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1662 against the Book of Common Prayer, the old Objections mustered up, with the addition of some new ones more than formerly had been made, to make the number swell. In fine great importunities were used to His Sacred Majesty, that the said Book might be Revised, and such Alterations therein, and Additions thereunto made, as should be thought requisite for the ease of tender consciences. Whereunto His Majesty out of His pious Inclination to give satisfaction (so far as could be reasonably expected) to all His Subjects of what persuasion soever, did graciously condescend.
In which Review we have endeavoured to observe the like Moderation, as we find to have been used in the like case in former times. And therefore of the sundry Alterations proposed unto us, we have rejected all such as were either of dangerous consequence, (as secretly striking at some established Doctrine, or laudable Practice of the Church of England, or indeed of the whole Catholic! Church of Christ) or else of no consequence at all, but utterly frivolous and vain. But such Alterations as were tendered to us (by what persons, under what pretences, or to what purpose soever so tendered) as seemed to us in any degree requisite or expedient, we have willingly, and of our own accord, assented unto : Not enforced so to do by any strength of Argument, convincing us of the necessity of making the said Alierations : For we are fully persuaded in our judgments and we here profess it to the World) that the Book, as it stood before established by Law, doth not contain in it any thing contrary to the Word of God, or to sound Doctrine, or which a godly man may not with a good conscience use and submit unto, or which is not fairly defensible against any that shall oppose the same; if it shall be allowed such just and favourable construction as in Common Equity ought to be allowed to all human writings, especially such as are set forth by Authority, and even to the very best Translations of the holy Scripture itself.
Our general aim therefore in this undertaking was, not to gratify this or that party in any their unreasonable demands ; but to do that, which to our best understandings we conceived might most tend to the preservation of Peace and Unity in the Church ; the procuring of Reverence, and erciting of Piety and Devotion in the Public Worship of God; and the culting off occasion from them that seek occasion of cavil, or quarrel against the Liturgy of the Church. And as to the several variations from the former Book, whether by Alteration, Addition, or otherwise, it shall suffice to give this general account, That most of the Alterations were made either first, for the better direction of them that are to officiate in any part of Divine Service ; which is chiefly done in the Kalendars and Rubrics : or secondly, for the more proper expressing of some words or phrases of ancient usage in terms more suitable to the language of the present times, und the clearer explanation of some other words and phrases, that were either of doubtful signification, or otherwise liable to misconstruction : or thirdly, for a more perfect rendering of such portions of holy Scripture, as are inserted into the Liturgy; which, in the Epistles and Gospels especially, and in sundry other places are now ordered to be read according to the last Translation: And that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places; particulurly for those at Sea, together with an Office for the Baptism of such as are of riper years ; which, although not so necessary when the former Book was compiled, yet by the growth of Anabaptism, through the licentiousness of the late times crept in amongst us, is now become necessary, and may be always urful for the Baptizing of Natives in our Plantations, and others converted to the Faith. If any man, who shall desire a more particular account of the several Alterations in any part of the Liturgy, shall take the pains to compare the present Book with the former, we doubt not but the reason of the change may easily appear.
And having thus endeavoured to discharge our duties in this weighty affair, as in the sight of God, and to approve our sincerity therein (so far as lay in us ) to the consciences of all men; although we know it impossible (in such variety of apprehensions, humours, and interests, as are in the world) to please all; nor can erpect that men of factious, peevish, and perverse spirits should be satisfied with any thing that can be done in this kind by any other than themselves; Yet we have good hope, that what is here presented, and hath been by the Convocations of both Provinces with great diligence examined and approved, will be also well accepted and approved by all sober, peaceable, and truly conscientious sons of the Church of England.
CONCERNING THE SERVICE
OF THE CHURCH.
WHERE was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so sure among other things, it may plainly appear by the Common Prayers in the Church, commonly called Divine Service. The first original and ground whereof, if a man would search out by the ancient Fathers, he shall find, that the same was not ordained but of a good purpose, and for a great advancement of godli
For they so ordered the matter, that all the whole Bible (or the greatest part thereof,) should be read over once every year; intending thereby that the Clergy, and 'specially such as were Ministers 'in the Congregation, should (by often reading and meditation 'in God's word) be stirred up to godliness themselves, and be more able to exhort * others by wholesome doctrine, and to confute them that were Adversaries to the Truth; and further, that the people (by daily hearing of holy Scripture read in the Church) ' might continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true Religion.
But these many years passed, this godly and decent order of the ancient Fathers hath been so altered, broken, and neglected, by planting in uncertain Stories, and Legends, with multitude of Responds, Verses, vain Repetitions, Commemorations, and Synodals, that commonly when any Book of the Bible was begun, ? after three or four Chapters were read out, all the rest were unread. And in this sort the Book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, and the Book of Genesis in Septuagesima ; but they were only begun, and never read through ; After like sort were other Books of holy Scripture used. And moreover, whereas Saint Paul would have such language spoken to the people in the Church, as they might understand, and have profit by hearing the same; The Service in this Church of England these many years hath been read in Latin to the people, which they understand not; so that they have eard with the ears only, and their heart, spirit, and mind, have not been edified thereby. And furthermore,
' In the Scotch Liturgy, 1637, the Preface is as follows ;
or Divine service, as appeareth by the ancient Liturgies of the Greek and Latin Churches. This was done, as for other great causes, so likewise for retaining an uniformity in God's worship: a thing most beseeming them that are of one and the same profession. For by the form that is kept in the outward worship of God, men commonly judge of Religion. If in that there be a diversity, straight they are apt to conceive the Religion to be diverse. Wherefore it were to be wished that the whole Church of Christ were one as well in form of public worship, as in doctrine: And that as it hath but one Lord and one Faith, so it had but one heart and one mouth. This would prevent many schisms and divisions, and serve much to the preserving of unity. But since that cannot be hoped for in the whole Catholic Christian Church, yet at least in the Churches that are under the protection of one Sovereign Prince the same ought to be endeavoured.
It was not the least part of our late Sovereign King James of blessed memory bis care, to work this uniformity in all bis Dominions: but while he was about to do it, it pleased God to translate him to a better kingdom. His MAJESTY that now reigneth (and long may He reign over us in all happiness) not suffering his Father's good purpose to fall to the ground, but treading the same path, with the like zeal and pious affection, gave order soon after his coming to the Crown, for the framing of a book of Common Prayer, like unto that which is received in the Churches of England and Ireland, for the use of this Church. After many lets and hindrances, the same cometh now to be published, to the good, we trust, of all God's people, and the increase of true piety, and sincere devotion amongst them.
But as there is nothing, how good and warrantable soever in itself, against wbich
WHERE was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so 'sure
, (among other things) it may plainly appear by the Common prayers in the Church, commonly called divine service : the first original and ground whereof,
x if a man would search out by the ancient fathers, he shall find that the same was not ordained but of a good purpose, and for a great advancement of godliness. For they so ordered the maiter, that all the whole Bible (or the greatest part thereof) should be read over once in the year, intending thereby that the clergy, and specially such as were Ministers of the congregation, should (by often reading and meditation of God's word) be stirred up to godliness themselves, and be more able also to exhort other by wholesome doctrine, and to confute them that were adversaries to the truth. And further, that the people (by daily hearing of holy scripture read in the Church) should continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true religion.
But these many years passed, this godly and decent order of the ancient fa- x thers hath been so altered, broken, and 'neglected, by planting in uncertain Stories, Legends, Responds, Verses, vain Repetitions, Commemorations, and Synodals, that commonly when any book of the Bible was begun, before three or four Chapters were read out, all the rest were unread. And in this sort the book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, and the book of Genesis in Septuagesima; but they were only begun and never read through. After a like sort were other books of holy scripture used. And moreover, whereas Saint Paul would have such language spoken to the people in the church, as they might understand, and have profit by hearing the same, the Service in this church of England (these many years) hath been read in Latin to the people, which they understood not, so that they have heard with their ears only, and their hearts, spirit, and mind, have not been edified thereby. And furthermore, notwithstanding that the
some will not except; so it may be that exceptions will be taken against this good and most pious work, and perhaps none more pressed than that we have followed the Service book of England. But we should desire them that shall take this exception, to consider, that being as we are by God's mercy of one true profession, and otherwise udited by many bonds, it had not been fitting to vary much from theirs, our especially coming forth after theirs, seeing the disturbers of the Church both here and there, should by our differences, if they had been great, taken occasion to work more trouble. Therefore did we think meet to adhere to their form, even in the festivals, and some other rites, not as yet received, nor observed in our Church, rather than by omitting them, to give the Adversary to think, that we disliked any part of their Service.
Our first Reformers were of the same mind with us, as appeareth by the ordinance they made, tbat in all the Parishes of this Realm, the Common prayer should be read weekly on Sundays, and other Festival days, with the Lessons of the old and new Testament, conform to the order of the book of Common Prayer (meaning that of England; for it is known that divers years after we had no other order for common prayer.) This is recorded to have been the first head concluded in a frequent Council of the Lords and Barons professing Christ Jesus. We keep the words of the history; Religion was not then placed in rites and gestures, nor men taken with the fancy of extemporary prayers. The history of the Church of Scotland, p. 218. Sure, the public worship of God in his Church, being the most solemn action of us bis poor creatures bere below, ought to be performed by a Liturgy advisedly set and framed, and not according to the sudden and various fancies of men. This shall suffice for the present to have said. The God of mercy confirm our hearts in bis truth, and preserve us alike from profaneness and superstition. Amen.
* specially (1604] 3 of (160+) + other (1601) 5 should (1601) • Stories, Legends, Responds (160-4) 7 before (1604) 8 understood (1604)
1604 S. L. notwithstanding that the ancient Fathers have divided the P sulms into seven Portions, whereof every one was called a Nocturn; Now of late time a few of them have been daily said, and the rest utterly omitted. Moreover, the number and hardness of the rules called the Pie, and the manifold changings of the Service, was the cause that to turn the Book only was so hard and intricate a matter, that many times there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out.
These inconveniences therefore considered, here is set forth such an Order, whereby the same shall be redressed. And for a readiness in this matter, here is drawn out a Calendar for that purpose, which is plain and easy to be 'understood, wherein, (so much as may be) the reading of holy 'Scripture is so set forth, that all things shall be done in order, without breaking one piece from another. For this cause be cut off Anthems, Responds, Invitatories, and such like things as did break the continual course of the reading of the Scripture. Yet, because there is no remedy, but that of necessity there must be some Rules; therefore certain Rules are here set forth; which, as they are few in number, so they s are plain and easy to be ' understood. So that here you have an Order for Prayer,
and for the reading of the holy Scripture, much agreeable to the mind and purX pose of the old Fathers, and a great deal more profitable and commodious, than
that which of late was used. It is more profitable, because here are left out many things, whereof some are untrue, some uncertain, some vain and superstitious; and ’nothing is ordained to be read, but the very pure Word of God, the holy Scriptures, or that which ® is agreeable to the same; and that in such a Language and Order as is most easy and plain for the understanding both of the Readers and Hearers. It is also more commodious, both for the shortness thereof, and for the plainness of the Order, and for that the Rules be few and easy.
Furthermore, by this Order the Cúrates shall need none other books for their public service, but this book and the Bible: By the means whereof, the people shall not be at so great charges for books, as in times past they have
been.  And whereas heretofore there hath been great diversity in saying and singing in Churches within this Realm ; some following Salisbury Use, some Hereford Use, and some the Use of Bangor, some of York, some of Lincoln ; now from henceforth all the whole Realm shall have but one Use.
And if any will judge this way more painful, because that all things must be read upon the book, whereas before, by the reason of so often repetition they could say many things by heart; if those men will weigh their labour with the profit and knowledge which daily they shall obtain by reading upon the book, they will not refuse the pain, in consideration of the great profit that
shall ensue thereof.  And forasmuch as nothing 10 can be so plainly set forth, but doubts may arise in the use and practice of the same; to appease all such diversity (if any arise) and for the resolution of all doubts, concerning the manner how to understand, do, and execute, the things contained in this Book ; the parties that so doubt, or diversely take any thing, shall alway resort to the Bishop of the Diocese, who by
I said, and oft repeated, and the rest, &c. 
? understanded (1604) 3 Scriptures (1604)
one piece thereof from another  i be (1604) 6 for Prayer (as touching the reading of holy Scripture)much agreeable, &c.  7 is ordained nothing (1604) 8 is evidently grounded upon the same (1604)
1559 1552 1
1549 ancient fathers "have divided the Psalms into seven portions, whereof every one was called a Nocturn; now of late time a few of them have been daily said, (and oft repeated) and the rest utterly omitted. Moreover, the number and hardness of the rules, called the Pie, and the manifold changings of the service, was the cause, that to turn the book only was so hard and intricate a matter, that many times there was more business to find out what should be read, than to read it when it was found out.
These inconveniences therefore considered, here is set forth such an order, whereby the same shall be redressed. And for a readiness in this matter, here is drawn out a calendar for that purpose, which is plain and easy to be 12 understanden, wherein (so much as may be) the reading of holy 13 scriptures is so set forth, that all things shall be done in order, without breaking one piece thereof from another. For this cause be cut off Anthems, Responds, Invitatories, and such like things, as did break the continual course of the reading of the scripture. Yet because there is no remedy, but that of necessity there must be some rules, therefore certain rules are here set forth, which as they be few in number, so they be plain and easy to be 12 understanden. So that here you have an order for prayer, (as touching the reading of holy scripture) much "agreeable to the mind and purpose of the old fathers, and a great deal more profitable and commodious, than that which of late was used. It is more profitable, because here are left out many things, whereof some be untrue, some uncertain, some vain and superstitious, and is ordained nothing to be read but the very pure word of God, the holy scriptures, or that which is evidently grounded upon the same; and that in such a language and order, as is most easy and plain for the understanding both of the readers and hearers. It is also more commodious, both for the shortDess thereof, and for the plainness of the order, and for that the rules be few and easy. Furthermore, by this order, the Curates shall need none other books for their public service, but this book and the Bible ; by the means whereof the people shall not be at so great charge for books, as in times past they have been.
And where heretofore there hath been great diversity in saying and singing in churches within this realm, some following Salisbury use, some Hereford use, some the use of Bangor, some of York, and some of Lincoln: now from henceforth all the whole realm shall have but one use. And if any would judge this way more painful, because that all things must be read upon the book, whereas before by the reason of so often repetition, they could say many things by heart; if those men will weigh their labour with the profit and knowledge, which daily they shall obtain by reading upon the book, they will not refuse the pain, in consideration of the great profit that shall ensue thereof.
And "Sforasmuch as nothing can almost be so plainly set forth, but doubts may rise in the use and practising of the same; To appease all such diversity, (if any arise) and for the resolution of all doubts, concerning the manner how to understand, do, and execute the things contained in this book; the parties that so doubt, or diversely take any thing, shall alway resort to the Bishop of the diocese,
can almost be so plainly set forth, but doubts may rise in the use and practising of, &c. (1601) 11 had (1549) 12 understanded (1549] 13 Scripture (1549] ** in knowledge (1519)
15 forsomuch (1549)