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Let it not be thought that his own recording of these efforts was a mark of ostentation; for, so familiar was he with such studies, that noting them down was with him a matter of course; and it should be remembered, that in so far as he himself was concerned, the narra tion was private. We can, besides, give the positive assurance, that, in his appearance and conversation, he was as free from parade and vanity, as any young man we have ever known. At times, indeed, during the few last years of his life, the richness of his mind was poured forth in conversation; but this was always in proper time and place, and unobtrusively, and only when he saw that it was relished; and when, according to a common expression, he was drawn out. So well did he acquit himself in this respect, that while many felt pleased and instructed in his society, we believe no one ever felt hurt. To all this we would add, as at once a pleasing consequence, and an unequivocal proof of his modesty and meekness, that his acquaintances of his own standing, not only heard of and witnessed his decided superiority without envy, but seemed to take pleasure in speaking well of him, and in adding always another wreath to his increasing honours.
To the Diary of Studies succeed seventeen pages of Illustrations of Scripture from the Persian, and from Ancient Traditions and Eastern Customs. From these we shall notice only the remark that many of the Scripture names are Persian: thus, Vashti in Hebrew, would signify drinking, but in Persian, sige signifies a beautiful or excellent woman, which agrees exactly with the Scripture account, that she was fair to look upon. Esther, in Hebrew, is hidden, but in Persian aster, or ester, is a star, " to which a beautiful woman is often compared by the Persian poets." Mehu
man, one of the chamberlains, seems to be the same with mehman, a stranger, or guest,-mehmān dār, one who sees that the guests are properly attended to.
There is next a neatly written essay, On the Literature of the Arabs, and the influence which it has had on that of Europe; but this is too condensed to admit of abridgment. Then follows an Account of Ajayeb al Makhlukat, or the Wonders of Creation, a work originally written in Arabic, by Zechariah Al Cazvini. We consider it unnecessary to attempt to give any idea of this truly curious work, as in the eighth number of our eighteenth volume, (August, 1819,) there is inserted a sufficient specimen of it in a communication by Mr. Ross himself. The account of this work is followed in the Remains by a few "poetical translalations," the versification of which is exceedingly smooth and agree◄ able.
The next article in order is Verbal Resemblances between the oriental languages and those of other nations. From these we shall quote a few specimens.
"Cridhe, in Gaelic, the heart; kridaya,
in Sanscrit, the same."
"Sira, and Syr, in Islandic, signify Lord; sar, in Hebrew, a prince; Tsar, in Russian, is a title applied to their prince; sar, or sir, in Persian, is the head, chief, the most exalted; sari askar, the general of an army. This word gives rise to a numerous class of compounds, in which
strengthens the signification. What is remarkable, the Greeks called the sun Zug, and with a termination Σείριος : thus Suidas, Zug, 20s; and Hesychius, Σείριος, ὁ ἥλιος, και ο του κυνος αστης. Sira, Being, in some Runic monuments, in or Syr, is the name given to the Supreme
which sense it resembles the Arabic sirr, any thing pure or excellent, also, incompre hensible, mysterious. In Sanscrit the sun is called Surya; this seems the same with sar, or car, which, according to Mr. Faber, was used in the mysteries of the Cabiri, as a radical word, signifying the sun. Similar to this is khur, in Persian, the sun,
which was used in the same sense in the days of Hesychius, for he says Kuges, khuss waga Пigris. Kuges is exactly the Persian khur, with a Greek termination." Karn, or kern, in Arabic, a horn; Aerne, in the language of Tigri, in Abyssinia, the same; xspas, in Greek. The Arabic word also signifies a hill, the top of a mountain, a tumulus; similar to the Gaelic charn, a heap of stones; cuiridth mi clach air do charn, I will add a stone to your cairn."
"Murr, or marr, in Arabic, bitter; mar, in Hebrew: amarus, in Latin, the same. In Malay, mār, is evil. Amharic, memarer is bitter; in Gafat, merai; in Scherets, Agow, maro, the same, (three Abyssinian languages.) "Tundur, and tundar, in Persian, thunder. Dokhter, In Persian, a daughter; (dochter in Scotch.)
Shal, in Persian, a shawl. "Kamis, in Arabic, a shirt, or any kind of inner garment of linen; chemise, in French; camicia, in Italian, the same."
Had Mr. Ross's life been spared, he would no doubt have carried this inquiry much farther: as it is, it will be readily granted that this article discovers great industry, and demonstrates in a striking manner his passion for language, when we mention, that in these resemblances, he quotes, if we mistake not, sixty-six different languages and dialects.
"This little village (Broek) is the most land; every corner of it is kept as clean as remarkable thing we have yet seen in Hol. it is possible to make it, and the streets are paved with bricks of various colours, which are arranged in the most fanciful figures Broek exhibits the Dutch imaginable. character in perfection. The inhabitants are generally opulent; and here they live separated from the world, and having scarcely any intercourse with society. They have no wish but to continue always in the same state of indolence and inactivity. All the windows that look to the little streets, if indeed they can be called streets, (for a car, riage is never allowed to enter them, lest they should be made dirty,) are covered with blinds, or else closed up by window shutters. Every house has two doors, one of which is opened only on three occasions; a birth, a death, or a marriage; and no stranger is ever allowed to see the inside of these singular hermitages. With great difficulty we procured access to the garden of one of the principal inhabitants, which we minutely examined. In every direction we found canals, the banks of which were covered with flowers, &c. The trees in the village are cut into the form of fans, In one little garden we observed the boxwood cut into the shape of tables, foxes, peacocks, &c. houses was finely gilded, and richly embossed. Mr. Ogg told us, that a clergyman, who had been but a short time settled in the village, found, to his regret, the num "When we were in the room," (the ber of his auditors gradually diminish, till
and into various other fantastical shapes.
The doors of one of the
Chinese Museum at the Hague), "looking at the curiosities, we were surrounded by several Dutch clergymen, with large cocked hats, who had come, as we ourselves had done, to see whatever was curious. Every now and then, on being shown any thing which attracted their notice, they would burst out into an exclamation, O zear mooi, O it is very good; and then begin talking something to us, expecting, no doubt, to hear our opinion; but all we ventured to say to the gentlemen, was merely the usual form of assent, Ja minheer, yes, Sir. I have forgotten to mention the strange appellation by which clergymen are known in Holland; they are called dominies, as a term of respect. To us, Scotsmen, however, it appeared singular to hear them accosted by what we had been accustomed to tion. It had been discovered by some of consider as rather a contemptuous appellathe people of the inn, that Mr. preacher; and I was not a little amused to see a set of them pull off their hats, and wish good morning to Mynhcer de Dominie.' P. 250.
The remaining part, or about a half of the volume, is occupied by the Journals of two Tours. Though necessarily written in haste, and though never copied over by Mr. Ross, these journals are exceeding ly interesting, and unite, in an admirable way, simplicity with ability, and humour with seriousness.
His strong desire to see foreign countries was first gratified by a "tour in Holland, Flanders, and France, in 1817." From the journal of this tour the two following extracts, of a somewhat light description, may serve to relieve the gravity which may have attached to the contemplation of his more severe studies.
at last but a few remained. He redoubled his application to his sermons, and made them as perfect as he could; but all to no purpose. Finding all his endeavours to bring back the people ineffectual, he at last asked one of the deacons what detained his parishioners from church, where, in former times, their attendance used to be so regular? The deacon replied, Our former clergyman always took off his shoes when he went to the pulpit; and if you follow the same plan, the people will soon return. The remedy was used, and proved effectual." P.
The other tour Mr. Ross performed, was in France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany, in 1820; and as this was the longer, so it was also the more interesting of the two. The journal of this tour is replete with information and amusement. We could willingly trace his route, and give many of his lively descriptions; we shall rest contented, however, with producing part of his account of what particularly attracted his attention in the neighbourhood of Naples, and in Gottingen.
"To-day we have made a most delightful excursion to Pompeii.-Having left the carriage which brought us from Naples, we entered Pompeii, and found ourselves standing in the market place. It is in the form of a square, and is surrounded on all sides by a range of fluted Doric columns of volcanic lava, coloured with red or yellow paint, which on many of them still remains. Behind these pillars are shops for every sort of merchandize. We noticed that of a statuary, with several figures, in different stages of forwardness; and in others we saw ancient amphoræ, set up in the corners, in considerable numbers. From the market place, we passed to the comic and tragic theatres. The former is the smaller of the two, but is in excellent preservation. The seats for the spectators are still entire; and the stairs appear to have been very much worn by the people passing up and down. The other, though larger, is not by any means so complete." "The amphitheatre, to which we next proceeded, is at some distance. It is of an elliptical form, and the wall which incloses the arena is covered with the remains of ancient paintings. The dens for the wild beasts, and the private passages for the prisoners who were brought to contend with them, are in
the completest state of preservation. Its diametrical length is two hundred and fiftythree feet in the area, and its breadth ore hundred and thirty-three. It is unquestionably the most complete and interesting remain of the kind that now exists. The names of many families are marked on the seats which they had a right to occupy. We next found ourselves in a school. The desk of the master still stands in the centre; and we could scarcely avoid thinking that he had just quitted it after having dismissed his pupils. Proceeding along the Appian way, we found a row of houses on each side; and a street branching from it is entirely occupied by shops. We next entered the house of Claudius. The bedrooms, the kitchen, the mosaic floorings, the.. paintings on the walls, the baths and the wells, seem almost as if they had been only abandoned yesterday. Excavations are at present making in this neighbourhood, and we were shown a fine female statue, discovered a few weeks ago, which still stands
in the place where it was found. The civil forum is not far distant, and extends about three hundred paces at its greatest length. At the extremity of the forum are the temples of Jupiter and of Venus, and
the basilica. At one end of the basilica
stands a chair, surrounded by six small fluted columns, which is supposed to have been occupied by the magistrates; and near it is seen a large pedestal of white marble, which appears to have been intended for the reception of a statue. We next paid a visit to the house of a milk-seller, which is easily known by the figure of a cow neatly cut on one side of the door. The measures and vessels for the milk are still entire. It would be out of the question to describe all the buildings which we visited at Pompeii." It was with no ordinary regret that I bade adieu to Pompeii. It is unquestionably the most interesting spot we have visited in Italy. In Rome I felt delight in contemplating a column, an arch, or even the most imperfect memorial of the better days of the mistress of the world. These were of themselves sufficient to give birth to associations which it was impossible not to cherish with fondness. But in Pompeii the interest is much more vivid and intense. You pass at a single step to the ages that are gone, and see before you the whole economy of a Roman city. One might almost fancy one's self to be the visitor of some of its ancient inhabitants; and, were the silence which now pervades these once busy haunts of men rendered less perceptible, the illusion would be com plete." P. 389.
"At the distance of about a mile and a half from Pozzuolo, we had our first sight
of lake Avernus, which lay underneath. It is surrounded by hills, except on the side which is nearest the sea. The road then passes under a stupendous arch, which is believed to have been one of the ancient gates of the city of Cuma." "Few vestiges of the ancient magnificence of Cumæ now remain. We saw the ruins of its amphitheatre; and here and there passed fragments of mouldering buildings. An extensive forest now covers the site of the town; and its only inhabitants are stags and wild boars, which are found in considerable numbers. After a delightful ride through the most luxuriant vineyards, we came to the ancient Acheron, which now seems to have lost its deadly qualities, and is plentifully stocked with the finest mullets. The water is extremely salt. A few peasants were labouring on its banks; and, as they were all of them dressed in white, it required only a little stretch of imagination to transform them into some of those shades of departed heroes, who were fabled by the poets to wander along its shores. We struck off to the castle of Baiæ, and reached the tomb of Agrippina." "We now passed through the Elysian fields, which are covered with the most productive vineyards, and sat down to rest at a farmhouse, which commanded a fine view of the delicious scenery that surrounded us. On the left was the Mare Mortuum, or Dead Sea, and before us the harbour of Misenus; while the verdure of the Elysian fields was spread in rich luxuriance around us. The effect of this scenery, which is of itself high ly picturesque and beautiful, is incalculably heightened by the many classical associations which crowd upon the mind, while we rest en a spot that has been celebrated and consecrated by the greatest poets of antiquity." P. 400.
From these admirable descriptions, which call up to view the haunts, and almost the very persons, of the mighty dead, let us turn to hear Mr. Ross speaking of some celebrated living characters at Gottingen.
German scholars rank higher as a poet, a philosopher, and a man of letters. His principal work is his History of Poetry and Eloquence, in twelve octavo volumes." "His different works amount to about forty, exclusive of his juvenile productions." "After having spent three or four hours with Professor Bouterwek, he conducted me to the Library, and introduced me to Professor Beneke and Reuss. The former not only speaks English with accuracy and elegance, but has even the English accent." "His studies have been principally directed to the early literature of his country, and he has published, with glossaries, several of the old German poems. "After leaving the Library, I went to Professor Blumenbach." "His Museum is well worth see. ing; among other curiosities, he showed me a collection of 170 sculls of individuals, belonging to almost every part of the globe." "Of Sir Joseph Banks (who received him cordially on a visit to England) he spoke with tears in his eyes." "I met Professor Beneke at the Library, and accompanied him to the house of Professor Eichhorn, to whom he had the kindness to introduce me. I am quite charmed with Eichhorn. There is something so kind and affable in his manner, that he put me more in mind of M. Chevalier of Paris than of any other person I have met with. I sat with him for about four hours, and was obliged to do my best in carrying on the conversation in German, as he does not speak English, though he can read it with facility." "His writings are very numerous. I shall only mention a few of them."
2. Historical Researches on the Canon of the Old Testament. 3. Introduction to the Old Testament. This is the most learned work of the kind ever published."
5. General Repertory for Biblical literature, ten volumes. 6. An introduction to the Apocryphal books." "11. An introduction to the New Testament, three volumes." "The number of students in the University at present amounts to about one thousand."
"Immediately after breakfast I repaired to Professor Bouterwek, who received me with open arms, and kindly offered to render me all the services in his power, during my stay in Gottingen. Bouterwek is, at present, unfortunately very deaf; and his sight, owing to his intense application to study, is beginning to fail him. He was born in 1766." "He is thoroughly acquainted with English literature, and speaks the English extremely well. Few
Having noticed, more or less, the different articles in the volume under review, we now bring to a close the history of this truly interesting young man. His constitution, though improved during the latter years of his life, was naturally delicate; and it would seem that the fatigues he underwent on his latter tour were too much for him. He caught a severe cold in Germa
ny. As he was travelling homeward, the coach was overturned near Chatham, and he sustained a severe injury. He reached home in a very exhausted state, where he continued to languish for about six months. Varied as his studies used to be, his reading, during this period, was almost exclusively confined to the Bible and the Olney Hymns. "O what a glorious change!" were the words he was heard to repeat again and again, till the sound gradually died away. On the first of April, 1821, when twenty-three years of age, he fell asleep.
many languages with which Alex-
It is not, however, with his scho-
Extended as this article has already become, we should be doing violence to our feelings, were we even yet to dismiss it without some farther remarks. We do most sincerely and deeply deplore the loss which learning and religion have sustained, by the early removal of one of acquirements so distinguished, and of principles so excellent. The capacity he displayed as a linguist will bear a comparison with that of those who have acquired the very first name in that department, For example, with regard to two men in Britain whom we have, of late, been most accustomed to speak of as linguists,-Murray and Lee. No doubt, the lamented Dr. Murray's knowledge was more mature than Mr. Ross's, but then Dr. Murray lived till he was thirty-six years of age. With a foundation so wide and so solid, and with actual acquirements so undeniably great, what might Mr. Ross not have accomplished had he lived thirteen or fourteen years longer? At a meeting of the Shropshire Bible Society in 1818, Archdeacon Corbett stated that Lee had made the wonderful acquisition of seventeen languages in the period of fourteen years' study. Now, striking off
* Diary of Studies, p. 46. 60.