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sway. "Sir George Warren," say Cumber- the intelligence of my spirits deceives land, who also was present, "had his Order snatched off his ribbon, encircled with diamonds to the value of 7007. Foote was there and lays it upon the parsons, having secured, as he says, his gold snuff box in his waistcoat pocket upon seeing so many black gowns in the room.”
He reached Dover on his way to France on the 20th October, 1777, attended by one servant. He had suffered much fatigue on the journey, and next morning at breakfast was seized with a shivering fit, under which he sank in three hours. Jewel had at once In May, 1777, he played at the Haymar- been sent for, and arrived only to take charge ket for the last time, in the Devil on Two of the body for removal to London. But beSticks. Cooke saw him, and says his cheeks fore he left Dover he wished to leave some were lank and withered, his eyes had lost memorial there of the death of a man so cetheir fire, and his person was sunk and ema- lebrated, and this faithful servant and treaciated. A few days later he left town for surer, who had been for years in attendance Dover, not without the presentiment that he on him, who knew all his weakness, all his would never return. He had a choice col- foibles, all that most intimately reveals a lection of pictures in Suffolk-street, among man's nature in the hard money business of them a fine portrait of the incomparable the world, could think of nothing more apcomedian, Weston, who had died the preced-propriate for his epitaph in the church of St. ing year; and on the day before his journey, Mary than to express how liberal he was in after examining them all in a way wholly spending what too many men use all their unusual with him, he suddenly stopped as he care to keep, and he therefore ordered to be was leaving the room, went up again to Wes- cut upon the marble nothing about his ton's picture, and, after a steady and silent humor or his genius, about his writing or gaze at it for some minutes, exclaimed with his acting, but that he had a "hand open as tears in his voice, "Poor Weston!" and then day to melting charity." And so we may turning to Jewel, with what sounded as a leave him. He lies in the cloisters of Westtone of sad reproach for his own fancied se- minster Abbey, without any memorial either curity, "it will very soon be poor Foote, or in stone or marble.
COSTUME IN FRANCE. It is curious to observe the remarkable change in fashions and taste that has taken place since the Empire. Nearly all the exquisite simplicity which was the characteristic of female dress in France has disappeared. Gorgeous ornaments and vivid colors are the order of the day. I saw, on one occasion, a lady, noted for the elegance of her costume, appear at a soiree in a toilet very much resembling that of a savage queen. Her gown was of light red, her bracelets and necklace of coral-beads, larger than hazel-nuts, and her head was decorated with pieces of coral and feathers. Had she been even beautiful, she would have appeared ridiculous. The ladies say they are compelled to this sacrifice of taste by the adoption of brilliant uniforms laden with gold and silver embroidery by the courtiers and all public functionaries. The change is curious, because Frenchmen have long struggled successfully | Paris.
against the national taste, which is all for show and gorgeousness, as is evinced, says one of their writers, by the immense popularity of the dahlia flower. The Empire has not yet had much influence on male costume, except by the re-introduction of frock-coats with long skirts. But it was once seriously contemplated to make an entire revolution in this respect to suppress moustaches, and enforce tight breeches and a sort of top-boots. The Emperor, however, did not think it would be expedient, on reconsideration, to make Paris picturesque in this fashion, and contents himself with setting a good example at Compeigne, where, with a true appreciation of elegance, he resorts sometimes to the costume of the last century, and shames his court into magnificence by wearing fine frills and pendent wristbands of Malines lace.-Bayle St. John's Purple Tints of
From the Eclectic Review.
THE TARTAR CONQUERORS.*
THE close of the fifteenth century introduced a remarkable period in the history of man. The great unsettled confederacies, which, up to that date, had existed, began to form themselves into solid empires. They had long, indeed, acknowledged supreme heads, but the various states were virtually isolated and independent. No general compact, acknowledged by the superior potentates of Christendom maintained a recognized system, or held the balance of power. Each pursued its own course, regardless of external influences. In Spain, a crowd of little kingdoms divided the sovereignty of a rich soil and an active population. In France, the grand feudatories of the crown were vassals only in name, and by the extent of their dominions, the strength of their arms, and the fierceness of their character, were often more formidable to the central throne, than that throne was to them. In England no monarch had taught the barons how to submit, or how to become less haughty; but, as the sixteenth century drew near, new principles sprung out of extraordinary events, and a change came over the political aspects of Europe. A depressed and broken aristocracy in England, emaciated by civil wars, began to unite under the House of Tudor, not because their jealousies were at an end, but because their forces were exhausted. Had they, indeed, ceased from their rancorous emulation, each might have been content to hold his own; but the supremacy which neither would yield to the other, they all offered, in pure malice, to the king, who was courageous and adroit enough to profit by their dissensions. The French, after expelling their English invaders, joined their great fiefs, one by one, under a single sceptre. The Spaniards, by conquest and marriages, and the sense of a common dan ger, were gradually brought under one authority. Thus the fires that had desolated three of the finest countries in Europe, continued only to rage in the German and Italian
A History of India under the first two Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, Baber and Humàyun. By William Erskine, Esq. Two Volumes. Svo. London: Longman & Co.
states. But the accidents which made Charles V. a distinguished monarch, aided in accelerating the main result. His vast acquisitions rendered him an object of terror to the other Christian sovereigns. They were jealous of his glory, and fearful of his ambition. Out of these feelings arose naturally that new policy known as the balance of power; for in order to keep one mighty rival within bounds, nations began to agree that none should enlarge its territories so as to become dangerous to the rest. Cupidity and blindness often broke this public European law; but an international system was at last acknowledged, and had the effect of giving permanence to states and kingdoms.
This historical process we have glanced at, because it supplies a parallel to something very similar which happened in Asia, though in different ways, and not to the same extent. Immense conquests had been made by those soldiers of genius known popularly as Jenghiz and Tamarlane, by which names-since they are familiar-we prefer to designate them. These acquisitions were moulded into empires of vast proportions, which afterwards when the minds that first surveyed and ruled them had departed, broke into smaller kingdoms which carried on struggles among themselves, until, after the balance of power had begun to be established in Christendom, permanent states first rose, amid the subsiding fermentations of politics in the East.
A brilliant, but terrible power had long been advancing from Asia, and threatening the civilization of Europe. The rapidity with which the Ottoman Sultans swept the world, from their original borders as far as Egypt, surprised and alarmed all the Christian potentates. tentates. But as their neighbors increased in power, the progress of their legions was checked, and Europe, perhaps, owed as much to the victories of other Tartar chiefs as to the achievements of the pious and gallant knights who fought with consecrated arms against the enemies of their religion, their manners, and their liberties.
In that great repository, in which are deposited the historical trophies and achievements of the human race, the Tartars occupy
too retired a position. Their influence on the | ed, in enormous legions, the standard of destinies of the world has been immense; Jenghiz Khan, and more than a century after they have nurtured the greatest conquerors; they broke out of their wilderness on every and though they have accomplished little for side, to triumph and plunder at the signal of which future gratitude will attach to their Amir Taimur, so celebrated in the west as name, the part they have played in the grand Tamarlane. but sad arena of imperial conflicts, has been so illustrious that history must give them its volumes, and become splendid by narrating the acts and fortunes of their race. The southern countries of Asia and Europe have from the most distant ages been exposed to invasions from the north, which has poured out its migratory inhabitants, century after century, to exchange their native wilds for more genial and fruitful regions-entering some, and quitting them like a storm, but settling in others, and displacing the original tenants of the soil. In ancient times, these hosts, which issued from the great nursery of conquerors round the Arctic circle, were Scythians, Germans, or Gauls; but in later ages they have been, in Asia, the Tartar tribes alone.
The name Tartar has been rendered familiar only since the twelfth century. European writers have generally comprehended under it that family of the human species, which ranges over the immense territory extending from the Himalaya Mountains, from the river Oxus, from the Euxine, and the Caspian Sea, as far as the Northern Ocean. The tribes dwelling there may differ from each other in language, and even in origin; but the appellation, by Christian historians, is applied to them all, though it is unknown to themselves as a general term, and never properly belonged even to any considerable proportion of them. It seems originally to have belonged to that nation which we now, whether philosophically or not, distinguish as Mongols or Monguls, and by one of those expansions so common to foreigners, has been erroneously applied to nearly the whole of the inhabitants of northern Asia. It is hopeless at this day to rectify the erior, as well as by no means desirable, since a general denomination is necessary, and if the familiar one were dropped, a new one quite as false would probably be invented.
Adopting the appellation of Tartars, we find the tribes included under it consisting of three grand divisions or races, all differing from each other in language, institutions, and manners. The first are the Tunguses and Mantchus, in the east of Asia, north of China. The second are the Mongols, or, as they are called by the Persians and Indians, the Moghuls, who are settled chiefly in the central territories north of Tibet, and far westward in the deserts untraced by geography and untravelled by explorers. The third are the Turks, who have held, during many centuries, the large regions stretching still westward of the Mongols, from the wilderness of Koli, as far as the Wolga and the Don. On the south, they spread to the Caspian lake, on the north to Siberia. A few tribes, belonging to each division, are found out of these territorial limits; but the Turks occupy the largest country, are the most numerous, and fill, perhaps, the most conspicuous portion of Tartar history. That family of them which settled in European Turkey is only a limited branch, since, though Ottomans are all Turks, there are millions of Turks quite distinct from the Ottoman nation. In fact, each of the main divisions of the Tartar race is broken down into an infinite number of smaller tribes, generally independent of each other, managing separately their own concerns, and particularized by special names. Though, for the sake of convenience, the appellations Mantchu and Mongol are used, these names are unknown to the nations which bear them. The tribes, however, who speak the Turki tongue, appear to acknowledge themselves as Turks.
Divided as they are, the Tartar races are, nevertheless, united by customs and institutions prevailing among them all. They are invariably, in their own regions, pastoral; indeed, they could not be otherwise. Each nation has its own range of wanderings within which it moves from spot to spot; carrying its families, flocks, and habitations from colder to warmer regions, from scarce to abundant pastures, from dried up or bitter water-pools, to sweet and copious springs. This necessity, common to them all, has produced uniform customs. All their dwellings consist of tents or moveable huts; flocks of
There are historical traces of eruptions from the Tartar deserts towards the south in very remote ages; but they began to overflow in huge volumes, and to acquire a permanent ascendency in modern times, immediately before and after the tenth century. Large bodies of them traversed the frontiers and settled in the dominions of the Saracen khalifs; two hundred years later they follow-cattle, sheep, and horses, constitute their
wealth; milk is their principal food, to which is occasionally added a little flesh; and they despise the cultivation of the ground as well as those people who live on corn, or, as they contemptuously express it, on the top of a weed. These barbarians are right, unless our modern philosophers are wrong, who tell us that everything should be eaten in its natural state-grapes unfermented, and, therefore, if they are consistent, corn should be eaten in its natural state, which is a poor and worthless weed.
valley of the Ganges from the heights above Nepaul, but they were driven into Tibet, and never appeared again.
But the Mongols or Moguls, who were seated between the Mantchus and the Turks, played a most important part, though for a brief period, in the history of Asia. For several ages, the different Tartar races or tribes in the north had carried on war with each other, uninterrupted by the surrounding nations, when Jenghiz Khan, the chief of a small and obscure tribe called Mongols, having suffered many misfortunes, was at
The women attend to all domestic cares, watch the children, prepare food and cloth-length restored to authority, and became ing, and assist in tending the flocks. The conspicuous among the heroes who were men, when they reach a country containing celebrated in desert songs. The young damgame, delight in the chase, and live like cen- sels who chaunted in their tents every eventaurs, perpetually mounted. Such an exis-ing, promised victory to the young chief, who tence nurtures them in habits of fatigue, en- was followed with ardent love by every warders them careless of privation, accustoms rior in the camp. Gradually he subdued a them to the quick movements of soldiers, and number of the tribes around, and united has frequently, when Russian conquest found them into one martial nation. At the head its way into their homes, driven back the of this confederacy he suddenly appeared in enemy with shame and loss. The Czars have China, cut to pieces the native armies, and recognized these qualities, and their Cossack set up his throne in Pekin. Yet there he troops are imitations of the Tartar hordes; refused to stay, though with such a bright but the desert-bred horseman dwindles under and rich empire at his feet. He returned the whip of the drum major, and is no longer into Tartary, and attacked the most powerable to stand the shock of his old brothers ful tribes, compelling them one by one to by blood, the Ottomans, who sprang origi- own his sovereignty, until he found himself nally from the same soil, and enjoyed the in command of a host in which each legion same independence as his forefathers. was like a nation. Already he reigned as far as the Persian borders; but Europe was still ignorant of the terrible genius which had sprung up in a region beyond the scope of her curiosity. Swiftly, however, he followed the way which others of the same race had previously opened, crossed the Taxartes, marched through the rich, populous, and refined countries of Central Asia, and whenever he came to a city, paused to sack and plunder it. His ravages swept over Khorassan and the encircling provinces, over Persia and Armenia, and, in another direction, as far as the Indies, where it is now included within our empire. Not yet content, he added to the increasing surface of his sway the wide plains of Khozars and Kumans, beyond the Caspian.
This independence is a characteristic of the Tartar nations, and they lose it when they are transplanted. Their form of government, though not uniform, is generally some modification of the patriarchal; the spirit of a clan unites each tribe; hereditary usages have the power of laws, and the elders, or 'grey-beards," are consulted on occasions of importance or danger.
Of the three races thus distinguished, and thus inhabiting those deserts, the most eastern, or the Mantchus, though their historical achievements have been considerable, merit the least attention. They are far from being so brilliant as the other nations of the same family. About two hundred years ago, they marched over high mountains, and conquered China, where they have since remained, savage and unteachable, and whence they will probably be expelled. During earlier inroads, many of their race had already been established within the Chinese frontier; but they continued unknown to the historians of Persia and of India, and never exercised any direct or perceptible influence on the fortunes of those countries. Once, indeed, in our own days, a Mantchu army looked down on the
The march of his army was like a plague. The Tartars killed and mutilated as if their victims had not been human. A dreadful track of ruin marked the course by which they went and came. It was their policy to leave no enemy that could rise up in their rear, so that they slaughtered all, except such women and youths as were beautiful enough to be sold at great prices into servitude. Massacres became their daily de
light, and such wide regions did they drench | with blood, that the word Mogul is still used as a malediction in the East. The imaginary beings, known in our nurseries as Ogres, derived their ideas and their name from the Oighurs, a tribe which first resisted Jenghiz Khan, and then marched in the van of his armies, when they overran the east of Europe. So ferocious and cannibal were they, that at the sight of them women died, and children were smitten with insanity. The successors of Jenghiz made full use of the Tartar thirst for carnage. On one side, into Southern China, on the other, as far as Vienna, they carried the alarm of their victories; and had the inheritors of this enormous dominion possessed the genius of him who founded it, all the princes of Christendom might have been forced to league, that civilization itself might not be rooted up by Asiatic savages. Within one century, however, this empire, which had spread from the Korean Sea to the Adriatic, had dissolved, and was replaced by a number of separate kingdoms, which, in the year 1400, were annihilated by Tamarlane.
The Mogul supremacy, therefore, lasted about seventy years in a solid state, and about a hundred more as an imperfect confederacy. Yet, rapidly as it passed away, the renown of Jenghiz Khan was so brilliant, that every Mussulman sovereign in Asia is to this day flattered if genealogists can trace the sources of his lineage to the blood of the first Mogul. Nevertheless, the Mogul power has so utterly disappeared in the South, that one little tribe alone, between Herat and Kabul, exists to show that the mighty Jenghiz ever ruled across the Taxartes river.
Third in order, but greatest in fame, is the Turki nation. They possessed originally a vast region, occasionally encroached upon by the Moguls, but, on the other hand, much extended by conquest. They seized the surrounding territories nearly as far as Moscow, on one side, and Moldavia on the other; while, in a third direction, they migrated into the deserts which intersect Khorassan and Persia.
and bear the regalia. Gradually the nation itself grew into ascendency; they led their flocks into Turkey and Persia, degraded sovereigns into subjection, and founded many kingdoms, of which the traces still remain. While they proceeded in this triumphant career, the sun of Jenghiz suddenly blazed over Asia and eclipsed them for a time. Not one of their chiefs was yet equal to him. But his brief empire passed away, while theirs incessantly spread; the Ottoman dominion was planted, and a power was thus born which alone of the Tartar monarchies survived and became a part of the system of the modern political world.
At the end of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth centuries, Amir Taimur, or Tamarlane, arose. Under his command a Tartar deluge broke out of the North through all the countries to the south of the Caspian Sea, into Syria and Asia Minor, and, under the same invader, into India as far as Delhi. Contemporaneously, the Mameluke dynasty was established in Egypt, and thus the Turki family of Tartars for centuries ruled a great portion of the old world, and have left to the present day memorials of their government and their manners, from the Straits of Gibraltar to the desert on the Yenesei, and from the limits of Hungary and Poland to the farthest boundaries of Hindostan.
In their own territories, the Turks have always remained pastoral and simple. Beyond them, they have frequently made splendid displays of their national character. They have, in the most cultivated parts of the East, acquired and transmitted an influence superior to that of the original inhabitants. They served in the palaces and armies of the Khalifs, and many a slave of the Turki race rose in the course of years to wear the purple
While the Tartar tribes were influencing that part of the world which was external to their native deserts, events happened which produced great changes within themselves. Among other occurrences, the Uzbek family became, first a tribe, then a nation, and then a confederacy, and then gave birth to one of the greatest conquerors described by history. While the neighboring populations, having overrun so large a portion of the earth, were dividing the spoil and settling within frontiers, the ancestors of Baber Khan were extending their reputation and their power. The rapid course of fortune which in the East has so often borne a slipper-bearer from his footstool to a throne, carried the descendants of Jenghiz swiftly on their career of success and command. The process by which they gradually combined a number of tribes into a martial union is a narrative full of heroic episodes, but too intricate and too closely studded with names that appear and vanish like shooting stars, to be analyzed or compressed. However, in the fourteenth century, Taimur, the founder of a new dynasty, which flatterers traced to a heavenly lineage, carved an empire out of the waste lands of