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veterans his sympathies did not perish in spoke and wrote as he felt-a circum
His mind was not forever re- stance which makes his testimony of the curring to the “old days,” wbose man- highest value. He may perhaps have ners and customs are supposed by elderly been prejudiced against Byron when he persons to have been so far superior to compared him with the gentle, unsophisthose of onr degenerate times.
ticated Shelley, but he never for one mopansive intellect kept him in touch with ment swerved in his loyalty toward him ; the later developments in literature, in and though they parted in Greece never to science, and in art, while the consistency meet in life, Trelawny in his old age alof his strong, independent nature preserved ways spoke of Byron with affection. That him from the baneful effects of senile big- he loved Shelley is not surprising, and it otry. He delighted in the works of Swin. would be strange if he had not drawn a burne and of Darwin, and we have seen comparison — inevitably invidious - bewhat he thought of Boehm as a sculptor. tween two characters 80 essentially dissimHe was not too much of a Liberal to be ilar. Trelawny had neither the faculty blind to the merits of Mr. Disraeli, whom nor the wish to analyze character ; he took he described as a great man directing men as he found them, and in the good the impulses of a stubborn country." "He and gentle Shelley's frank generosity he told me that he sat next to Mr. Disraeli at was content to behold a superiority, not the Byron meeting. “ Disraeli asked me only over the more complex Byron, but also to say a few words in favor of the object over all men living. Although he well we had met to promote. I told him that knew my enthusiasm for Byron, he never
would have spoken before, but would pandered to it. He spoke his mind out not speak after him, as I considered his with that fearlessness which attracted all speech had covered the whole ground. those with whom he was intimate, and Disraeli said he would like to call upon which made him respected to the last hour me, and asked where I was living. I did of his life. not wish to bring him so far out of the Vith the exception of a short sojourn in way for nothing, so I told him that my Italy, Trelawny's last years were spent in home is at Worthing, thus avoiding the England. Always active, always gener, prospect of a visit.''
ous, always full of information, well read The same spirit that had prompted Tre- and highly sympathetic, he could be, lawny to assist the Greeks in their struggle when he liked, a charming companion. for independence, caused him to rejoice How many hours have I spent in his com. at the unification of the German Empire, pany, astonished at bis vigor and vivacity whose brilliant victories consolidated the and at the depth of his knowledge of men strength of a nation that had long suffered and books. Alas! the dauntless Cornishoppression. He was roused to indignation man who in his youth swept the seas with by the protests of the Hanoverian King- De Witt, who in his prime fought with dom, which he described as “a petty Byron for the independence of Greece, and province setting up its selfish pretensions who in his old age commanded the symin the face of inexorable destiny." pathy and respect of all true lovers of ro
I feel tempted to prolong this reminis- mance, has passed away. In the peaceful cence for the pure pleasure which it gives calm of a summer evening, just a little me in the writing. But the reader will more than eight years ago, Edward Treperhaps have had more than enough al- lawny, who had so often braved death by ready ; out of respect for his patience I sea and land, perceived that his hour was withhold the rest. Trelawny will live in
But the life-sands flowed steadily the Records” which he published in to the last grain ere his massive frame sur1878 and in the pages of Mrs. Marshall's rendered to the subtle foe.
He had rebook. It is a reniarkable fact, and one cently complained of weariness, and showwhich speaks well for his own social worth, ed but little inclination to rise from his that Trelawny was not only esteemed by couch. Those who stood around him rethe two men whose fame had attracted him marked that his eye was still bright, his to Pisa, but also by Mary Shelley, the voice firm, and his memory fresh as of Williamses, and the whole of that some
But the scene was changing rapidwhat beterogeneous coterie.
ly : on the 13th August, 1881, a glorious Trelawny was no sycophant—he always haven, peopled by the loved ones of his
youth, burst upon his view ; and while sunlight of his native land became gradbirds were flying to their rest, and zephyrs ually absorbed by the beams of a brighter soughed gently through the trees, the pale world. — Temple Bar.
THE CREATION STORY.
BY THE RIGHT HON, W. E. GLADSTONE, M.P.
In recent controversies on the trust- the animal and vegetable creations, and worthiness of the Scripture record, much as the climax crowus the series in has been thought to turn on the Creation ver. 23. So in Psalm cxlviii. we bave Story ; and the special and separate im- first (1-6) the heavens, the heavenly bodportance thus attached to it has given it a ies, and the atmosphere ; then, again mixseparate and prominent position in the edly, the earth and the agents affecting it, public view, This constitutes in itself a with the animate population (7-10), and reason for addressing ourselves at once to lastly man. There is some variation in the consideration of it, apart from any the order of the details, but the idea of more general investigation touching either consecutive development, or evolution, is the older Scriptures at large, or any of clearly impressed upon the whole. the books which collectively compose them. later date, and only known in the Greek
But there are broader and deeper rea- tongue, we find a more nearly exact resons for this separate consideration. It is semblance in the Song of the Three Chil. suggested by the form which has been dren. The heavenly bodies and phenomgiven to the relation itself. The narrative ena occupy the first division of the Song ; given with wonderful succinctness in the then the earth is invoked to bless the Lord, first chapter of the Book of Genesis, and with its mountains, vegetation, and waters ; in the first three verses of the second then the animate population of water, air, chapter, stands distinct in essential points and land, in the order pursued in the first from all that follows. It is a solitary and chapter of Genesis, with the same remarkstriking example of the detailed exposition able omission of the great kingdom of the of physical facts. For such an example we Reptiles at their proper place. Then folmust suppose a purpose, and we have to low the children of Men, and these fill the inquire what that purpose was. Next, it closing portion of the Song. The most seems as it were to trespass on the ground noteworthy differences seem to be that of science, and to assert a rival authority. there is no mention of the first beginnings And further, forming po part, unless tow- of vegetation, and no supplemental notice, ard its close, of the history of man, and as in Gen. 1. 24-30, of the reptiles. nowhere touching on human action, it sev- But also the sun, moon, and stars, which ers itself from the rest of the Sacred Vol. are categorically placed later in Genesis ume, and appears more as a preface to the than vegetation, precede in the Song any history, than as a part of it.
notice of the earth. Let not this differ. And yet there are signs in subsequent ence be hastily called a discrepancy. Each portions of the volume that this tale of the mode is to be explained by considering the Creation was regarded by the Hebrews as character and purpose of the composition. both authoritative and important. For it In Genesis, it is a narrative ; in the Song, gave form and shape to portions of their it is a panorama. Genesis, as a rule, reliterature in the central department of its fers each of the great factors of the visible devotions. Nay, traces of it may, per- world to its due order of origin in time ; haps, be found in the Book of Job the Song enuinerates the particulars as (xxxviii.), where the Almighty challenges they are presented to the eye in a picture, the patriarch on the primordial works of where the transcendent eminence of the creation. More clearly in Psalm civ., heavenly bodies as they are, and especially where we have light, the firmament, the of the sun, gives to this group a proper waters and their severance and confine priority. ment within bounds ; a succession the But this Creation Story may have an same as in Genesis Then follow mixedly importance for us even greater than it had for the Hebrews, or than it could have in became acquainted with the Hebrew Scripany of those ages when men believed, per tures through their translation into Greek. haps even too freely, in special modes of There is not, then, the smallest ground for communication from the Deity to man, treating the Mosaic cosmogony as the offand had not a stock of courage or audac- spring of scientific inquiry. To speak of ity enough to question the possibility of a it as guess-work would be irrational. There divine rerelation. For we have now to were no materials for guessing. There bear in mind that the Book of Genesis was no purpose to be served by guessing. generally contains a portion of human his- For a record of the formation of the world tory, and that all human bistory is a record we find no purpose in connection with the of human experience. It is not so with ordinary necessities or conveniences of the introductory recital ; for the contents life. Not to mention that down to tbis of it lie outside of and anterior to the very day there exists no cosmogony which can earliest human experience.
be called scientific, though there are theothey then into the possession of a portion ries both ingenious and beautiful which apof mankind ?
parently are coming to be more and more It is conceivable that a theory of Crea- accepted ; these, however, being of detion and of the ordering of the world cidedly late origin even in the history of might he bodied forth in poetry, or might modern physics. under given circumstances be, as now, But, further, as the Tale of Creation is based on the researches of natural science. not poetry, nor is it science, so neither,
But, in the first place, this recital can- according to its own aspect or profession, not be due to the mere imagination of a is it theory at all. The method here puipoet. It is in a high degree, as we shall sued is that of historical recital. The see, methodical and elaborate. And there
composes or transmits it, is nothing either equalling or within many seems to believe, and to intend otbers to degrees approaching it, which can be set believe, that he is dealing with matters of down to the account of poetry in other fact. But these matters of fact were, from spheres of primitive antiquity, whatever the nature of the case, altogether inaccestheir poetical faculty may have been. But sible to inquiry, and impossible to attain the Hebrews do not appear to have culti- by our ordinary mental faculties of pervated or developed any poetical faculty at ception or reflection, inasmuch as they date all, except that which was exhibited in before the creation of our race.
If it is, strictly religious work, such as the dovo- as it surely professes to be, a serious contions of the Psalms, and (principally) the veyance of truth, it can only be a comdiscourses and addresses of the prophets. munication fronı the Most High ; a comAs they were not, in a general sense,
munication to man and for the use of man, poetical, so neither, were they in any sense therefore in a form adapted to his miud scientific. By tradition and by positive and to his use. If, thus considered, it is records we know pretty well what kinds true, then it carries stamped upon it the of knowledge were pursued in very early proof of a Divine revelation ; an assertion ages. They were most strictly practical. which cannot commonly be asserted from Take astronoiny among the Chaldees, or the nature of the contents as to this or medicine among the Egyptians. We may that minute portion of Scripture at large. say with much confidence that there exist- If, when thus considered, it is not true, ed no science like geology, aiming to give we have to consider what account of it we a history of the earth. So there was no are in a condition to give. I cannot say cosmogony, professing to convey a history that to me this appears an easy undertakof the kosmos as then understood, which ing. If,” says Professor Dana, “ it be may have included, with the earth, the true that the narration in Genesis has no sun, moon, stars, and atınosphere. When support in natural science, it would have at a later date speculation on physical ori- been better for its religious character that gins began, it was rather on the primary all the verses between the first and those idea than on any systematic arrangement on the creation of man had been omitor succession ; nor had even the Greeks or Romans formulated any scheme in any degree approaching that of Genesis for order
*“ Creation." By Professor Dana. Oberand method, so late as the time when they lin, O., 1885 ; p. 202.
NEW SERIES.- VOL. LI., No. 6. 52
. But the truth, or trueness, of which I nature and alleged interpretations of Scripspeak is truth or trueness as conveyed to ture ; or it may leave the question open and comprehended by the mind of man, for want of sufficient evidence either way and further by the mind of inan in a com- on which to ground a conclusion. paratively untrained and infant state. I It is by these principles and under these cannot indeed wholly shut out from view limitations that I desire to see the question the possibility that gradual imperfections tried in the terms in which I think it may have crept into the record. Setting ought to be stated ; namely, not whether aside, however, that possibility, let us con- the recitals in Genesis at each and every sider the conditions of the case as they are point have an accurately scientific form, exhibited to us by reasonable likelibood; but, Whether the statements of the Creafor, if the communication were divine, we tion Story appear to stand in such a relamay be certain that it would on that ac- tion to the facts of natural science, so far count be all the more strictly governed by as they have been ascertained, as to warthe laws of the reasonable.
rant or require our concluding that the In an address of singular ability on statements have proceeded, in a manner “ The Discord and Harmony between Sci- above the ordinary manner, from the Auence and the Bible,” Dr. Smith, of the thor of the creation itself.* University of Virginia, has drawn some Those who maintain the affirmative of very important distinctions. In the de- this proposition have by opponents been partment of natural science, and in the de. termed Reconcilers ; and it is convenient, partment of Scriptural record, the ques- in a controverted matter, to have the power tion lies“ between the present interpreta- of reference by a single word to the protion of certain parts of the Hebrew Scrip- posers of any given opinion. The same tures, and the present interpretation of rule of convenience may perhaps justify me certain parts of nature."'+
“ We must not in designating those who would assert the too hastily assume that either of these in- negative by the name of Contradictionists. terpretations is absolute and final.” “The The recorder of the Creation Story in Genscience of one epoch is to a large extent a esis I may designate by the name of the help which the science of the next uses and Mosaist or thc Mosaic writer. This would abandons.'' Dr. Smith points out as an not be reasonable if there were anything example that down to the early part of the extravagant in the supposition that there present century Newton's projectile theory is a ground-work of fact for the tradition of light secmed to be firmly established, which treats Moses as the author of the but that it has given place to the theory Pentateuch. But such a supposition, in of andulation, which has now for fifty whole or in part, is sustained by many and years reigned in its stead.” Hence, be strong presumptions, and I bear in mind observes, we should not be too much elated that Wellhausen, in his edition of Bleek, by the discovery of harmonies, nor should gives it as his opinion that there is a strong we receive with impatience the assertion Mosaic element in the Pentateuch. of contradictions. Throughout it is prob- It does not seem too much to say that able, and not demonstrative, evidence the conveyance of scientific instruction as with which we are dealing. There should such would not, under the circumstances always be a certain element of reserve in of the case, be a reasonable object for the our judgments on particulars ; yet prob. Mosaic writer to pursue ; but that, on the able evidence may come indefinitely near other hand, it would be a reasonable obto demonstration, and, cven as, while fall- ject to convey to the mind of man, such ing short of it, it may morally bind us to as he actually was, a moral lesson drawn action, so may it, on precisely the same from and founded on that picture, that as. principles, bind us to belief. What we semblage of created objects, which was behave to do is to deal with the evidence before us according to a rational appreciation chard, in his ** Occasional Thoughts,” Mar
* See the attractive paper of Professor Prit. of its force. It may show on this or that
He says on p. 261, “I cannot acparticular question the concord, or it may cept the Proem as being, or even as intended show the discord, between alleged facts of to be, an exact and scientific account of Crea
tion," but adds that it “ contains within it * New York: Hatcbam, The Address is elements of that same sort of superhuman aid dated July 27th, 1882.
or superintendence, which is generally understood + lbid. p. 3.
by the undefined term of inspiration."
fore his eyes, and with which he lived in ing the picture, and even-for this is the perpetual contact. We have, indeed, to climax-to represent Himself as resting consider both what lesson it would be most after it ; a declaration which is in no conrational to convey, and by what method flict with any scientific record, but which it would be most rational to stamp it as a surely implies a license in the use of lanliving lesson on the mind by which it was guage never exceeded in any interpretation, to be received. And the question finally reconciling or other, which has been apto be decided is not, whether according to plied to any part of the text of Genesis, the present state of knowledge the recital and which draws its warrant wholly from in the Book of Genesis is at each several the strong educative lesson that is to be point either precise or complete. It may learned from it. here be general, there particular ; it may It seems also probable that the Creation here describe a continuous process, and it Story was intended to have a special bearmay there make large omissions, if the ing on the great institution of the day of things omitted were either absolutely or rest, or Sabbath, by exhibiting it in the comparatively immaterial to its purpose ; manner of an object lesson. Paley, init
may be careful of the actual succession deed, bas said that God blessed the serin time, or may deviate from it, according enth day and sanctified it (Gen. ii. 3), not as the one or the other best subserved the at that time but for that reason.
He is a general and principal aim ; so that the true writer much to be respected, but this opinquestion, I must repeat, is this : Do the ion cannot I think now be followed ; espedoctrines of the Creation Story in Genesis cially since we have learned from Assyrian appear to stand in such a relation to the researches how many and how sharply facts of natural science, so far as they are traced are the vestiges of some early instiascertained, as to warrant or require our tution or command which in that region concluding that the first proceeded, in a evidently gave a special sanctity to the manner above the ordinary manner, from number seven, and, in particular, to the the Author of the visible creation ?
seventh day. What, then, may we conceive to have Man, then, childlike and sinless, had to been the moral and spiritual lessons which receive a lesson such as this : It has not the Mosaist had to communicate, and uot been by a slight or single effort that the only to communicate but to infuse or to nature in which you are moulded has been impress? I venture on supposing that lifted to its present level; you have second to none aroung them would be these reached it by steps and degrees, and by a two : first, to teach man his proper place plan which, stated in rough outline, may in creation in relation to its several orders, stir your faculties, and help them onward and thereby to prepare at least for the to the truth through the genial action of formation of the idea of relative duty as wonder, delight, and gratitude. This was between man and other created beings; a lesson, as it seems to me, perhaps quite secondly, to exhibit to him, and by means large enough for the primitive man on the of detail to make him know and feel, what facts of creation, and one after hearing and was the beautiful and noble home that he digesting which he too might reasonably inbabited, and with what a fatherly and rest for generations. And it seems to me tender care Providence had prepared it to bave been vital to the efficiency of this for him to dwell in. There was a picture lesson that it should bare been sharply before his eyes. That picture was filled broken up into parts, although there might with objects of nature, animate and inan- be in nature nothing, at the precise points imate. 'I say, one great aim may have of breakage or transition, to correspond been to make him know and feel by ineans with those divisions. They would become of detail ; for wholesale teaching, teach. intelligible, significant, and useful on a ing in the lump, mostly ineffective even comparison between the several processes now, would have been preposterous then. in their developed state, and of the vast and It was needful to use the simplest phrases, measureless differences which in that state that the primitive man inight receive a they severally present to contemplation. conception, thoroughly faithful in broad As, when a series of scenes are now made outline, of what his
Maker had been about to move along before the eye of a spectaon his behalf. So the Maker condescends tor, his attention is not fixed upon the to partition and set out His work in mak- joints which divide them but on the scenes