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If the accounts of Mr. Mitchell and zens, go through a complete course Sir J. Carr be true, we may now com- of religious instruction, which Dr. S. pare the Calvinists of Hólland with himself admits comprises a respectable the Genevese heretics, and I think sketch of scripture history. Can any there will be little difficulty in deciding reasonable person then believe, that their respective claims. If we are to of all the citizens, those devoted to judge of their faith by their deeds, the ministry should alone be excluded even Dr. S. must, if he be just, give from religious information ? So much the palm to that of Geneva :-but, alas! for Mr. Haldane. His statement is nothing that the Genevese can do is palpably erroneous and absurd. Dr. at all pleasing in his sight, and he Smith is greatly mistaken if le supwill, I am sure, decide in the words poses that the religious instruction of applied by a satirist to the female the Genevese youth consists in the

cominon and inefficient mode of get“ We have many faults;

ting a catechism by heart. The cate

chism and the Bible for the text, You have only two: There's nothing good you say,

books of the catechumens, which are There's nothing good you do."

explained by the pastors verbally, and

their explanations are written down Dr. S. says I entirely omit all con- from memory by the young people sideration of "the increase of true when they return home, and are afterChristians;" but I knew that he would wards examined by the pastors, and not admit that a heretic, however vir- corrected if necessary. I know that tuous and conscientious, can be a true in many instances the explanations Christian ; therefore such considera- which a catechumen writes down duţion was useless. I believe the nuin- ring the year, fill several quires of ber of these men to be as great, in paper. , proportion, in Geneva, as in any Cal. After having occupied so many yinist city whatever, if the scripture pages of the Monthly Repository, it test be a true one, * By their deeds is but justice to your readers to inye shall know them.”

form them what were my opportuIt is intimated by Dr. S. that his ņities of observation at Geneva. I Calvinist friend, Mr. Haldane, of will readily grant to Dr. S. that some Edinburgh, bestowed more time and persons may learn more of the real pains in one week to learn the state state of society in a month than of religion, than I could or would be others would do in a year, if even stow in two winters. I am not dis- their talents and knowledge of the posed to make any boasting of my language were equal. An English own talents for observation, perhaps family taking a house in Geneva, and Mr. Haldane, aided by the second having their own servants, may reside sight with which his countrymen are there a long time, and see only the gifted, might see more in one week, surface of society at grand soirées and than I could see in a year ; but the public assemblies. specimen Dr. S. has given us of his To gain an intimate knowledge of information, is rather unfortunate, as the manners, morals and tone of feelit proves that he was totally incapa- ing of the people, it is advisable to citated by his prejudices from forming board with an intelligent family, where a just judgment of the Genevese. nothing but French is spoken. I arDeeply tinctured with high Calvinism, rived at Geneva, with Mrs. B., in the not to call it Antinomianism, he visits Autumn of 1820, .on our return from the college founded by Calvin, where, Piedmont. When we had determined finding that the theological students to pass the winter in that city, we were not imbued with the faith of their placed ourselves in the family of two founder, he boldly declares that they well-informed elderly ladies, to whom are ignorant of the doctrines of the we had been recommended: they were gospel :- to the Bible and its contents deservedly esteemed by a great many their studies had never been directed.” respectable families, vybo frequently This misrepresentation could only arise visited them in a friendly, way, without from the grossest ignorance or preju. any form. We thus saw their minds dice. I have before stated, that the in their natural, every-day dress.youth, both of the rich and poor citi. Mrs. B., who has always felt a deep

interest in whatever contributes to the and open immorality," should prevail improvement of society, was indefati- among the men : nor do they; for no gable in her inquiries; and, as a lady, account was ever more erroneons than she had opportunities of learning much that which he has given of the state of respecting the state of information, morals in Geneva.—The prevailing demorals and religious feeling of females fects of character in the Genevese are in the different classes of society, of a different description: they arise comprising both rich and poor, as from peculiar circumstances in their well as domestic female servants. situation.-Geneva, till lately, has been This knowledge, wlrich gentlemen can- treated as the enfant gáté of the Renot easily acquire, is absolutely neces- formation ; it may also be called the sary when we would form a just esti- Athens of Switzerland; and perhaps mate of the character of a people. an overstrained opinion of their own He must know little of huinan nature knowledge and in portance may be the and society, who is not aware that the easily-besetting sin” of the inhabiinoral character and religious feeling tants. I have heard the young Geneof men owe more to the early care of vese studying at Paris censured by virtuous and intelligent mothers, than their fellow-students for their conceit. to all the after-teaching of masters or But these are defects which liberal priests in schools or colleges, or cha- persons, who have a more extensive pels or churches. It is true, that in acquaintance with mankind, will be England the good effects of the most rather disposed to smile at, than cenjudicious maternal care are too often sure severely. Dr. Smith appears to obliterated by the hard-hearted immo. deem it presumptuous in me to touch rality of public schools, and the im- upon the state of religion. He would pious piety and frequency of public have it to be believed}, that I am too prayers in schools and colleges, which inuch occupied with the study of rocks make religion appear a contemptible and stones, to feel any interest about farce, even to children, and tend more my fellow-creatures ;-like Milton's to deaden the soul to all religious Mammon, I am ever regarding more feeling in after-life, than the writings the pavement” of the earth, than the of all the infidels that ever existed. beings that tread upon it. I know he The result of Mrs. B.'s inquiries, as has not said this with ill nature, nor well as of my own, continued during will I receive it as such; but I can two winters, were highly favourable. assure him, I have long considered Among females in the higher classes, that the nature of man and his future the education being chiefly domestic, expectations form the most interesting is devoted to the acquisition of useful of all inquiries ; infinitely exceeding knowledge, as well as of household in importance all physical researches duties, which precludes that high tinish whatever. To these subjects I have given to our English ladies in fashion- devoted much time from very early able boarding-schools, where the phy- life; with what profit I will not desical, intellectual and moral energies termine. are frittered down and wasted away, One of the principal motives which in the acquisition of what are called induced me to winter at Geneva, was accomplishments. The Genevese are to observe the influence of a repubmore practically wise than we are on lican democratic government, and a the subject of female education; and liberal faith, on the morals and chaI hope they may never be seduced to racter of the people. I conversed with follow our example. The females in persons of both parties in religion, the humbler walks of life are much and endeavoured to keep my mind better informed than those of the open to receive the trutli. The dissame class in England, and their man- pute in the English Church occasioned ners and their morals are entitled to by the attempt of a few evangelical high praise, if strangers would do persons to supplant the Rev. G. Rooke them justice.-Now I appeal to Dr. and bring in a friend of Mr. Zacariah Smith himself, whether in a small Macaulay, occurred the first winter I state, where the moral character and was at Geneva ; and as I lived under information of the females are what the same roof with Mr. R., and saw I have described, it is at all pro- him every day, the state of religious bable, that “ dissoluteness of morals, parties in Geneva was a subject of

daily discussion.- What I have stated Smith would justly smile at such logic, in Letter I. respecting M. Malan hav- if nsed loy his opponents. ing evinced a persecuting spirit in his Before I conclude, allow me to religious discourses, was founded on remark, that the Generese have suffi. my own knowledge. I have attended cient reason for wishing to exclude the services of that gentleman, both the doctrines of the Trinity and Prebis preaching and the examination of destination, with the leading tenets of his catechumens ; – a circumstance Calvin, from their pulpit-discourses, which occurred during the latter, I and for confining their preachers to have stated in my Travels. The con- scripture language. The cruel murversation between M. Malan and Mr. «lers and persecutious which the enRooke, given in Letter I., ' was re- forceinent of these doctrines occasioned peated to ine by the latter gentleman in Geneva for one hundred years after almost immediately after it took place, the Reforınation, naturally dirgeted and I carefully noted it down. It was the attention of the pastors to inquire also repeated by him to many, if not more fully into the grounds of a faith all the leading members of the English which produced such bitter fruits. The Church then at Geneva. I consider attempt of Calvin to take away the life it as rather disingenuous in Dr. Sunith of Bolsec for denying the predestinato say, that the young gentleinan men- tion of infants to eternal torments, tioned did frequently attend the minis- was an instance of intolerance almost try of Mr. Rooke, and that this throws unequalled in history. The Moloch a shade of discredit upon my account. of Pagan worship was appeased by the Dr. S. knows very well that a gay, occasional suffering of a few children high-spirited young man as M. M-E- expiring in the flames, whose mo-d was, would not be restrained by mentary torments might be rewarded female dictation to attend a Methodist with a happy immortality; but the meeting only,—for such M. Malan's Being whom Calvin worshiped can only chapel was considered by many of the be appeased by the everlasting burning English. But he might attend both of myriads of infants, whose unutterservices the same day with perfect able anguish will endure through the, convenience, as the hour of assembling countless ages of eternity. At the adniitted it. That he attended M. sight of their never-ending tortures, Nalan, I am certain, having seen hin the elect will sing forth rapturous there. With respect to M. Malan's hallelujahıs to celebrate the triumph declaration, that “ he was perfectly of sovereign justice — all creaturely assured of his own salvation," is there affections” will be lost and swallowed any thing extraordinary in it? Does up in the contemplation of this astonot every true Calvinist, who feels nishing proof of the goodness of their himself justified and in a state of grace, God. Nothing engendered by the subelieve the same? It was only on the perstitious idolatry of the most barpeculiar tenets of Calvinisin that M. barous nations appears to me half so M. had to exanine Mr. Rooke; on horribly iinpious as this doctrine, and other tenets he knew him to be or- yet its denial was deemed by Calvin thodox, as they were on friendly terms io deserve deatlı! * with each other. It is quite futile in We have seen with what warmth Dr. S. to bring forward passages from Dr. S. defends the passage in. The M. Malan's sermons, in which he does Refuge where it is stated that the not censure the pastors and people in man in whom concentres all the moral a violent manner : it was not likely, evil committed since the fall, and the while he considered himself a pastor mun in whom resides all the moral of the Genevese Church, that he would excellency that ever dignified human publish any thing particularly offensive: this negative evidence proves 110

Calvin's persecution of Castalio for thing. It reiniuds me of an Irishman denying Predestination, was carried on who was accused of taking a shirt by calumny, as he was not in his power; from a hedge in the day-tiine. When but he proclaimed Castalio to be a blasthe fact was proved by the testimony fality and impudence, an impostor, a

phemer, reviler, full of ignorance, bestof four persons, who saw him take it, mocker of God, a contemner of all relihe replied in his defence, “ Please gion, a filthy dog, a kuave, a vagabond your honour, I can bring forty persons and beggarly rascal, (balatronem,) &c.who did not see me take it.” Dr. Bayle Dict. Hist,

nature since that period, stand on a most virtuous man, both before and perfect level in point of justification after the additional murder. It would before God.” I am willing to admit be useless in Dr. Smith to tell Thurthat neither the author of The Refuge tell there are other passages in The nor Dr. J. Pye Smith would wish this Refuge where the necessity of a holy doctrine to be productive of crime, life is enforced; he would probably but it appears to me that such is its reply, “ Thank you, Sir; but this direct tendency; for after a man has passage is sufficient for my purpose. added crime unto crime to the end of I cannot endanger my, justification by a long life, according to this doctrine, any additional crime; I shall still stand he will still stand on the same perfect on the same perfect level as before its level in point of justification, as the commission." Are the Genevese pasmost virtuous of human beings. Let tors to be blamed for attempting to us suppose a wretch, like Thurtell, cry down a book in which such a pastempted to commit another murder, sage occurs? In what light can it be but alarmed by some compunctions of regarded but as forming the foundaconscience; let him open on the above tion of Antinomianism? passage in The Refuge; after musing I totally disagree with Dr. Smith in upon it, he might break forth into the his definition of religious toleration, if following soliloquy:"Yes, “It must it adu.it of passing a sentence of conbe so;' Calvin, • thou teachest well." demnation on all who may differ froin Yes, John Thurtell, thou mayest com- each other on what they are pleased mit this murder without further en- to call essentials. This I hold to be dangering thy salvation; for, after its downright intolerance. A persecuting commission, thou canst not be in a spirit may be as clearly shewn by words worse condition than the man in

as by acts; indeed, history too well whom concentres every crime com- proves that where the fences and remitted since the world began. Thou straints of civil power are wanting, the wilt therefore stand on the saine descent from religious rancour to the perfect level before God in point of blood-stained path of persecution has justification, as the man in whom re- ever been short and slippery. sides all the excellence that ever dig- Very sincerely do I regret that Dr. nified human nature since the fall.' Smith should have been so late in What canst thou desire more than discovering the impropriety of using this?. Oh consoling and comfortable irritating language, which he says "he doctrine ! Away with childish fears! most of all disapproves in religious Now Thurtell's himself again.' But controversy.” But what can be more hold, John Thurtell (he might add) irritating and offensive than his own is this doctrine true? Before thou language to M. Chenevière and the committest the additional murder, go Genevese pastors? I know that it and inquire of some learned and holy has produced a very unfavourable idea man whether it be true or not.” Let on the Continent of the manners and us suppose him to go to Homerton ; feelings of English divines, who apthere Dr. J. Pye Smith will tell him, pear, from Dr. Smith's letters, to have that the doctrine contained in this made little progress in candour or passage in The Refuge is eternal courtesy since the period when Archtruth, and to oppose it " is to aim deacon Philpot published a defence poisoned arrows against the high and “for spitting on an Arian, with an holy dictates of Inspiration itself.” invective against Arians, the very naWho can doubt that, after this, Thur- tural children of Antichrist." I repeat tell would feel his uncomfortable feurs it, I sincerely regret that Dr. Smith removed, and be nerved up to his should have thought it necessary to purpose? Here is no fallacy, no forced use language which I am sure he canconstruction in this statement. If the not approve, and which, I am willing doctrine in The Refuge be true, John to hope, is foreign to his general habits Thurtell draws from it a strict logical and feelings, and I regret it the more, inference;

for it is as true of moral as it has occasioned me to address him conditions as of numbers or magni- in terms less respectful than ubat I tudes, that what are equal to the should otherwise have done. same, are equal to each other; and he would stand on the same perfect

ROBERT BAKEWELL. level in point of justification, as the

Sir,

Nov. 15, 1824. God;".i. e. they that are in the law (R. BROWN, in his elucidations cannot please God, because it has tide, throws out an excellent hint that Christianity. “ But,” continues he, the prophecies of Daniel and St. John " ye are not in the law, but in Chrisparticularly relate to the Jews and tianity, if Christ be in you.”. And, their affairs, and to their future for- ver. íó, “The body is dead because tunes. On this idea, I cannot help of the law (i. e. sin); but the spirit is supposing but that the seven thun. life because of righteousness.” In the ders of St. John have a particular passages which follow, the Apostle evireference to the affairs of the Jew. dently keeps up the same idea : "If ye ish people, rather than to the anti- live in the flesh, ye shall die.-The law christian powers warring against each brought death only, but life and imother. The symbol, “ as when a lion mortality came by the gospel.-But if roareth,” appears to point to the tribe ye through the spirit do mortify the of Judah, as being connected with the deeds of the body, ye shall live.” — seven thunders. Four of these thun- Which is a proof to me, Sir, that Paul ders have been inflicted on their ene- could not mean the miraculous gifts mies by the Greeks, who have now so

of the spirit. gloriously finished their fourth cam- Mr. J. remarks, that the miraculous paign. If this be so to be understood, gifts of the spirit being in general ihere yet remain three other grand imparted to none but sincere Chrisconflicts ere the restoration of the tians, the possession of them proved Jews to Palestine takes place. This the piety of those who had them. I remark would seem to strengthen think, Sir, there is no great proof of Mr. Brown's explanations of the Pro- either piety or sincerity manifested in plecies.

the Corinthian Christians, although PHILALETHES. they possessed the gifts of the Spirit

in a very splendid manner; for the Sir,

York, Nov. 19, 1824. Apostle says of them, “ Whereas there SHALL feel obliged if you will is among you envying and strife, are

insert in your very valuable publi- ye not carnal?" And again, when they cation the following remarks on the met to celebrate the Lord's Supper, communication of Mr. Jevans, insert- Ye come together not for the better, ed in the Repository for October, pp. but for the worse." 581-584.

Mr. J. has also stated, that the Mr. J. has collected a number of apostles who went to Samaria bappassages to prove that the writer of tized the converts and then laid their Romans vix. 9, “ If any man have not hands on them, and they received the the spirit of Christ, he is none of his," gifts of the Holy Spirit;

-which is an intended in these words the iniraculous error: for the account as recorded is, gifts of the Spirit. After reading this that Philip preached Christ and works portion of scripture in the connexion ed miracles; and the people with one in which it stands, there does not ap- accord gave heed to what Philip did, pear to me to be any thing to warrant hearing of and seeing the miracles the idea which Mr. Jevans defends. which Philip did. And when they be

The Apostle, in chap. viii., is evi. lieved the things which Philip preached dently contrasting the two dispensas concerning the kingdom of God, and tions, viz. the Jewish and the Chris. the name of Jesus Christ, they were lian, and he represents one by the baptized both men and women. (Acts term “flesh," and the other by the viii. 5, 6, 12.) And when the aposterin “spirit.” Hence the Apostle tles who were at Jerusalem heard that says, (ver. 1, " There is no condem- the Samaritans had received the word nation to them that are in Christ Jesus, of God, they sent Peter and John, not who walk not after the flesh, but after to preach or baptize-for this Philip the spirit:" and, in ver. 4, he says, had done-but to confer on them the “ That the righteousness of the law miraculous gifts. Nor does it appear might be fulfilled in us, who walk not that any, except the apostles, were after the fleslı, but after things of the capable of bestowing the miraculous spirit.” Again, in ver. 8, “So then gifts of the Spirit. If this be true, it they that are in the flesh cannot please is incumbent on Mr. J. to prove that

VOL. XIX.

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