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without slavery, that we approve the offi-| Cornewall Lewis will do well to make a cial decision to make a full and searching note. This papyrus dates from the fourinquiry into the condition of the island. teenth century B.C., when Pharaoh Ramses
Miamun, the founder of Pithom and Ramses, ruled at Thebes, and literature celebrat
ed its highest triumphs at his brilliant From the Saturday Review.
court. Nine pre-eminent savans were at
tached to the person of this king, the conEGYPT, ANCIENT AND MODERN.* temporary of Moses. At their head stood,
as “Master of the Rolls,” a certain Kagabu, This book is another proof of the vast unrivalled in elegance of style and diction. and wholesome change that is gradually It was he, probably, who officiated as Keeptaking place in the learned literature of er at that vast Library at Thebes of which Germany. Although treating of a most classical writers speak as having borne the abstruse subject, it is yet not only fit for inscription" yuxūs lurpeiov".— somewhat simi, human reading, but is absolutely one of the lar to Frederic II.'s inscription over the Royal most interesting works which we have seen Library at Berlin, “ Nutrimentum Spiritus.” for some time. It consists of a series of This hieroglyphic document is the only one essays or lectures delivered before a select hitherto known which belongs to the world circle in Berlin, during the last nine years, of fiction. Hymns, exhortations, historical by Dr. Brugsch, the eminent Egyptologist. records, accounts of journeys, general esOn changing his professorial chair at the says, eulogies on kings, and bills, form the Prussian University for his new official post general staple of that very
brittle literature. at Cairo, he has published these essays as a Written expressly " in usum Delphini” farewell gift to his friends in Europe. namely, for the Crown Prince, Seti MenThey are divided into two parts, the first ephta, son of Rameses II. — our papyrus of which contains sketches and reminiscen- bears the following critical note, or mark of ces of his journeys on the Nile, through the official censorship: -“ Found worthy to be desert, and in the streets of Cairo. Teem- wedded to the names of the Pharaonic ing as these picturesque descriptions are Scribe Kagabu and the Scribe Hora and with valuable and interesting remarks, we the Scribe Meremapu. Its author is the refrain from dwelling upon them. We pre- Scribe Annana, the proprietor of this scroll. fer to reserve our space for the second part, May the God Toth guard all the words in which the latest results of hieroglyphic contained in this scroll from destruction !” science are put before us in so lucid and In language and manner it resembles most fascinating a manner that we are apt to of the productions of its classical period. It forget at times how enormous were the la- is lucid and clear, and though full of poetibours which produced them.
cal fancy, yet simple and unaffected, reThe first essay of the second part is en- minding the reader occasionally of the titled " An Ancient Egyptian Fairy Tale; grand simplicity in word and thought found the Oldest Fairy Tale in the World.” It in Scripture. It further resembles the latis the first German, and altogether the first ter in its occasional monotony and repeticomplete, version of the celebrated papyrus tions; both, however, drawbacks cominon acquired by Mrs. D’Orbiney in 1852, which to nearly all the early documents of differis now in the British Museum. Although, ent literatures. The tale itself is rather a Dr. Brugsch says, the text has for years curious one to be selected for the special been before the learned world, nothing but reading of a young prince. Its“ motive” extracts from it — of which we gave an is the same as in the story of Joseph and account some time ago — have been trans- Potiphar's wife. The chief persons are two lated as yet. And he adds quaintly, that brothers and the wife of the elder one, who this first version is not a philological trick brings a false accusation against her young nor altogether an offspring only of his own brother-in-law. The latter saves himself fancy. • My humble merit is confined from his brother's wrath, and goes, aided simply and solely to the application to a by the Sun-God, through a peculiar transgiven text of the rules of hieroglyphical formation. The wife meets her well-degrammar, which in these days have become served fate, and the two brothers are in the the common property of science” - a state- end restored to each other's esteem and ment of which the followers of Sir George love, and the elder becomes regent of
Egypt. Apart from the general literary * Aus dem Orient. Von Heinrich Brugsch. Zwei interest attaching to this relic of more than Theile. Berlin: Grosse.
three thousand years ago -- which gains a
peculiar significance from the fact that it was first written and read at the very Court of Ramses II. at which Moses was educated - it incidentally reveals so much of the manners and customs, the notions and views, of that peculiar era of ancient Egypt, that we cannot be too grateful for its almost miraculous preservation.
buildings in the course of erection, and the like; all this being done under the eye of Egyptian officials lounging about armed with weighty sticks, while different inscrip tions inform us of the nature of the special work done by these "prisoners whom the King has taken, that they might build temples to his gods."
Of more vital interest, however, are those About the middle of the fifteenth century hieroglyphic discoveries which enable us to before our era, there arose a new dynasty, trace the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt, the nineteenth, at the head of which stands in its monuments. Almost all recent inves- Rameses I. It is under the long rule of tigators of this subject agree that the time his grandson, Rameses II., who mounted the between the immigration and the Exodus throne at about 1400, that we meet with formed part of one of the most glorious the first monumental hints regarding the epochs of Pharaonic rule — namely, that of events recorded in Scripture. This Per-aa the eighteenth dynasty. For twenty cen- or Pher-ão literally "High House". turies Egyptian sovereigns had held all the who reigned sixty-six years, erected, so the country in undisturbed possession, when hieroglyphical sources tell us, a chain of suddenly, pushed by the Assyrians, Shemitic forts or fortified cities from Pelusium to hordes broke into the Eastern Delta and Heliopolis, of which the two principal ones seized upon it, gradually extending their bore the names of "Rameses" and "Pachdominion so as to make even the kings of tum," our biblical "Pithom; " both situated Upper Egypt tributary. For more than in the present Wadi Tumilat, near the five hundred years the Egyptians bore the sweet-water canal that joined the Nile with yoke of these foreign conquerors -called the Red Sea. Papyri of the time of this in the inscriptions either "Amu,” i. e. "Pharaoh of the Exodus" give a glowing "shepherds of oxen," or "Aadu," detested, description of those new strongholds. In wicked ones - whose kings held court at the Papyrus Anastasi (in the British MuTanis (Hauar, Avaris) in much prouder seum), the scribe Pinebsa reports to his style than the Theban monarchs themselves. superior, Amenenaput, how very "sweet" Who were the gallant and skilful generals and "incomparable" life is in Rameses, who, by a few bold strokes, reconquered how "its plains swarm with people, its the independence of Egypt, and expelled fields with birds, and its ponds and canals or utterly subdued the foreign population, with fishes; how the meadows glitter with is not known. But this reverse to the for- balmy flowers, the fruits taste like unto tunes of the native Pharaohs happened, we honey, and the corn-houses and barns overknow for certain, during that eighteenth flow with grain." This official further deTheban dynasty, and the three centuries scribes the splendid reception given to the that followed form the most flourishing king at his first entry (in the tenth year of period of Egyptian history. Egyptian ar- his reign) into the new city, and how the mies penetrated into Palestine, marched people pressed forward to salute "him, along the Royal road by Gaza and Megiddo great in victory." We even find the very to the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, name of the Hebrews recorded in the offimade Babylon and Nineveh tributary, and cial reports of the day. A papyrus in the erected their last victorious columns on the Museum of Leyden contains the following, borders of Armenia, where, as the hiero- addressed by the scribe Kauitsir to his suglyphic texts have it, Heaven rests on its perior, the scribe Bakenptah :four pillars. No doubt these conquests in Asia, and the thousands and thousands of Shemitic prisoners whom the conquerors carried home as slaves, were looked upon in the light of reprisals for the long period of Shemitic oppression. Endless are the processions of figures on the gigantic and apparently indestructible temple walls erected by these wretched Asiatic prisoners, representing them in the act of carrying water to knead the mortar, forming bricks in wooden frames, spreading them out to dry in the sun, carrying them to the
May my Lord find satisfaction in my having complied with the instruction my Lord gave me, saying, Distribute the rations among the soldiers, and likewise among the Hebrews (Apuru) who carry the stones to the great city [and who are] under the orders of the Captain of King Rameses-Miamun, the lover of truth; of the police soldiers, Ameneman. I distribute the food among them monthly, according to the excellent instructions which my Lord has given me.
Similar distinct indications of the people
and their state of serfdom are found in Monuments,” but turn to a chapter quaintly another Leyden papyrus, and even in the entitled “What the Stones are Saying." long rock-inscription of Hamamåt. Joseph It is the vast and varied number of stone had never been at the court of an Egyptian inscriptions found in Egyptian tombs of Pharaoh, but at that of one of those Shemite which Dr. Brugsch here treats. He finds kings of Avaris-Tanis; and when, after the the reason for the people dwelling during expulsion of this foreign dynasty and the their lifetime in tents of mud, but erecting quick extinction of the one which over- everlasting monuments for their corpses, in threw it, Rameses had come to the throne, their firm conviction of the existence of it was natural enough that “ he knew not another, an everlasting, world, to which Joseph."
this present one is merely the entrance-hall. The Exodus took place under Menephtes, While a general inscription on the walls of the successor of that second Rameses in the these tombs uniformly exhorts the living to sixth year of whose reign Moses probably praise the Deity gladly, to leave all earthly was born. In the twenty-first year of his things behind when the parting moment rule, Rameses had concluded a treaty with arrives, and to pray for the dead, there are the Hittites, the text of which is found cut others upholding most characteristically the into a stone-wall at Thebes, and in which advantages and the high rank possessed by occurs the following important passage: the literatus in comparison with all other “ If the subjects of King Rameses should ranks and professions. Thus many are come to the King of the Hittites, the King found like the following: of the Hittites is not to receive them, but to force them to return to Rameses the King
What does all this talk about an officer being of Egypt.” This sufficiently explains the better off than a scholar amount to ? Just look fear expressed by the biblical Pharaoh, lest at an officer's life, and see how manifold are his the people might" go up from the land.” miseries. While still young he is shut up in a The Shemitic population, subdued and en- they make his head to bleed; he is stretched
military school. He is there punished until slaved as they were, had one glowing desire out and beaten. After that, he is sent to the only — to escape from Egypt, and join their wars into Syria. He must wander on rocky brethren at home in their wars against the heights, he has to carry his bread and drink Pharaohs.
suspended from his arm, like unto a beast of The name of Moses is now universally burden. The water he gets is foul. Then he recognized to be of Egyptian origin. It is is marched off to mount guard over the tent. the Mas or Massu of rather frequent occur- After that, the enemy arrives and catches him, rence on the monuments, and means “ child.” Jucky enough to return to Egypt, he will only
as in a mousetrap. Should he, however, be A certain connection of Egyptian ideas with be like a worm-eaten block of wood. Should the Mosaic legislation, its sacrifices, purifica- he be sick, he is put on a litter and carried on a tions, &c., is also no longer questioned. But donkey's back. His things, meanwhile, are there is one most important monumental stolen by thieves, and his attendants run away. testimony, which is not sufficiently recognized yet, and which fully proves that to Truly a picture of an Egyptian soldier's those far-famed Egyptian adepts of priestly life worthy of Joseph Bertha, le Conscrit. wisdom the sublime doctrine of the Unity But other trades and professions fare no betof the Deity was well known, and that the ter when contrasted with the savants noble manifold forms of the Egyptian Pantheon state. There are similar caricatures from were nothing but religious masks, so to the farmer's or peasant's life, down to that speak -- grotesque allegorical embodiments of the barber, “who has to run from inn to of that originally pure dogma communicated inn to get customers.” Out of this bigh to the initiated in the Mysteries. And the opinion of, and eager desire for, literary initiated took their sublime Confession of education and refinement, there grew almost Faith, inscribed upon a scroll, with them naturally an eminently high ethical and even into the grave. The name of the One moral code of feeling. Take the following God, however, is not mentioned on it, but inscription over a tomb at El-Kalb, over is expressed only in the circumlocution, four thousand years old :-"He loved his Nuk pu Nuk — " I am he who I am.” Who father, he honoured his mother, he loved does not instantly remember the awful “ I his brother, and never left his house with an am that I am " sounding from amid the angry heart. A man of high position was flames of the bush ?
never preferfed by him to a humbler man. We shall not further pursue these and There are many traces even of that chivalsimilar points of high importance touched rous deference to women which is always upon in the essay inscribed “ Moses and the found in highly-cultivated nations. The
names of the husbands are more often both in Firdusi and the Nibelungen, and of omitted in the genealogical tablets than a number of mysterious customs and notions those of the "Ladies of the House," whose common to both Persians and Germans. principal ornament, the stones record, was Although this is no less replete with intertheir "love to their wedded lords." They esting facts and speculations than the foreare called in the inscriptions- - not gener-going essays, we cannot further enlarge ally given to poetic phraseology-"the upon it here. All we can do is once more beautiful palms, whose fruit was tender to thank the eminent author, now dwelling love," and the most glorious present accorded in that land which already has revealed to to the favourites of the Gods is "the esteem him so many of its secrets, and to express of men and the love of women." the hope that, notwithstanding his many official and editorial occupations, he will find leisure again to speak to us thus pleasantly of Pharaonic scrolls and stones.
The last chapter in the book is a valuable contribution to comparative Indo-Germanic mythology, treating of certain Sagas found
[WE adopt selections made by the Boston Transcript, whose good taste may always be depended upon.]
Ox Christmas eve the bells were rung;
THE CHRISTMAS BELLS.
THE bells the bells-the Christmas bells,
A manger coldly strewed,
And swaddling bands so rude, A leaning mother poor, and child that helpless
The bells - the solemn Christmas bells,
They're calling us to prayer; And hark, the voice of worshippers
Floats on the morning air.
And glorious hymns to-day,
Come, to the church — away.
Art Thou, O wondrous sight,
The sky and sea and land,
'Tis so ; faith darts before,
Where angels prostrate fall,
No thunders round Thee break;
To us around Thy feet,
With footstep slow, in furry pall yclad,
year ; And aye the shepherd's heart to make right
glad; Who, when his teeming flocks are homeward
had, To blazing hearth repairs, and nut brown beer, And views well pleased the ruddy prattlers
dear Hug the grey mungrel; meanwhile maid and
lad Squabble for roasted crabs. Thee, Sire, we
hail, Whether thine aged limbs thou dost enshroud In vest of snowy white and hoary veil, Or wrap'st thy visage in a sable cloud; Thee we proclaim with mirth and cheer, nor
fail To greet thee well with many a carol loud.
Within us, Babe divine,
Thy love and power to heal ;
WONDERFUL night! Angels and shining immortals, Thronging thine ebony portals, Fling out their banners of light:
“ Jam desinant suspiria.”
Away with sorrow's sigh,
On this our earthly floor
Wonderful night! Dreamed of by prophets and sages ! Manhood redeemed for all ages, Welcomes thy hallowing might,
Wonderful night! Down o'er the stars to restore us, Leading His flame-winged chorus, Comes the Eternal to sight:
In dead of night profound,
The Lord of glory born
Now with that shepherd crowd,
With awful hastening fear,
Wonderful night! Sweet be thy rest to the weary, Making the dull heart and dreary Laugh in a dream of delight;
() sight of strange surprise That fills our gazing eyes ;
Wonderful night! Let me, as long as life lingers, Sing with the cherubim singers, Glory to God in the height,”