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beneficial institution; can secure it from the abuses and evils attendant on superfluous legislation, can enable it to protect equally men of every rank, and to combine public order with facilities for individual exertion. Nor can any thing short of sound Philosophy be the sole instructor of communities, as to where their true strength and riches will be found; or give them timely warning of the injustice and ruinous tendency of those regulations which fetter commercial enterprize, and of those fiscal systems which press with disproportionate weight on the labouring classes of Society.
To Philological studies the title of Learning has sometimes been almost exclusively applied: without and against reason, if nothing more is intended by Philology than the knowledge of words, as far as it can be gained from Grammars and Lexicons; with little or no impropriety, however, if the demands, affinities and comprehension of such pursuits be taken into account. Universal and Philosophical Grammar, Rhetoric, Oratory, Composition, whether in prose or verse, the principles and exercise of Criticism on literary productions, the History of Science and Literature—these, and the various studies which they suppose, are the growth of a just Philology: they cannot exist without it: and they largely contribute to its correctness and utility, and therefore, in the eyes of capable judges, to its high distinction.
I might easily point out its intimate connexion with the branches of Learning which remain to be considered. Thus, Civil History both aids philological investigations, and has received from them new light, authority and value. Even if this alliance had not been previously confessed, the labours of Niebuhr, and of other scholars on the continent, would have placed the fact beyond a doubt. But who can enumerate the departments of knowledge which a good historian should be intimately conversant with, and to which his readers likewise should not be strangers, if they are desirous of fully profiting by his writings ? Geography, Chronology, Antiquities, Biography, Political Philosophy (in the largest sense of the words), are only a few of these: other qualifications being equal, he will rank first among historians, whose knowledge of Man, and of all pertaining to him, is at once the most extensive and the most correct. By consequence, there is no territory in the realms of Learning, which does not maintain a close and friendly alliano with History. The knowledge thus conveyed, is of unspeakable moment, in both its nature and degree; so that he who communicates it, must be proportionally careful in verifying his authorities, and diligent in traversing the ample circle within which they are to be explored.
In a paper that aims at illustrating the extent and relations of Knowledge, and in the Periodical Work to which it is offered, Theology cannot be forgotten. I am unwilling to consider this sort of learning as exclusively professional. In a country styling itself Christian, Theology, or an exact acquaintance with the Records of Revelation, ought to be generally cultivated and encouraged. At least, it should be put on a footing with medical and legal knowledge, by its being taught with impartiality and fairness. That division of labour which the wants of Society call for, will however make it expedient to edu
cate individuals with an immediate view to the office of public religious instructors : and in these we may reasonably expect a superior acquaintance with Thcology. There is no part of either Science or Literature, that has not some bearing upon the studies which they should more directly pursue. If they are to be good judges of evidence, they must not despise either Mathematics or Logic: if they are to know the works of God, and the principles of Natural Religion, here, again, Science has powerful claims upon their time and thoughts. When they unfold the volume of Revelation, Philology, in all its extent, offers them its needful assistance; but will offer it in vain, if they have not previously acquired a knowledge of the languages in which the Scriptures were originally framed. Then, if to these and congenial attainments we add the study of Antiquities, of the History of the Church and of Divinity, * both doctrinal and practical, we shall be sensible that Theological Literature has a vast number of relations to Learning generally, and may receive almost perpetual accessions. But
my induction must now be concluded. However imperfect, I trust that it will have served the purpose of shewing what we are to understand by Knowledge, and by New Knowledge.
Dugald Stewart, when speaking of the improvement of the Memory, borrows Maclaurin's sentiment in the motto, but expresses it with some difference of language : “the accession,” he says, made to the stock of our knowledge by the new facts and ideas which we acquire, is not to be estimated merely by the number of those facts and ideas considered individually, but by the number of relations which they bear to one another, and to all the different particulars which were previously in the mind."
Thus there are facts and ideas without number, which Man can make himself the possessor of: and the mutual and common relations of them cannot be easily computed or described. If we now inquire, under what laws, and by what means, he converts his acquaintance with objects so many and various into “new Knowledge," and causes it to enlarge the portion of what he had already gained, we must answer, “Habit and Association:" Habit, our second nature, as to our bodily and moral and intellectual frame-and the Association of Ideas, which has the same attractive power in the mental that is attributed to Gravity in the material world.
Pleasant as the cultivation of any separate branch of Knowledge is, and useful as a relief from distressing cares, and a preservative from low pursuits, a far higher end should, nevertheless, be contemplated-I mean, the improvement of the mind, and, through this, of the heart and character. Gibbon f has well remarked that “Many detached parcels of knowledge cannot form a whole;" and that “ The use of our reading is to aid us in thinking.” These observations are confirmed by such views of accessions of Knowledge in an individual mind as I have attempted to unfold. They, at the same time, intimate the
* It will be convenient to understand by this word,“ the writings of Theologians.” + Elements, &c., [8vo, 1802,] Ch. vi. ŕ 3.
Misc. Works, [1814,1 Vol. V. 209.
reasons of Learning and Wisdom being often disjoined from each other, and the way in which they may be brought into a mutual and indissoluble alliance. A man, assuredly, may read too much, if he do not read with care and judgment. Reflection and accurate comparison cannot safely be laid aside. It is owing to the absence of them that one class of persons in the literary and philosophical world behold nothing but resemblances - another class, nothing but diversities; and that both are equally mistaken.
It is submitted to the reader, whether the state and prospects of Knowledge among us, are not fitted to enlarge our conceptions of the Divine Government; whether the capacity of the mind for vast stores of Knowledge, and the manner in which it acquires them, do not bespeak Intelligence and Goodness“ beyond thought"? If we are humbled, as it is proper we should be, by the consciousness of how little we actually know, let us still be grateful that provision is made, both in our circumstances and in our mental frame, for our knowing more hereafter than we do at present. Unless our own negligence hinder it, the means and the process of enlarged and enlarging Knowledge will extend throughout our being.
I cannot perhaps so suitably conclude this paper as by again referring to the masterly writer who has suggested the topic of it. Before he arrives at the valuable inference that (agreeably to his definition of New Knowledge) "our knowledge is vastly greater than the sum of what all its objects separately could afford; and when a new object comes within our reach, the addition to our knowledge is the greater, the more we already know; so that it increases not as the new objects increase, but in a much higher proportion,”*-he speaks of our present state as “only the dawn or beginning of our existence; a state of preparation for further advancement."
You came, dear friends, from India's distant shore,
Virtue, the pure sunshine of the breast.”.
Maclaurin's Account of Sir I. Newton's Discoveries, sub fin. The work was posthumous, nor quite completed; as it breaks off with one of the sentences that I have been quoting. It cannot be too diligently studied : and the sixth section of the ninth chapter, in particular, is of the highest excellence.
THE ANTI-PUSEYITE. PART I,
OTHER ULTRA-HIGH-CHURCHMEN, WHICH SEEM INCONSISTENT WITH GENUINE
PERUSAL OF THE FOLLOWING TRACTS, viz.
“ I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon; but let every man take heed how he buildeth thereon.” St. Paul to the Corinthians, 1st Epist., chap. iii, ver. 10.) * Teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.” (St. Mark, ch. vii. ver. 7.)
Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition.” (Id. ver. 13.) “ This is that spirit of Antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come.' (1st Epist. St. John, ch. iv. ver. 3.)
"Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it should be believed as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation." (Articles of the Church of England—the Sixth.)
The above Article is of the very essence of true Protestantism, as every sect of it will, I presume, freely admit, however inconsistent with it the opinions and conduct of some of them may be. But the question, “What is the doctrine of Holy Scripture ?" must occur to every thinking, serious person, since such various and opposite views of it have been taken by persons apparently equally capable of judging and equally desirous of learning the truth. Providence might, doubtless, have made the truth so clear, that no one could mistake. But, for wise and, I think, obvious reasons, this has not been done. What, then, are we to do? Clearly, we should use every mode of seeking truth which Providence has placed within our reach, in a teachable disposition and a humble reliance on divine assistance. Amongst these, Tradition may, possibly, afford some light; and if it could really give us the certain knowledge of the whole doctrine preached by Jesus Christ and the inspired apostles without the possibility of error, there could be no further doubt as to the meaning of the Scriptures, since the written word of the inspired penmen must agree with the same word as preached by inspired men. If even the doctrines held universally, or nearly so, by the primitive Christians in the succeeding ages-suppose in the two first centuries after the apostolic age-it these doctrines could be ascertained with certainty, a less, but still a great, degree of confidence might be placed in them as the truth. In the third and following centuries, all kinds of doctrines prevailed to such a degree as to make it quite uncertain what the or
nal faith had been. After the separation between the eastern and western churches, the mecting of the Council of Trent, and the decided predominance of the latter church, the Scriptures soon became a sealed book to the laity, and no other doctrine was tolerated
but such as it pleased the Church of Rome to favour. At length that church became so manifestly corrupt in discipline and morals as well as in doctrine, that a separation from her communion took place, the Scriptures were again opened to the laity, Protestantism was established on the basis of the sufficiency of the Scriptures for salvation, as the rule of faith, with the right of private judgment to the laity, as well as the clergy, for its interpretation. And this was found emi. nently beneficial to the intellectual, moral and really religious improvement of Christendom. (See on this subject “ Villiers's Essay on the Spirit and Influence of the Reformation by Luther.”) But now, in the oscillation of human affairs, a small sect has arisen,* (some of them professing their abhorrence of the very name of Protestant,) who, not content with the Scriptures for the rule of faith, as interpreted by private judgment, maintain virtually, if not in so many words, the Popish doctrine of the “necessity of an infallible living guide in matters of faith.” This inference I draw from the following consideration. Tradition, they say, and the knowledge of the primitive faith, are necessary to the right interpretation of Scripture; and as such knowledge, it is inferred, could be ascertained only by the clergy, they, in fact, would then be the only living and sure guides to its right interpretation. And Scripture would then become, as before, a sealed book to all but themselves, as much as if never translated from the learned languages at all. Thus, then, it seems that these men (probably without knowing it) are in the high road to Popery. And if any Papists in disguise were desirous of superseding the Protestant religion, this would be their wisest course of proceeding. The above facts and inferences seem to me abundantly clear. Let us examine the subject more in detail, beginning with Professor Keble’s Sermon. The introductory pages, as far as p. 16, contain little or nothing remarkable, except a laboured attempt to prove, what every one will admit, that the “deposit" entrusted by St. Paul to Timothy was the true doctrine, about which it was reasonable that the apostle should feel anxious at his approaching departure, because, not being embodied in writing, its preservation depended on the faithful, unimpaired transmission of it in succession. In this page, the writer's predilection for creeds leads him to the idle fancy, that the phrase "good confession" must of necessity mean the Apostles' Creed (as it is called, on very slender evidence). Well would it have been, however, had Christians been contented with this simple confession, instead of imposing on their brethren the burthen of implicitly believing their own unauthorized system, as expressed in the Nicene and, still worse, the Athanasian Creed. In page 20, Mr. Keble concludes that the “ deposit” was the treasure of apostolical doctrines and church rules. Well, what then? Why the question is, whether we have yet“ the identical deposit which St. Paul left to Timothy"? Does the Professor imagine that he can find it in the 39 Articles, or either of the Creeds Tradition cannot prove this, although he imagines that the "deposit” contained, “ besides the substance of Christian doctrine, a certain form, arrangement, selection, methodizing the whole.” It might be so, certainly, but where is the proof of it?
Jesus I know, and Paul I know, but who are ye?” (Acts xix. 15.)