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stands for reason. On the same prin- insufficient for the reception of solid ciple, darkness is occasionally put for food. ignorance and want of understanding. Our author next represents the deThe declining capacities of the mind, fects of the senses, which usually atmay well be called the sun, the moon tend declining life. Here he begins and the stars overcast. We cannot with those of the sight, of which most here explain the words literally of a persons advanced in years have the defect of vision. If every other clause painful experience :
ere they that of the passage be metaphorical, we, look out at the windows be darkened.” surely, must take this with equal lati- Ver. 4. He then describes the con. tude. The decay of the bodily sight, dition of their sense of taste: "" and is mentioned afterwards: nor would the doors shall be shut in the streets, this writer be guilty of needless repe- when the sound of the grinding is low.” tition.
The aged have a diminished appetite In age, the memory and the imagi- for food, and less relish in the use of nation, the inventive and the reasoning it; not being possessed, as formerly, powers, are usually less vigorous than of the instruments for taking it with they were in manhood. The curious pleasure and advantage: machine, having been long in motion, It is the natural consequence of this gradually loses its distinguishing pro- state of things to cause the sleep of perties, and cannot be employed with the old to be short and broken í althe same ease, and to the same advan- though their debility needs longer retage. Trains of thought cease to pre- pose. While the slumbers of youth sent themselves with their former ra- are light, and those of vigorous manpidity and clearness: the apprehension hood undisturbed, watchfulness belongs is duller, the perception more con- to age : "and he shall rise up at the fused; “the sun and the light and voice of the bird;" he awakes at the the moon and the stars are darkened." first crowing of the cock.
As the consequence of the increased The writer proceeds in his descripweakness of the mental faculties in tion of the failure of the senses, and age, the cares and troubles of the speaks of that of hearing: “and all world seem to be multiplied. Nor has the daughters of music shall be brought this circumstance escaped the notice low,” or be of no avail. In these of the author of Ecclesiastes, who words, he expresses the dulness of the adds, “nor the clouds return after the ears of the old, to the harmony and rain.” There are climates and sea- melody of sounds, and the consequent sons, in which an almost constant inability of age to enjoy, as it wishes, succession of storms is experienced. the delights of social intercourse of The clouds may appear to be exhaust- such a season, torpidity of hearing is a ed: yet others soon follow; and the common and distressing sign. rain descends with little intermission. Ver. 5. It is much the same as to In like manner, to the imagination of the sense of feeling. The touch, so persons who are advanced in years, essential to the safety of the body, and whose bodily health is enfeebled, loses, in age, its delicacy and quickno interval exists between the vexa- On this account, the tottering tions and anxieties, from which they steps of the old, are insecure and dansuffer.
gerous. Persons who have reached Ver. 3. The Hebrew writer now that period of life, cease to tread firmly passes from the mind to the body. even on a smooth and level path: nor He refers to the limbs ; to the arms, can we be astonished that they are in the hands, the knees, the feet—all perpetual dread of encountering some which are impaired by age; the nerves inequalities in their road, that they are and muscles being then considerably afraid of high places, and of stuinbling relaxed. In old persons, these members are less capable of warding off When the writer adds, “ and the injuries, and of performing many of- alınond tree shall flower,” he appears fices, for which they were designed; to mean, that the old, as though they and they with difficulty contribute to lived in a constant winter, have no the protection and comfort of their perception of the agreeable odours owner. At this period, too, few of afforded by plants and flowers, through the teeth remain, and even these are the spring and summer. This tree is
in the way
in blossom at the very beginning of intimation, that any of the Christians the year; when scarcely any other in that city had suffered death for part of the vegetalle kingdom'attracts Christ's sake.” I am disposed to conthe senses by beauty or by fragrance. pect this clause with what follows: Here, then, we have no unfit emblem “ God will by Jesus [by means of his of a privation suffered by extreme age. agency] bring to the same state of
Vers. 6, 7. Thus far the wise and inmortal life and happiness] those eloquent moralist paints the decay of who sleep; and this together with the inental faculties and of the animal him [ovv avtq, i. e. at his second spirits, of the limbs and of the senses, manifestation). Thus, in vers. 13, 14, in the last stage of this mortal being, 15, we shall have sinply the expresIn the remainder of the description hę sion, " those who sleep" (T86 Kolynplaces before our eyes some bodily in- Beytas). In ver. 16, the form is diffirmities and diseases, to which age is ferent, “ the dead in Christ,” or particularly liable, and which gene- departed
Christians [di vex por ey Xpisó, rally precede and hasten on the stroke not, dia X250]. of death. For an explanation of It may justly be doubted, whether these, I refer the curious reader to any great number of our Lord's disthe work, of which I have availed my- ciples suffered death, for his sake, in self.
the age of the apostles. The silence Of this picture of declining life it of the New Testament, on the subjeet, may be remarked, that, while every would lead me to the opposite conclupart is verified by the experience of siop. Indeed, the writer to the Heinultitudes of mankind, and while se- brews reminds a considerable body of veral of the states and appearances, Christian believers, that they had not which it represents, are not a little yet resisted unto blood." (xii. 4.] painful and revolting, still, the whole Though Herod (Acts xii. 2] had is as elegant as it is correct. It con- “ killed James, the brother of John, tains nothing which can raise disgust with the sword," and though it be not in the mind of the most fastidious ob improbable that tyranny had deprived server : so pertinent, so unexception. some other individuals of their lives, able and select, is the group of images, on the same account, yet evidence is of which we perceive it to be com- wanting of its victims being then nuposed! From portraits of old age, merous. I know not that Acts xxi. which occur in the works of some 4, xxvi. 30, furnish a solid objection Heathen writers, I turn away with to this statement. Those passages unspeakable disgust.t These authors do not necessarily express more than have taxed their imagination, for the Paul's intention, and the fulfilment of purpose of rendering their sketches it, in the instance of Stephen, and, it more hideous and deformed. Not so pay be, of a felv more persons. The the Hebrew preacher ; attentive to respective situation of the Jewish peotruth and nature, he is, at the same ple and of the Romans, at that period, time, mindful of the claims of taste did not allow of persecution raging and delicacy
with the utmost fury and effect. 1 Thess. iv. 14. "them also
N. who sleep in Jesus,” &c. Some of the commentators
I have Report of the Committee of the Depusupposed that Paul alludes to the case
ties of the Protestant Dissenters to of Christian martyrs in the Church at Thessalonica. Yet the words doch so
the General Body, Jan, 2, 1824. Inge will not justify this opinion: and VOUR COMMITTEE, in digesting Benson correctly says,
There is no a Report of their Proceedings
during the last year, have been de
sirous so to frame it as fully to answer • Mead, pp. 44-50 : and see the case the wishes of those by whom it was of Atticus, as described by Cor. Nep. Ch. required ; and, conceiving that it may xvi.
of Juvenal. x. 188-276, and Select. have been desired as much for the quæd. ex C. Plinii adi Hist. Nat. pp. 31, information of Dissenters in general 32.
as of the body of Deputies, to whom Hainmond, in loc. Tillotson's Serm. the minutes have been regularly.com(fol.) II. p. 184.
municated at the annual meetings;
they have thought it expedient to pre thing that may remedy or prevent any fix a short statement, already in print, inconveniency to the cause of civil relative to the original rise and for- and religious liberty:" having, howmation of the body, which is as fol- ever, always practically confined their lows :
interference in eivil matters to such * The Annual Appointment of De- points as were immediately connected puties by the several Congregations with the rights or interests of Disof Presbyterians, Independents and senters. Baptists, in and within ten miles of Those who have been long converLondon, to protect the Civil Rights sant with the affairs of the Deputation, of the Protestant Dissenters, origi- cannot but rccollect how large a nated in the following manner : portion of its time and funds was
" On the 9th of November, 1732, formerly occupied in the defence of a General Meeting of Protestant Dis- our brethren (particularly in the counsenters was held, at the Meeting, try) against various illegal proceedhouse, in Silver-street, London, to ings, in most instances perhaps, singly, consider of an application to the Le- of no great importance, but when fregislature for the repeal of the Corpo- quently repeated, forming a consideraration and Test Acts. At this Meet- ble mass of vexation and injustice. ing, a Committee of twenty-one per. Such were, demands of fees for petty sons was appointed, to consider, and services due from members of the report to a sabsequent Meeting. At Establishment, but of which Dissenanother General Meeting, it was re- ters neither required the performance solved, “That every Congregation of nor were liable to the payment;the Three Denominations of Protes. Refusals of magistrates to execute tant Dissenters, Presbyterians, Inde- their ministerial duties under the propendents and Baptists, in and within visions of various statutes for regisfen miles of London, should be re- tering places of worship ;--- Admission commended to appoint two Deputies; of persons to qualify as Dissenters, and, subsequently, on the 14th of &c. ;-Denial of the rites of burial to January, 1735 - 6, =That there persons not having been baptized in should be an annual choice of Depu- the Church ;-and, far beyond all ties, to take care of the civil affairs these, indecent and even violent interof the Dissenters ;' and, “That the ruptions of divine worship, generally Chairman do write to the Minister's committed by the idle and profligate of the several Congregations, to re- of the very lowest order of the poputturn the names of their Depaties to lace, but sometimes, unfortunately, him.'
countenanced by individuals in higher " On the 26th of the same month, and better-educated classes of society. the Deputies met and elected their Your Committee have great pleasure Committee by ballot; and these se- in reporting that these disgraceful veral elections, of the Deputies by practices have lately been of infrethe Congregations, and of the Com- quent occurrence one only of each mittee by the Deputies, have been kind having been offered to their continued annually froin that time to notice in the course of the last year, the present.”
and these only to be repressed. Of their occupation and objects, a Another unpleasant and not uncom complete idea may be formed from mon employment of your Committee, the following paragraph in one of the composing differences arising their circular letters, dáted November among the members of congrega17, 1738, in which they say, in lan- tions, (often respecting trusts and enguage perfectly suitable to the situa- dowments,) has also happily diminisha tion and sentiments of the body, under ed, and some of these disputes have all its successive renovations, down to been satisfactorily terminated during the present day, “You well know the recent session-among which it that the Corporation and Test Acts may not be improper to bestow more were the important business which than ordinary notice on one of ungave rise to our thús meeting; but, usual magnitude, viz. the Dudley though this be the chief, it is not the Cause, of which the following is a only thing that we would have in view. brief abstract : We would willingly attend to every In 1806, a suit in Chancery was
instituted, by the Committee, to re- not. unlikely to be arranged in the cover premises, containing about ten ensuing session of Parliament. In the acres of land, which had been con- mean time we cannot refrain from veyed, by deed, in 1782, by James submitting to the serious consideraHughes, to trustees, for the support tion of every Dissenter, whether, enof the minister of the Baptist Church tertaining objections, more or less at Dudley, and which two of the weighty, to many points both of the trustees afterwards purchased of the doctrine and discipline of the Estaothers, at a price which has since ap- blished Church, he is not bound in peared to have been very inadequate; duty, or at least in consistency, to for, after the cause had been heard protest against being obliged to yield before the Master of the Rolls, and an external and insincere appearance a decree made in favour of the object of conformity to a religious service of the Committee, in 1815, a vein of which he disapproves. To us it seems, coal was discovered on the property, in no inconsiderable degree, to involve which, in 1820, the trustees sold to the great principle on which our disLord Dudley for £5,200; £3,200, sent is founded, and by which it is part of the consideration-money, has justified, -the right of private judgbeen paid by his Lordship to the ment in matters of religion. The trustees, and £2000, the residue marriage ceremony being in both thereof, remains on mortgage until its form and substance, whether we three persons, who are minors, become regard the place where, the person
by whom, or the words in which it Out of the said sum of £3,200, is celebrated, assimilated as nearly as £500 has been paid to claimants ; possible to an act of religious worthe sum of £1,500 has been expended ship, if it be not absolutely such; in the costs of recovering the estates; and we would also respectfully ask of and the sum of £1,200 now remains, our rulers, whether, it being so conin the hands of the trustees, for in- stituted, doubtless for the express vestment for the benefit of the Cha- purpose of strengthening the mutual rity.
obligation of a bond so important to In 1822 a conveyance was made to the welfare of society, every arguLord Dudley.
ment by which the expediency of this But, within the last two years, an- religious addition to the civil ordinance other subject, of greater importance is enforced at all, does not demand both in principle and in general appli-' that the form in which it is adminiscation, has called for attention. tered should be that most binding on
Our Unitarian brethren, to whom the consciences of those on whom it many expressions in the Marriage is enjoined; one with which they can Office of the Established Ritual are cheerfully and cordially comply, withpeculiarly distressing, but from which out the disquieting sense of mental they could not escape, had applied to evasion; an enormous evil, which inParliament for relief. Nor did those troduces insincerity into the very sancobjections on the part of the Church, tuary of truth, and evidently tends to which have bitherto delayed the con- annihilate every valuable quality of cession of their request, appear to that sanction by which this most arise so much from the apprehension sacred of ties is intended to be conof any impropriety in the request firmed? itself, as from difficulties in so con. We have only one other topic to structing those provisions which were mention: the important subject which to be substituted in its stead, as might we recognize as the very occasion of satisfy the consciences of Dissenters our existence. A deep feeling of the without infringing on the integrity of injustice committed towards Dissenthe Church Liturgy, or affording in- ters by the Test and Corporation creased facility to the accomplishment Acts, and a full persuasion of their of clandestine marriages, -on neither impolicy as concerns the State, inof which points could Dissenters be duced our ancestors, nearly a century desirous of trespassing. This object ago, earnestly to solicit the Legislawas long under the consideration of ture for their repeal. . Several sucthe House of Lords last spring; and, cessive attempts were then inade in though not then settled, we hope is vain, which were repeated between thirty and forty years sinice, with no ing to procure the abrogation of laws greater success. What may be the by which they have been, for a long present state of public opinion on series of years, unjustly stigmatized this, to us, very interesting subject, as disloyal, under the reigns of sucremains to be ascertained. In conse. cessive sovereigns, to whom they have quence, however, of our instructions shewn every mark of the firmest atto take measures for reviving the tachment; and incapacitated as if consideration of it in the minds of our guilty of infamous crimes, without brethren, an Address was drawn up, either the allegation of guilt, or the which, with a copy of the Petition least presumption of any necessity for of the Dissenters to the Legislature, the infliction of so heavy an injury: in the year 1820, has been already in . It is needless to enter here into partial circulation ; its more general any discussion of the reasons by which diffusion having been deferred from the original enactment of these staa desire not to disturb, or interfere tutes was justified. Suffice it to ob. with, the deliberations on the intende serve, that what might be expedient ed Marriage Act, in which the House in times when civil commotions were of Lords were then engaged. Since scarcely composed, and men's minds the failure of this latter measure, the were still agitated with the apprehenother has been sedulously attended sions that Popery might regain its to; means have been adopted to pro- ascendancy under the auspices of a eure correct lists
of all the congre. Catholic king, can scarcely be needed gations in the different counties; to in circumstances so totally different whom the Address has been generally as those under which we have the transmitted through the most con- happivess to live. venient and accustomed channels of communication. And your Committee, who, themselves persuaded of To Stationers and Printers, on an the propriety of the measure, have
amended Translation of the Bible. with pleasure obeyed your instruc
Bloxham, tions, cannot but anticipate a general GENTLEMEN, Jan. 24, 1824.
T is to the brethren, who, though widely differ- the Hebrew term mit (Jehovah)
) ing on many points of speculation, is found about four thousand times are yet firmly united in the common in the Hebrew Scriptures of the Old bonds of interest, of feeling, and, Testament, though it is only transabove all, of principle.
lated Jehovah in our English Bibles After so long a period of silence in about ten or a dozen places : inand forbearance, some preparation of stead of being translated Jehovah, it this nature seems highly expedient is rendered Lord. It is acknowledged before they venture on renewing their that where it should have been Jehoapplication; the fittest time for which vah, the letters that compose the they do not pretend, at this moment, word Lord are, though small, in the to determine. Before dismissing this shape of capital letters, to give nosubject entirely, they think it incum- tice that the original word is Jehovah. bent on them to declare, for them- But how few persons know this ? selves and their brethren at large, And how can they know when it octhat in looking forward to making curs who do not read, but only hear this atterupt ere long with union, and others read? The term Jehovah sigundoubtedly with earnestness and zeal, nifies being, or existence ; and leads they are not actuated by any feelings us to consider our heavenly Father as of hostility to the Established Church, the self-existent and eternal Being, whose security as well as honour they and, of course, the great Author or conscientiously believe would be best first Cause of all other beings in the consulted by a gracious compliance universe. But the word Lord only with their request : but, be this as it signifies power, dominion, or authomay, they feel themselves under a rity, and, as such, is given to many moral compulsion bound, in justice persons of the human race. There to themselves and their posterity, to is our House of Lords, and Lords of watch for and to embrace the first the land: therefore, the sense of the favourable opportunity for endeavour Hebrew term Jelovah is by no means