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Q. 10. Why are the angels called by these names?

A. They are called spirits, because immaterial, and invisible;—angels, because agents, deputies or messengers of Jehovah;-cherubim, because of their extensive knowledge;-seraphim, because of their holy zeal and love; -- watchers, because of their vigilance and care;-morning stars, because of their splendid nature and early creation;-sons of God, because they bear the impress of His image; thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers, because of the exalted dignity of their nature, high elevation of character, and sublime employments.

Q. 11. What is the employment of holy angels? A. They are employed by God in the administration of the affairs of the world, especially in ministering to them, who shall be heirs of salvation. They will accompany and assist Christ in the transactions of the great day of judgment, and they do now, and forever will, unite with the spirits of just men made perfect, in the worship of heaven. But they cannot, in all respects, and to the same degree, as the saints, join in the song of Moses and the Lamb; for they themselves never felt the stings of sin and guilt, and never tasted the sweetness of pardoning and saving mercy (*) begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him. Ezek. 10, 19. And the cherubims lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight. Isa. 6. 2. Above it stood the seraphims; each one had six wings; with twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. Dan. 4. 17. This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones. Job 38. 7. When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy? Col. 1. 16. For by him were all things created that are in heaven and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him, and for him.

(h) Ps. 34. 7. The angel of the Lord encampeth round about then that fear him, and delivereth them. Heb. 1. 14.

Q. 12. How should we feel and conduct towards holy angels?

Å. We should love them for their amiableness, feel grateful for their benevolent conduct towards us, respect them for their dignity and worth, and imitate them in all things imitable by us.

Q. 13. Is there any Saviour provided for the apostate angels?

A. There is none; and consequently they must perish forever. They are now in utter despair and sorrows, being reserved in chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day (1)

Q. 14. What are the fallen angels usually called in Scripture?

A. They are usually called devils. The one, who is represented as having been an angel of preeminent distinction, and as the first in rebellion, and who is at the head of apostate angels, is called by other names, such as Satan, Dragon, Serpent, Angel of the bottomless pit, Abaddon, Apollyon, Accuser of the brethren, Lucifer, Beelzebub, Prince of Devils, Prince of the power of the air, and ġod of this world.()

Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation. Matt. 24. 31. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. Rev. 7. 11, And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders, and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces and worshipped God.

(i) Jude 6. And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day.

(i) James 2. 19. Thou believest that there is one God; thou dost well: the devils, also, believe and tremble. Job 1. 12. And the Lord said unto Satan, Beholdt all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord. Rev. 12. 9. And the great Dragon was cast out, that old Serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world, he was cast out into the earth, and his angels

Q. 15. Are the apostate angels represented in the Scriptures as having an agency in this world?

A. They are. Though invisible, they greatly exert themselves, and do much mischief in leading mankind into sin. Satan tempted Eve, tempted Christ, and instigated Judas to betray his Master. He is spoken of more frequently in the Bible, than any other single agent except God the Father, the Saviour, and the Holy Ghost, and always, as engaged in evil devices or works.(k)

Q. 16. What is the number of fallen angels?
Å. It is immensely large.(0)

Q. 17. Ought the scriptural account of the devils to be believed?

were cast out with him. Rev. 9. 11. And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. Rev. 12. 10. Ard I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the


of his Christ; for the Accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. Isa. 14. 12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! Matt. 12. 24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub, the Prince of the devils. Eph. 2. 2. Wherein in time past, ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the Prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. Cor. 2. 4. In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not.

(k) Gen. 3. 13. And the Lord God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The Serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. Matt. 4. 1. Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wilderness, to be tempted of the Devil. John 13. 2. And Supper being ended, (the Devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son to betray him.) 1. Pet. 5. 8. Be sober, be vigilant; because your Adversary the Devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whoin he may devour. Luke 22. 31. And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat.

(1) Mark 5. 9. And he asked him what is thy name. And he answered saying, My name is Legion; for we are many.

A. It ought most assuredly. There is nothing absurd in it. We can conceive of devils as easily, and as clearly as we can of God, of holy angels, or of any invisible being whatever. There is no reason for rejecting it. On the contrary, we should believe it, because it is the account which God has given, because there is the same reason to believe it, that there is to believe the account of holy angels, and because it is very particularly intermixed with the history of Jesus Christ.

Q. 18. What is the consequence of a denial of this doctrine of fallen angels?

A. It leads to infidelity—to the rejection of the main truths of the gospel, viz. the fall of man, recovery by Jesus Christ, the day of judgment, and final retribution.

Q. 19. How ought we to feel and conduct, towards apostate angels?

A. We ought to hate their character, to condemn all their conduct, to fear their evil devices, to resist their wicked temptations, and to flee their unholy examples.


Creation and Primitive State of man.

Q. 1. When did God create man?

A. At the close, or on the latter part, of the sixth day from the commencement of the creation of the world. He was the last of God's created works.(a)

Q. 2. In what state did God create mankind?

Å. He created them male and female, and in His own image, that is, intelligent and holy, and thus resembling, in a degree, their Creator in his natural and moral perfections;—He created them in the state of manhood, in full vigour of body and mind, in perfect felicity, and but little inferiour, in nature, or order, to the angels, and made them capable of perpetual progression in knowledge, holiness, and happiness.(b)

Q. 3. Is man a simple, or a compound being?

(a) See the first chapter of Genesis.

(b) Gen. 1. 27. So God created man in his own image; in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Eccl. 7. 29. Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions. Eph. 4. 24. And that ye put on the new man which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. Gen. 1. 28. and God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing, that moveth upon the earth. Ps. 8. 5. For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour.

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