentlemen, including the gift of Mr. Francis Bacon, mentioned in the text. It concludes:
“ Summa totalis of all the money given to her bighness this year £754. 6s. 8d.”
Amongst these are somewhat whimsically arranged the physicians, apothecaries, the master cook, several tradesmen and artificers, ending with Charles Smith, Dustman, who gave “two bottes of Cambric,” and received twenty ounces and a half of gilt plate.
If man is under the influence of any passion more powerful than the love of truth, he swerves from the truth.
All the rules of evidence in courts of justice as to the incompetency of witnesses seem to be founded on this law : and the confession of a criminal, if it is obtained by promises or threats, is not, by the law of England, permitted to be adduced as evidence against him; and a confession under the influence of hope or fear is not admitted as evidence.
“ Man would contend that two and two did not make four, if his interests were affected by this position.”—Hobbs.
“ The light of the understanding is not a dry and pure light, but drenched in the will and affections, and the intellect forms the sciences accordingly. What men desire should be true, they are most inclined to believe. The understanding, therefore, rejects things difficult, as being impatient of inquiry : things just and solid, because they limit hope ; and the deeper mysteries of nature, through superstition : it rejects the light of experience through pride and haughtiness, as disdaining the mind should be meanly and waverly employed : it excludes paradoxes for fear of the vulgar; and thus the affections tinge and infect the understanding numberless ways and sometimes imperceptibly." —Bacon.
“ Agnus” was the only combination which the wolf, learning to spell, could make of the twenty-four letters of the alphabet.
“ Not much
Of any true decision.'”—Troilus and Cressida. In the memoirs of Baron Grimm, he says, “ Madame Geoffrin avait fait à M. de Rhulière des offres assez considérables pour l'engager à jeter au feu son Manuscrit sur la Russie. Il lui prouva très éloquemment que ce serait de sa part l'action la plus indigne et la plus lâche. A tout ce grand étalage d'honneur, de vertu, de sensibilité qu'elle avait paru écouter avec beaucoup de patience, elle ne lui répondit que ces deux mots : “En voulez-vous davan
A certain English ambassador, who had for a time resided at the court of Rome, was on his return introduced at the levee of Queen Caroline. This lady asked him why in his absence he did not try to make a convert of the Pope to the Protestant religion? He answered her, “Madam, the reason was that I had nothing better to offer his Holiness than what he already has in his possession.”
The various obstacles are :
Shortness of life.
Worldly occupation. Although it is, in general, true that the wisdom of a learned man cometh by opportunity of leisure, and he that hath little business shall become wise, yet let it not be forgotten what has ever been done in contemplation by lovers of truth engaged in active life: by those who are so fortunate as to know the delights of intellectual pleasure.
Brutus, when a soldier under Pompey in the civil wars, employed all bis leisure in study; and the very day before the battle of Pharsalia, though it was in the middle of summer, and the camp under many privations, spent all his time till the evening in writing an epitome of Polybius.
Julius Cæsar wrote his Commentaries and a work De Analogia, occasioned a reformed computation of the year, and collected a book of Apophthegms.
Who can forget the labours of Cicero?
Alfred, notwithstanding the multiplicity and urgency of his affairs, employed himself in the pursuits of knowledge : he often laboured under great bodily infirmities: he fought in person fifty-six battles by sea and land; was able, during a life of no extraordinary length, to acquire more knowledge, and even to compose more books, than most studious men, though blest with the greatest leisure and application, have in more fortunate ages made the object of their uninterrupted industry.
Elizabeth, unto the very last year of her life, accustomed herself to appoint set hours for reading ; scarce any young student in an university more daily or more duly. Can the labours of Milton or of Burke be forgotten ?
Shortness of life. «« Vita brevis : ars longa :
Sed fugit interea : fagit irreparabile tempus." Notwithstanding the shortness of life, which is supplied by the conjunction of labours, much may be done by any individual who steadily pursues his object. Let him who despairs think of the labours of the schoolmen : of our divines, of Barrow, of Taylor : of eminent artists, of Raphael, of Michael Angelo : of poets, of Milton, of Shakespeare: of philosophers, of Newton, of Bacon.
The obstacle from the shortness of life may be counteracted by the consciousness that ' no labour is lost,” and that a discovered truth will flourish in future ages.
“We hold it sufficient,” says Bacon, “ to carry ourselves soberly and usefully in moderate things; and in the mean time to sow the seeds of pure truth for posterity, and not be wanting in our assistance to the first beginnings of great things." In Bacon's Dedication of the Novum Organum to James, he says, I
may, perhaps, when I am dead, hold out a light to posterity by this new torch set up in the obscurity of philosophy."
We ought rather to be grateful than to repine at being able to conceive more than we are able to execute. In works of benevolence our exertions are limited : we can reach only to our arm's length, and our voice can be heard only till the next air is still : are we to murmur because our good wishes and prayers extend to all mankind ?
Wasting time. The knowledge of the art of preventing the waste of time is a science of great importance, and may be thus exhibited :
1. In general.
1. Excess in sleep.
( 3. Useless inquiry.
Wasting time, in general. Alfred usually divided his time into three equal portions : one was employed in sleep and the refection of his body by diet and exercise ; another in the dispatch of business; a third in study and devotion : and that he might more exactly measure the hours, he made use of burning tapers of equal length, which he fixed in lanthorns, an expedient suited to that rude age when the geometry of dialling, and the mechanism of clocks and watches was entirely unknown.
Sleep. Of wasting time by excessive sleep, Milton, speaking of his own morning occupations, says, “ My morning haunts are, where they should be, at home ; not sleeping, or concocting the surfeits of an irregular feast, but up, and stirring ; in winter, often ere the sound of any bell awake men to labour, or to devotion; in summer, as oft with the bird that first rises, or not much tardier, to read good authors, or cause them to be read, till the attention be weary, or memory have its full freight.”
Wasting time, by misapplication of times of vacation. Cicero says,
Quare quis tandem me reprehendat: si quantum cæteris ad festos dies ludorum celebrandos, quantum ad alias voluptates et ad ipsam requiem animi et corporis conceditur temporis, quantum alii tempestivis conviviis, tantum mihi egomet ad hæc studia recolenda sumpsero.".
“ But,” says Bacon, “if any man notwithstanding resolvedly maintaineth, that learning takes up too much time which might otherwise be better employed, I answer, that no man can be so straitened and oppressed with business and an active course of life, but may have many vacant times of leisure, whilst he expects the returns and tides of business, except he be either of a very dull temper or of no dispatch, or ambitious (little to his credit and reputation) to meddle and engage himself in employment of all natures and matters above bis reach. It remaineth therefore to be inquired in what matter, and how those spaces and times of leisure should be filled up and spent; whether in pleasures or study, sensuality, or contemplation, as was well answered by Demosthenes to Æschines, man given to pleasure, who, when he told him by way of reproach that his orations did smell of the lamp, . Indeed,' said Demosthenes, • there is great difference between the things that you and I do by lamplight: wherefore let no man fear lest learning should expulse business; nay, rather it will keep and defend the possessions of the mind against idleness and pleasure, which otherwise, at unawares, may enter, to the prejudice both of business and learning.”
Mr. Charles Butler, in his Reminiscences, says, “ Very early rising, a systematic division of my time, abstinence from all company, and from all diversions not likely to amuse me highly, and, above all, never permitting a bit or scrap of time to be unemployed, have supplied me with an abundance of literary hours.”
Instances of this misapplication of times of vacation may be observed in the conduct of members of different professious.
Evelyn, in bis Memoirs, says, 5th December, 1678: “I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife who sold kitchen-stuff, whom God so blessed, that the father became very rich and was a very honest man: he was Sheriff of Surrey when I sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles, and this daughter was a jolly, friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen, and