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THOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 59, Lincoln's Inn Fields.
Printed by WILLIAM JACKSON, Belleville Power Press.
Abbé Auger, 1792. The oration on the Mysteries was pronounced when Andocides was about seventy years of age, in reply to an accusation brought against him by Callias of violating a law respecting the temple of Ceres at Eleusis. The oration contains, besides the immediate subject of the defence, much information on other parts of the orator's life. It is an admirable specimen of simple and perspicuous language, and equally remarkable for the skill with which the defence is conducted.
ANDORRA, a valley on the southern side of the central Pyrenees, situated between two of the highest mountains, the Maladeta and the Moncal, the former 3808 and the latter 3570 yards above the sea. The extent of this valley is forty miles in length, and twenty-four in breadth; it is bounded on the east and south by the territory of Puigcerdà, by Talarn on the west, and on the north by the Pyrenees and the county of Foix, in France. The rivers Balira, Odino, and Os irrigate its grounds, and flow into the main stream, the Segre, which is a branch of the Ebro. The territory is mountainous, but abundant in pasturage. At Caldes, as its name imports, are abundant thermal springs. Its forests produce a great quantity of timber, which is carried down the rivers Balira and Segre into the Ebro, and thence to Tortosa. The mountains abound in bears, wolves, wild boars, goats, and other species of game. Besides Andorra it contains five other villages; Encampo, Masano, Ordino, San Julian, and Camillo, the latter remarkable for its iron mines. The capital, Andorra, is situated on the river Balira, and contains 2000 inhabitants.
ANDO'CIDES, the son of Leogoras, of a noble Athenian family, was born about B.C. 468. We find him, during the war of the Corcyræans and Corinthians, commanding, jointly with Glaucon, an Athenian squadron which was sent to aid the Corcyræans (Thucyd. i. 51). After this he appears to have been employed as ambassador on numerous foreign missions. During the Peloponnesian war (about B.C. 415) Andocides was involved in the charge of mutilating the Hermæ, (see ALCIBIADES,) and, according to Plutarch, he saved himself by accusing his real or imaginary accomplices, and among them his own father, whom however he succeeded in rescuing from capital punishment. But the history of all this transaction is obscure. After this event Andocides went abroad and visited Sicily, Italy, the Peloponnesus, and Thessaly: he also visited Asia Minor and the island of Cyprus, where he became on good terms with the king of Citium, to whom he is accused of delivering up his own cousin, a female, whom he had carried off from Athens. The story rests on doubtful authority; but the king and the Athenian adventurer appear to have quarrelled, and Andocides made his way back to Athens. The Four Hundred at this time (B.c. 411) directed the administration of affairs, and Andocides, who was always in trouble, was accused apparently on frivolous grounds, and thrown into prison. On being released he set out again to Cyprus, and attached himself to Evagoras, king of Salamis. But he quarrelled with this new acquaintance also, and again returning to Athens after the restoration of the popular government, he was once more compelled to quit the place and to retire to Elis. On the overthrow of the Thirty Ty- Andorra is an independent republic, and though double in rants by Thrasybulus, (B.c. 403,) Andocides returned to extent, is less known than that of San Marino, in Italy. It Athens, and recovered all the influence which talents and is governed by a syndic, who presides in the council of the eloquence naturally gave an unprincipled man in the Athe- valley, and by two Viguiers, one appointed by the king of nian democracy. The remainder of his life is obscure. France and the other by the bishop of Urgel. Lewis le The life of Andocides, attributed to Plutarch, speaks of his Debonnaire gave the sovereignty of this valley to Sisebeing sent to Lacedæmon on the subject of the peace (ris bertus, the first bishop of Urgel, in 819, and from that eipńvns), in which affair he conducted himself in such a way time it has maintained its independence between France and as not to venture back to Athens. This peace has been Spain. Andorra, the chief town, on the Balira, has about conjectured to be that of Antalcidas, B.C. 387, but at this 2000 inhabitants. The people of the territory speak a time Andocides was eighty-one years of age, if the date of Catalan dialect. his birth is correctly given, and not likely to have been employed on such a mission.
It is unfortunate that the events of this orator's rambling life are not better known. The times during which he lived were full of important occurrences, and a minute account of his life and adventures would have thrown great light on the internal history of Athens and that of other states also. There is little doubt that he was a man of ability, but without any principle.
Four extant orations are attributed to Andocides: On the Mysteries: On his (second) Return to Athens: On the Peace with the Lacedæmonians; and that Against Alcibiades. The authenticity of the third and fourth are disputed, that of the third at least, perhaps, with good reason.
The orations of Andocides are found in the collections of the Athenian orators, by H. Stephens (1575), in that by Reiske, and in the later edition of Bekker. They are also in Dobson's collection (1828), with the Lectiones Andocidea of Sluiter, &c. They were translated into French by the
See Miñano; Malte Brun, Universal Geography, vol. viii. p. 124. Balbi, Abrégé de Géographie, p. 370.
A'NDOVER, a borough and parish in the N.W. part of the county of Hants, and on the border of the downs which stretch into Wiltshire. It is on the left bank of the river Anton, (a branch of the Tese, or Test, which falls into Southampton water,) and from its situation, gets the name of Andover, (Saxon, Andeafaran,) i. e., ferry, or passage over the river Ande. It is 63 or 64 miles W.S.W. from London; 51° 12' 30' N. lat., 1° 28′ W. long. from Greenwich.
The three principal streets are well paved, but not lighted; the houses are well built, and the town is well supplied with water. The church is near the north end of it, and is a spacious structure, of very great antiquity, having existed as far back as the time of the Conqueror. At the west end is a fine semicircular, arched doorway, with zigzag mouldings. The living, a vicarage, with the chapelry of Foxcote annexed, is in the patronage of Winchester College. There
are meeting-houses for Baptists, Quakers, Independents, and Methodists; a free grammar school, with a schoolhouse built and kept in repair by the corporation; and an almshouse for six poor men, erected and endowed by John Pollen, Esq., one of the members for the borough in the time of William III. Another almshouse, for six poor women, was built with funds bequeathed by Catherine Hanson, but not endowed. There is also a school-house erected and endowed by John Pollen, Esq., for educating twenty poor children. This establishment is now incorporated with the National School, supported by additional subscriptions, in which 250 children are educated.
The town-hall is a handsome stone building with a Grecian front, supported by arches; the under part is used as a market-house. It was erected within these few years. The corporation is said to be as ancient as the time of John; but the present charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth. Andover first returned members to Parliament in the time of Edward I.; but the right was lost, or disused, from the first year of Edward II., to the twenty-seventh year of Queen Elizabeth, when they were again sent, and have since been regularly returned. Before the passing of the Reform Bill, the right of election was in the corporation, which was considered to be under the influence of the Earl of Portsmouth. By the Boundary Act connected with the Reform Bill, the tything of Foxcote was added to the Borough, which had previously included the parishes of Andover and Knight's Enham. The population of the whole was, in 1831, 4966.
The chief business of the town consists in malting, and in the manufacture of silk, which has lately superseded that of shalloon, the former staple. A considerable quantity of timber is forwarded from Harewood forest to Portsmouth, by means of the canal from this town, through Stockbridge, to Southampton water. The market is on Saturday; and there are three fairs in the year.
About three miles west of the town, at the village of Weyhill, is held one of the largest fairs in England. This fair begins on the 10th of October, and continues for six days. It is thus described in Magna Britannia Hibernia, a survey of Great Britain, published in 1720. This fair is reckoned to be as great an one as any in England, for many commodities, and for sheep, indisputably the biggest, the farmers coming out of the south, north, and east to buy the Dorsetshire ewes here. It is also a great hop and cheese fair, the former being brought out of Sussex and Kent, and the latter out of Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Somersetshire. The above account of the chief articles of trade, will apply with little alteration to the present day. The sale of sheep, though the favourite breed may be different, is still great: more than 140,000 have been sold on the first day. The Farnham hops, the choicest of any grown in England, are chiefly sold here, and a place appropriated to their sale, bears the name of Farnham Row. Many horses, particularly cart colts, are also sold.
During this fair, assemblies are held in the town-hall at Andover.
Near Andover, there are the remains of some Roman encampments, especially one on the summit of Bury Hill, a mile or two south-west of the town; and some beautiful specimens of Roman pavement have been found in the neighbourhood. (Warner's Hampshire; Beauties of England and Wales.)
ANDOVER, a town in the state of Massachusetts, United States, about twenty miles direct distance N. by W. of Boston, and about two miles from the southern bank of the Merrimack river. It is also watered by the Shawsheen. Andover is divided into three parishes, and has some inconsiderable manufactures. The north parish contains the Franklin Academy, and the south parish the Theological Seminary, and Phillips's Academy. The Theological Seminary opened in 1808; it has four professors and (in 1831) 139 students, with a library of 10,000 volumes. The whole number that has been educated here was (in 1831) 514. This establishment has acquired some celebrity f om the impulse it has given to the study of Hebrew in the United States. The population of Andover in 1820, was 3889. (Encyclop. American.; Journal of Education, Nos. I., xi.)
ANDRE' (ST.), or ST. ENDRE', the capital of a lordship in Hungary, in the circle called the Hither Danube, and in the department of Pesth; the number of its inha bitants scarcely exceeds 3000. Their chief support is
derived from the cultivation of the vine. The eastern Christians, who are in number about 1000, have seven churches in the town; which gives an average of scarcely more than 157 persons to each church. This singular circumstance originated in the immigration of the Servians under Leopold I., each sect of whom founded their own place of worship.
ANDRE' (JOHN), appears to have been a native of Lichfield, and to have been born there in 1751. In 1769 he met at Buxton a Miss Honoria S- —, and the consequence was an immediate attachment, which became one of remarkable devotedness on his part, and which would seem to have been also returned by the lady. Her friends, however, interfered, and she was induced not only to discon tinue her correspondence with André, but some years after to give her hand to another. Meanwhile André had become a clerk in a commercial house in London. But on receiving intelligence of Miss S.'s marriage he determined to quit both his profession and his country, and having procured a commission in the army, he proceeded with his regiment to North America, then the seat of war between Great Britain and her colonies. In this new field of enterprise his talents and accomplishments soon raised him to distinction ; and he attained the rank of major, with the appointment of adjutant-general to the North American army. In the summer of 1780 Major André was with the troops which occupied the town of New York under the command of General Sir Henry Clinton, when the infamous Arnold, who had been entrusted by Washington with the important position of West Point on the Hudson, about 60 miles above New York, sent over to the British commander his proposals for delivering that fortress into his hands-a scheme which, if it had succeeded, might not improbably have put an end to the war. On Arnold's overtures being accepted, André was appointed to conduct the negotiation with him. After some correspondence under feigned names, André and Arnold met on the banks of the Hudson on Friday the 22d of September, when everything was arranged for the execution of the plot on the following Monday, and the necessary information in writing was put into André's hands to be delivered to General Clinton. Unfortunately for André, the boatmen who had brought him on shore from the English sloop of war in which he had come up the river, having had their suspicions or fears awakened, refused, although he bore a flag of truce from General Arnold, to convey him back, and he was obliged to determine upon attempting to make his way to New York by land. Arnold, to whom he returned, insisted, in these circumstances, that he should exchange his military uniform for a plain coat; and to this André reluctantly consented. A person of the name of Smith was then sent away with him as his guide, and they set out together; but when they reached the next post, they found themselves obliged, in order to prevent suspicion, to follow the advice of the commanding officer, and to remain there for the night. Next morning they proceeded on their journey, and Smith having conducted his charge till they had come within view of the English lines, left him a little below Pine's Bridge, a village on the Croton. André rode on alone for about four leagues farther, when as he was entering the village of Jarrytown, his horse was suddenly taken hold of by three men, who turned out to belong to the New York militia. With unaccountable imprudence, André assumed that they were of the English party, and instead of producing his passport desired them not to detain him, as he was a British officer. When he found his mistake, he endeavoured to induce them to let him go by the offer of his watch and the most tempting promises; but the men were not to be bribed, and having found the important papers of which he was the bearer concealed in his boots, they immediately conducted him to the nearest station. His first anxiety now was for the safety of Arnold; and he contrived to prevail upon the officer in command, who must have been a person of very little perspicacity, to forward a notice of his capture to that general, by which the traitor obtained the opportunity of escaping with his life. Having secured this point André now stated who he was, on which he was conducted to the presence of General Washington at Tappan or Orange Town. On the 25th, his case was submitted by the American general to the consideration of a board of fourteen general officers, among whom were Rochambeau and Lafayette, who had recently arrived with the troops from France. Before this tribunal, André urged that he had come on shore under the sanction of a passport, or flag of truce, transmitted to him by Arnold,
who was, at the time of granting it, a major-general in the American army, and of course had sufficient authority so to act. But the circumstance of his having been found disguised and bearing a false name was considered as taking from him the benefit of this plea, although he proved that in both these points he had acted in obedience to the commands of Arnold, under whose orders he was while he bore his flag of truce. The decision of the court-martial, though the members do not appear to have been unanimous, as has sometimes been asserted, was that the prisoner ought to be considered as a spy; and he was accordingly sentenced to be executed. Both entreaties and remonstrances were employed in vain by General Clinton to avert his fate; but as retaliation was not taken by the execution of any American prisoner, it may be inferred that it was felt even by the English that his sentence was according to the rules of martial-law. He himself exhibited the most perfect resignation to his fate, and does not after his condemnation appear to have disputed the justice of the decision under which he was to suffer. He only begged that his death might be that of a soldier. He was kept in ignorance of the determination of the court-martial upon this point; but when upon being brought to the fatal spot, on the morning of the 2d of October, he perceived that he was to perish on a gibbet, he exclaimed, 'It is but a momentary pang, and gave no further expression to his feelings. He died with the respect even of those who had found themselves obliged to execute him. 'André,' said Washington, in a letter to a friend, has met his fate, and with that fortitude which was expected from an accomplished man and a gallant officer. A monument was erected to his memory, at the public expense, in Westminster Abbey.
Whatever the books which are considered the standard authorities upon international law may say in reference to such a case as that of André, there is no good apology for his conduct. To say that he acted under the orders of an officer whom he knew to be playing the part of a traitor, cannot be considered as any exculpation. There would be no security for an army or a government if it were not to be at liberty, when it had them in its power, to punish persons detected in devising such plots as this of Arnold and André, under whatever subterfuge they might attempt to shelter themselves. The having recourse to the use of a flag of truce, in such circumstances, must be regarded as a nere trick General Clinton and Arnold were the great culprits, of whom the latter only has received his due share of opprobrium.
To his last moment André had cherished the hopeless passion which had driven him from his country and his early pursuits. In a letter written after his capture, which has been printed, he states that when he was stript of everything, he had concealed the picture of Honoria S in his mouth. This lady, although it does not appear that he had been informed of the event, had died of consumption only a few months before,
This unfortunate officer was a person of cultivated mind and elegant accomplishments. He excelled in painting and music, and was also no despicable writer of verse. His humorous poem, entitled the Cow-chase, which appeared in three successive portions at New York, in 1780, the last being published on the very day on which its author was taken prisoner, is a production of decided talent. It is in the style of Cowper's John Gilpin, which celebrated poem was not written till some years later. For further particulars respecting the subject of this notice, see Miss Seward's Monody on the Death of Major André, 4to., London, 1781, from the notes and letters attached to which we have taken most of the facts of his private history; a pub lication by Joshua Hett Smith, Esq., (the person who acted as his guide on his return to New York,) entitled An Authentic Narrative of the Causes which led to the Death of Major André, 8vo., London, 1808; and an elaborate article in the Encyclopædia Americana, under the head of 'Arnold, Benedict.
afterwards attained. His powers were first developed in some works executed in conjunction with a friend and fellow-student, called Francesco Bigio, for the churches and convents of Florence; but the great picture of St. John preaching, entirely by his own hand, established his claim to independent reputation, and it was considered that the work which immediately followed, the life of Filippo Benizi, in ten compartments, for the church of the Servi, entitled him to rank with any competitor in his native city. Stimulated by this success, Andrea felt anxious to try his strength with his great contemporaries at Rome, and accordingly made a visit to that city. Vasari relates, that, on seeing the paintings of Raffaelle, he felt so humiliated, that he returned immediately to Florence, without staying to investigate the great works which had impressed him with so painful a sense of inferiority. Other authorities affirm that he remained in the imperial city a considerable time, dividing his attention between the study of Michel Angelo, Raffaelle, and the Antique; this account is by far the more probable, especially as the first works which he executed after his return to Florence manifest an obvious improvement in style. Among these, the most conspicuous were the Descent of the Holy Ghost, the Birth of the Virgin, and the Last Supper, painted for the monastery of the Salvi, Of the last picture Lanzi relates, that during the siege of Florence, in 1529, the soldiers having got possession of the suburbs, and having demolished the church and part of the monastery, on entering the refectory were struck with such reverence at the sight of the painting, that they remained awhile motionless, and then returned, without committing any further injury.
The increasing reputation of Andrea del Sarto procured him an invitation from Francis I. to visit the court of France, and that monarch expressed a wish to retain him altogether in his service. The political troubles of his own country, which rendered the pursuit of art a precarious and unprofitable employment, induced Andrea to embrace with eagerness the proposal of the French monarch, and he set out for his court, where he was received with the most flattering demonstrations of kindness and respect. His first performance was a portrait of the Dauphin, for which he was paid the sum of 300 gold crowns; he painted also for the king the superb picture of the Charity, which is now in the French museum. A multitude of commissions poured in upon him from the principal nobility, and every circumstance seemed to conspire for his honour and advantage. He was engaged on a picture of St. Jerome for the queenmother, when in an evil hour he was induced by earnest solicitations, sent by his wife and friends from Florence, to return to that city. He obtained permission from Francis I. to depart, on the assurance that the sole purpose of his journey was to transport his family to France; and the king, being desirous to avail himself of Andrea's taste and judgment in the acquisition of works of art, intrusted him with large sums for the purchase of pictures and statues. Andrea was perhaps, originally, neither profligate nor unprincipled; but his character was impaired by that want of moral firmness, which, beginning in weakness, too often ends in vice. His wife was improvident, and he was surrounded by dissipated acquaintances; and he expended in a round of expensive pleasures, not only the money with which Francis I. had liberally rewarded his services, but that also which the monarch had consigned to him for the purpose of selecting object. for his museum. Of course, he never returned to France. Indigence came upon him, and the remorse with which he was continually tormented from the consciousness of ingratitude towards his royal benefactor, was aggravated, not only by the desertion of his gay friends, but by that of his wife also, who fled from him, leaving him a prey to despondency and distress. His afflictions were terminated by the plague which visited Florence in 1530, and carried him off in his forty-second year.
The genuine productions of Andrea del Sarto are not frequently seen out of Florence, but they abound in the ANDREA VANNUCHI, called DEL SARTO, from churches, convents, and palaces of that city. His style is the occupation of his father, a tailor at Florence, was born so various that it is difficult to say what was the natural bent in that city, in the year 1488. He was initiated in the of his mind. He was not incapable, when the subject deprinciples of design by Giovanni Barile, and he studied sub-manded it, of impressing his works with an air of stern sequently in the school of Pietro Cosimo. He learned little more from these masters than the mechanical practice of his art, but in the frescoes of Masaccio and Ghirlandaijo, and in the cartoons of Michel Angelo and Leonardo da Vinci he found the principal elements of whatever excellence he
grandeur, whether in relation to the style of design, or to the effect of chiar oscuro; but his more general characteristics are those of harmony and suavity; his colouring is sometines most delicately tender. He was so expert in mechanical practice, that a copy made by him of a portrait
of Leo X., by Raffaelle, deceived even Giulio Romano, | quitted his post when the war broke out again between although he had inspected the progress of the original, Austria and France in 1809, he was present in the campaign and had even assisted in the execution of it. One of of that year, and was appointed governor of Vienna after the most pleasing of Andrea del Sarto's pictures, although the taking of that city. He was next sent as ambassador to by no means an example of his general style, is that of the Ottoman Porte, in which important situation he won the Holy Family, now in the Louvre at Paris, in which the general esteem of both Franks and Turks. After the St. Joseph reposes on a sack of corn. The panegyrists abdication of Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII. recalled Anof Andrea have asserted that if he had studied longer dreossi from Constantinople, and sent him at the same time in Rome, he would probably have rivalled the great the cross of St. Louis. Andreossi was living in retirement works of Raffaelle and Michel Angelo; but without con- when Napoleon landed from Elba, but he then appeared ceding such extravagant praise, it is quite enough for his again on the political stage to assist his old master in his reputation that he established it while those great artists last struggle. He was created a peer during the hundred were still practising, and that his name has kept its place days. After the battle of Waterloo he withdrew again to amidst all the revolutions of taste, during a lapse of three private life, and busied himself in revising and publishing hundred years. several interesting memoirs which he had written during his residence in Turkey. His work on Constantinople et le Bosphore de Thrace is deservedly esteemed. His memoir On the Springs and Conduits by which Constantinople is supplied with Water, contains much curious information on the art of hydraulics as practised by the Turks. Andreossi had written also in 1810 a History of the Canal of Languedoc, in which he claimed for one of his ancestors, François Andreossi, the principal merit in the planning of that great work, which had till then heen ascribed to the engineer Riquet. This book was the occasion of much controversy with Riquet's descendants, in which the astronomer, De la Lande, sided with the latter. Count Andreossi died in September, 1828, at Montauban.
ANDREASBERG, (Mount of St. Andrew,) the second in importance of the mountain-towns of the Upper-Harz, is situated in the province of Grubenhagen, in the kingdom of Hanover, and crowns an eminence which stands at an elevation of 1936 feet above the level of the sea. The neighbourhood is rich in mines, yielding silver, copper, iron, cobalt, and arsenic; and these, as well as the spinning of yarn, lace-making, and the rearing of cattle, afford profitable employment to its inhabitants, who are above 4000 in number. It has a public school for the middling classes. In 1728 a piece of silver ore, weighing eighty pounds, was found in one of the mines near the town, and presented to the Cabinet of Natural History in Göttingen, from which it was, however, stolen in 1783. Andreasberg lies about fifteen miles north of Goslar. The mountain of this name is the highest point in the Harz at which slate is found.
ANDREEWA, (also called Endery or Endri,) is a principality of the Kumükian Tartars, lying along the Kasma, between the river Aksai and the Caspian; about 25 miles west of the last-mentioned sea. It forms at present one of the districts composing the government of Caucasia in Russia in Asia, and embraces the peninsula and gulf of Agraschanskoi. Its surface presents an intermixture of fertile plains and arid wastes of sand; produces grain, and abounds in mineral waters and springs of naphtha. Andreewa is likewise the name given to its capital, and is the mart to which the Lesghian tribes resort for the purpose of disposing of the produce of their depredations. It is an open town situated on the Aktash, at the foot of Mount Tshumlu, and contains upwards of 3000 houses, with a population, which is stated by some writers at 12,000, and by others at 15,000 souls. Andreewa was, not long since, an avowed asylum for all the vagabonds and freebooters in the Caucasian regions, and is to this day a thriving market for the sale of slaves. In this last respect it runs a miserable race of competition with the town of Aksai, on the river of that name and in the same principality. It is the seat of some Mohammedan schools, to which the Circassian Mollahs are sent for education. Though little deserving the name of education, yet the smattering of reading and writing which they here acquire, is sufficient to furnish them, upon their return amongst their fellow-countrymen, with the means of keeping the tenets and prejudices of Mohammedanism alive in their bosoms, and thus maintaining a wall of separation between the native and his heretic fellow-subject of the Greek faith. ANDREOSSI, COUNT, was born at Castelnaudary in the province of Languedoc, in March, 1761. His family was of Italian descent. At the age of twenty he was made lieutenant of artillery. In the beginning of the French revolution he shared in the general enthusiasm for the new order of things, and he afterwards served under Bonaparte in the early Italian campaigns, where he distinguished himself at the siege of Mantua, in 1796. He next followed Bonaparte to Egypt, where he took a conspicuous part both in the military and the scientific labours of that celebrated expedition. He was appointed a member of the Institute of Cairo, and wrote several memoirs, On the Lake Menzaleh, On the Valley of the Natron Lake, On the Waterless River, &c. When Bonaparte returned secretly to France, Andreossi was one of the few officers who accompanied him, and he ever after proved devoted to the fortunes of his great commander. Andreossi served in the so-called Gallo-Batavian army under Augereau on the banks of the Mayne. After the peace of Amiens he was sent as ambassador to England. When Napoleon assumed the imperial crown, Andreossi was made inspector-general of artillery, and a count of the new empire. He went afterwards as ambassador to Vienna, and having
ANDREW, kings of Hungary. [See HUNGARY.] ANDREW, SAINT, one of the apostles, the brother of St. Peter. His father's name was Janus. From the first chapter of St. John's Gospel, he appears to have been one of the followers of John the Baptist, whom he left at the call of Jesus, being the first disciple whom the Saviour is recorded to have received. Andrew introduced Peter to Jesus. According to St. Matthew and St. Mark, Jesus found Peter and Andrew together, following their occupation of fishermen, as he was walking by the sea of Galilee, and called them, when they immediately left their nets and followed him; but this is supposed to have happened some time after the first interview recorded by St. John. That evangelist mentions Andrew as the disciple who intimated the presence of the lad with the few loaves and fishes, when the miracle of feeding the five thousand was performed. Such is nearly all that is stated respecting this apostle in Scripture.
The ecclesiastical historians, however, have professed to give us accounts in considerable detail of the latter part of his life. According to Theodoret, he employed himself for some years in journeying and preaching the faith throughout Greece; but Eusebius, and other writers, speak of Scythia as the province of his missionary labours. The common statement, however, is, that he suffered martyrdom at Patræ, now Patras, in Achaia, having been put to death by order of Egæus, the pro-consul of that province. The year in which this event took place is not mentioned; but both in the Greek and in the Latin church the festival commemorative of it is held on the 30th of November. The notion that St. Andrew suffered on a cross of the form of the letter X, appears to be of considerable antiquity; but the oldest writers say that he was nailed to an olivetree. They used to keep, in the church of St. Victor, at Marseilles, what was affirmed to be the very cross on which he had been suspended; it was enclosed in a silver shrine, and was of the common form, that is, with one limb perpendicular, and the other horizontal.
The Scottish historian, Fordun, delivers a legend respect. ing the relics of St. Andrew, which several of his countrymen have copied. In the middle of the fourth century, it seems, the bones of the saint, which still remained at Patræ, were in the custody of Regulus, an abbot, or, as other accounts style him, a bishop, of the Greek church. In the year 345, the Emperor Constantius II. gave orders that these precious remains should be brought to Constantinople; but on the third night before they were removed, an angel appeared in a vision to Regulus, and ordered him to abstract from the chest in which they were kept the upper bone of one of the arms, three of the fingers of the right hand, and the pan of one of the knees. Some accounts add a tooth to the list of items. Regulus having done as he was commanded, was, some years after, directed by another vision to take his departure, with the relics, from Patræ; and, having accordingly set out, he was, after