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at last but a few remained. He redoubled his application to his sermons, and made them as perfect as he could; but all to no purpose. Finding all his endeavours to bring back the people ineffectual, he at last asked one of the deacons what detained his parishioners from church, where, in former times, their attendance used to be so regular? The deacon replied, Our former clergy. man always took off his shoes when he went to the pulpit; and if you follow the same plan, the people will soon return. The remedy was used, and proved effectual." P.
The other tour Mr. Ross performed, was in France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany, in 1820; and as this was the longer, so it was also the more interesting of the two. The journal of this tour is replete with information and amusement. We could willingly trace his route, and give many of his lively descriptions; we shall rest contented, however, with producing part of his account of what particularly attracted his attention in the neighbourhood of Naples, and in Gottingen.
"To-day we have made a most delightful excursion to Pompeii.-Having left the carriage which brought us from Naples, we entered Pompeii, and found ourselves standing in the market place. It is in the form of a square, and is surrounded on all sides by a range of fluted Doric columns of volcanic lava, coloured with red or yellow paint, which on many of them still remains. Behind these pillars are shops for every sort of merchandize. We noticed that of a statuary, with several figures, in different stages of forwardness; and in others we saw ancient amphora, set up in the corners, in considerable numbers. From the market place, we passed to the comic and tragic theatres. The former is the smaller of the two, but is in excellent preservation. The seats for the spectators are still entire; and the stairs appear to have been very much worn by the people passing up and down. The other, though larger, is not by any means so complete." "The amphitheatre, to which we next proceeded, is at some distance. It is of an elliptical form, and the wall which incloses the arena is covered with the remains of ancient paintings. The dens for the wild beasts, and the private passages for the prisoners who were brought to contend with them, are in
the completest state of preservation. Its diametrical length is two hundred and fiftythree feet in the area, and its breadth ore hundred and thirty-three. It is unquestionably the most complete and interesting remain of the kind that now exists. The names of many families are marked on the seats which they had a right to occupy. We next found ourselves in a school. The desk of the master still stands in the centre; and we could scarcely avoid thinking that he had just quitted it after having dismissed his pupils. Proceeding along the Appian way, we found a row of houses on each side; and a street branching from it is entirely occupied by shops. We next entered the house of Claudius. The bed
rooms, the kitchen, the mosaic floorings, the.. paintings on the walls, the baths and the wells, seem almost as if they had been only abandoned yesterday. Excavations are at present making in this neighbourhood, and
we were shown a fine female statue, discovered a few weeks ago, which still stands
the place where it was found. The civil forum is not far distant, and extends about three hundred paces at its greatest length. At the extremity of the forum are the temples of Jupiter and of Venus, and
the basilica. At one end of the basilica
stands a chair, surrounded by six smalk fluted columns, which is supposed to have been occupied by the magistrates; and near it is seen a large pedestal of white marble, which appears to have been intended for the reception of a statue. We next paid a visit to the house of a milk-seller, which is easi ly known by the figure of a cow neatly cut on one side of the door. The measures and vessels for the milk are still entire. It would be out of the question to describe all the buildings which we visited at Pompeii." "It was with no ordinary regret that I bade adieu to Pompeii. It is unquestionably the most interesting spot we have visited in Italy. In Rome I felt delight in contemplating a column, an arch, or even the most imperfect memorial of the better days of the mistress of the world. These were of themselves sufficient to give birth to associations which it was impossible not to cherish with fondness. But in Pompeii the interest is much more vivid and intense. You pass at a single step to the ages that are gone, and see before you the whole economy of a Roman city. One might almost fancy one's self to be the visitor of some of its ancient inhabitants; and, were the silence which now pervades these once busy haunts of men rendered less perceptible, the illusion would be complete." P. 389.
"At the distance of about a mile and a half from Pozzuolo, we had our first sight
of lake Avernus, which lay underneath. It is surrounded by hills, except on the side which is nearest the sea. The road then passes under a stupendous arch, which is believed to have been one of the ancient gates of the city of Cuma." "Few vestiges of the ancient magnificence of Cumæ now remain. We saw the ruins of its amphitheatre; and here and there passed fragments of mouldering buildings. An extensive forest now covers the site of the town; and its only inhabitants are stags and wild boars, which are found in considerable numbers. After a delightful ride through the most luxuriant vineyards, we came to the ancient Acheron, which now seems to have lost its deadly qualities, and is plentifully stocked with the finest mullets. The water is extremely salt. A few peasants were labouring on its banks; and, as they were all of them dressed in white, it required only a little stretch of imagination to transform them into some of those shades of departed heroes, who were fabled by the poets to wander along its shores. We struck off to the castle of Baiæ, and reached the tomb of Agrippina." "We now passed through the Elysian fields, which are covered with the most productive vineyards, and sat down to rest at a farmhouse, which commanded a fine view of the delicious scenery that surrounded us. the left was the Mare Mortuum, or Dead Sea, and before us the harbour of Misenus; while the verdure of the Elysian fields was spread in rich luxuriance around us. The effect of this scenery, which is of itself highly picturesque and beautiful, is incalculably heightened by the many classical associations which crowd upon the mind, while we rest en a spot that has been celebrated and consecrated by the greatest poets of antiquity." P. 400.
From these admirable descriptions, which call up to view the haunts, and almost the very persons, of the mighty dead, let us turn to hear Mr. Ross speaking of some celebrated living characters at Gottingen.
"Immediately after breakfast I repaired to Professor Bouterwek, who received me with open arms, and kindly offered to render me all the services in his power, during my stay in Gottingen. Bouterwek is, at present, unfortunately very deaf; and his sight, owing to his intense application to study, is beginning to fail him. He was burn in 1766." "He is thoroughly acquainted with English literature, and speaks the English extremely well. Few
German scholars rank higher as a poet, a philosopher, and a man of letters. His principal work is his History of Poetry and Eloquence, in twelve octavo volumes." "His different works amount to about forty, exclusive of his juvenile productions." "After having spent three or four hours with Professor Bouterwek, he conducted me to the Library, and introduced me to Professor Beneke and Reuss. The former not only speaks English with accuracy and elegance, but has even the English accent." "His studies have been principally directed to the early literature of his country, and he has published, with glossaries, several of the old German poems." "After leaving the Library, I went to Professor Blumenbach." His Museum is well worth see. ing; among other curiosities, he showed me a collection of 170 sculls of individuals, belonging to almost every part of the globe." "Of Sir Joseph Banks (who received him cordially on a visit to England) he spoke with tears in his eyes." "I met Professor Beneke at the Library, and accompanied him to the house of Professor Eichhorn, to whom he had the kindness to introduce me. I am quite charmed with Eichhorn. There is something so kind and affable in his manner, that he put me more in mind of M. Chevalier of Paris than of any other person I have met with. I sat with him for about four hours, and was obliged to do my best in carrying on the conversation in German, as he does not speak English, though he can read it with facility." "His writings are very numerous. I shall only mention a few of them."
2. Historical Researches on the Canon of the Old Testament. 3. Introduction to the Old Testament. This is the most learned work of the kind ever published." 5. General Repertory for Biblical litera6. An introduction to ture, ten volumes. "11. An intro
the Apocryphal books." duction to the New Testament, three volumes." "The number of students in the University at present amounts to about one thousand."
Having noticed, more or less, the different articles in the volume under review, we now bring to a close the history of this truly interesting young man. His constitution, though improved during the latter years of his life, was naturally delicate; and it would seem that the fatigues he underwent on his latter tour were too much for him. He caught a severe cold in Germa
ny. As he was travelling homeward, the coach was overturned near Chatham, and he sustained a severe injury. He reached home in a very exhausted state, where he continued to languish for about six months. Varied as his studies used to be, his reading, during this period, was almost exclusively confined to the Bible and the Olney Hymns. "O what a glorious change!" were the words he was heard to repeat again and again, till the sound gradually died away. On the first of April, 1821, when twenty-three years of age, he fell asleep.
Extended as this article has already become, we should be doing violence to our feelings, were we even yet to dismiss it without some farther remarks. We do most sincerely and deeply deplore the loss which learning and religion have sustained, by the early removal of one of acquirements so distinguished, and of principles so excellent. The capacity he displayed as a linguist will bear a comparison with that of those who have acquired the very first name in that department, For example, with regard to two men in Britain whom we have, of late, been most accustomed to speak of as linguists,-Murray and Lee. No doubt, the lamented Dr. Murray's knowledge was more mature than Mr. Ross's, but then Dr. Murray lived till he was thirty-six years of age. With a foundation so wide and so solid, and with actual acquirements so undeniably great, what might Mr. Ross not have accomplished had he lived thirteen or fourteen years longer? At a meeting of the Shropshire Bible Society in 1818, Archdeacon Corbett stated that Lee had made the wonderful acquisition of seventeen languages in the period of fourteen years' study. Now, striking off
many languages with which Alexander Ross had only a very slight acquaintance, there will still remain about the above number which he might be fairly said to know; and, it is to be recollected, that (with the exception of Latin and Greek) they were all acquired in the space of about seven years. Can any thing more be necessary to demonstrate that he was possessed of a very superior mind? If there be any truth in the saying of Charles the Fifth, that, "A man is as many times a man as he knows different languages," then Alexander Ross, though he died a very young, died a very great man. He was an honour to the college and city to which he belonged. He would have been soon universally known. All that remains for us to do is, to express our unavailing sorrow, and to strew a few flowers on his early tomb.
It is not, however, with his scholarship only, but also, and chiefly, with his religious views, that we, as Christian Instructors, are con cerned. On this part of his character we have said too little, and we must yet endeavour to supply the deficiency. Of his personal piety there is most pleasing evidence in such expressions as these: "May all my studies and pursuits be directed from above !" "As this day has been set apart for humiliation and prayer, on account of the fune ral of our beloved Princess Charlotte of Wales, I thought it proper to limit my studies to the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Testament. May her early and melancholy death make a lasting impression on my mind. May I also be ready; and, when I am called hence, may I be able to exclaim, Even so come, Lord Jesus He thus writes at Geneva, "May that gra cious Being, who has hitherto ex
* Diary of Studies, p. 46. 60.
tended over me his protecting arm, still continue to preserve me from the danger to which I may be exposed; prevent me from being seduced by the corrupting influence of foreign manners; and grant me a happy meeting with those friends whom absence has rendered doubly dear to me! Blessed be his name that I have the privilege of drawing near to him in prayer; and that I have the delightful assurance that he will never forsake those who trust in him." And at Potsdam, "This day is the communion in Aberdeen. I could have wished to have been present on that interesting occasion. May theeverlasting Father strengthen the hands of his ministering servants; and may both they and their flocks derive much spiritual consolation from the solemn services in which they are engaged! May this be a day of the right hand of the Most High; and may both pastors and people be washed in that blood which was shed for the remission of the sins of many!" As one proof of his decision as to personal character, we reckon it of importance to mention, that, (from principle,) he was never in a theatre in his life, though he was on some occasions urged to go. His doctrinal opinions were those held by the Protestant reformers, to whose excellence he bore distinct testimony: Thus,-"The valet de place next conducted me to the place where Calvin preached his first sermon to the people of Geneva. It is somewhat similar to that in the High Street of Edinburgh, where John Knox addressed his countrymen. Both of the reformers spoke from a window, and the people were assembled underneath." "Calvin announced to the people of Geneva the glad tidings of salvation. He stood boldly forth as the advocate of truth, and was destined, by Divine Providence, to be the means of turning many thou
sands from darkness to light." P. 437. Should any wish to know what were his views of the measures now in operation for the diffusion of the Gospel throughout the world, they are plainly developed in such a passage as the following:-" I spent this afternoon and evening" (at Schaffhausen) "with M. Peyer, a gentleman who takes an active part in the promotion of every thing that is good, and who is a zealous friend to Bible and Missionary Societies. He introduced me to several of his acquaintances, in whom I was glad to observe the same spirit, and the same devotedness to the cause of God. They spoke in terms of the highest admiration of the noble efforts of Britain in the great work." All this is as it should be.
When we consider, then, not only his mental capacity, but his personal piety; not only his literary acquirements, but his excellent principles; not only his qualities, which must have commanded the respect of men of the world, but his Christian humility, and gentleness, and decision,-when we take all these circumstances into view together, his death is really felt by us, (as we know it is by many more,) to be a just cause of lamentation. To say that we were expecting from him, for our publication, translations from the German, and from the Talmud, and various other communications, is to say but little. His death is a public loss. Fondly did we look forward to the additional honour which we believed he was destined to confer on the literature of our country-more fondly still did we anticipate how he was to advocate, and adorn, and extend, the blessed cause in which angels minister, and in which the Saviour bled; but, alas! all these hopes are vanished like a vision. The plant of blossom and of promise was seen to begin, to droop, and to fade; much atten
tion, and many prayers, retarded, but could not prevent its fall; for the wind of the desert came at last, and laid its green head low. But why indulge this strain? Why look only to the dark side? “ Why," busy memory, "dost thou wake the sleeping tear?" for never more shall tears flow from the eyes of the blessed; never more shall sorrow disturb their peaceful breast. This young man has not lived in vain for himself, for he has lived for a blessed immortality. Nor has he lived in vain for others, for he has shown to all how compatible the liveliest genius, and the most extensive acquirements, are with pu rity of religious faith and manners; and the example of his diligence and progress will, we trust, stimulate many other young men at once to excel in liberal studies, and to cultivate every Christian grace. This latter consideration is of especial importance. While, therefore, his Remains will be more or less edifying and entertaining to persons of every description, we earnestly recommend their careful perusal to all who wish to cherish in themselves habits of ardent attachment and steady application to study.
With regard to the persons to whom the public are indebted for this work, no names are given, and therefore we are not entitled to promulgate them. There are some names, however, which cannot be hid. We certainly do not mean to flatter when we apply this to the gentleman who has taken the principal labour of preparing this volume for the press. It is obvious that very few were fit for such a task. The very transcribing, and
(as must have been sometimes ne◄ cessary,) correcting of such papers, required no ordinary degree of knowledge of languages. Such knowledge we know he possessed, and we are happy that he has had this opportunity of putting it to a good use. Having thus begun, he must go on. It would be unpar
donable were he to hide such a ta lent in a napkin.
One word with regard chiefly to the resolution to which, in this case, the father of this lamented young man has come, and we have done. He has judged right. It would have been much to be regretted had any mistaken ideas prevented him from consenting to the publi cation of what is so interesting, and so likely to be useful. Deeply have we sympathised with him in his being thus bereaved of the last of his family. We must not, however, presume to draw aside the veil that conceals sorrows which are better imagined than expressed. We shall only say that, if, instead of being crushed into the dust by such a stroke, he has been enabled not only to bear it without repining, but to "thank God that he had such a son," and to proceed with increasing spirituality, and zeal, and faithfulness, in the services of the sanctuary, then is there here a practical demonstration, that the believer's strength shall be as his day, and then should every Christian who witnesses such an example feel himself encouraged to hope, that, come what may, he shall have a light that will cheer him in the darkest night of sorrow, and turn even the shadow of death into the morning.
Omnis in Ascanio cari stat cura parentis."