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planetary body, of the Solar System in general, and of the Universe in two volumes : the first containing the Geography of America, the second containing the Geography of the Eastern Hemisphere-by Charles B. Brown.
RECENT BRITISH PUBLICATIONS.
Travels in America, performed in 1806, for the purpose of exploring the rivers Allegany, Monongahela, Ohio, and Mississippi, and ascertaining the produce and social condition of their banks and vicinity-by Thomas Ashe, Esq. late captain in the York Rangers.-In 3 thick volumes, small octavo, price one guinea in boards.
The first book of T. Lucretius Carus, of the nature of things : translated into English verse-by the Rev. W. Hamilton Drummond.-In 1 vol. foolscap octavo-price 58. bound.
Memoirs of an American Lady, with sketches of manners and scenery in America, as they existed previous to the revolution—by the author of " Letters from the Mountains," &c. &c. - In 2 vols. duodecimo.
Universal Biography; containing a copious account, critical and historical, of the life and character, labours and actions of eminent persons, in all ages and countries, conditions and professions; arranged in alphabetical order, abridged from the larger Work in quarto—by J. Lemprierre, D. D.-In 1 large volume octavo,-price 168. in boards,
Latin and Italian Poems of Milton, translated into English Verse, with the Originals; and a Pragment of a Commentary on Paradise Lost—by the late William Cowper, Esq. with a Preface and Notes from various authors, by the Editor, and three Designs, by John Flaxman, Esq.-In royal 4t0.-price 21. 28. in boards.
The Georgicks of Publius Virgilius Maro, translated into English blank verse-by James R. Deare, L. L. D. Vicar of Bures, in the county of Suffolk, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his majesty.-In post 8vo. embellished with a head of Virgil, and hot. pressed-price 78. in extra boards.
The Shipwreck of St. Paul, a Seatonian Prize Poem-by the Rev. C. T. Hoare, A. M. Fellow of St. John's College, and Vicar of Blandford Forum, Dorset.
Jerusalem ; or, an Answer to the following inquiries: What is the Etymology of the word Jeruralem ? And, is there any connexion between Salem and Jerusalem? By Granville Sharp. Wherein is shown, that the true and literal interpretation of the word “ Jerusalem” comprehends two verry opposite and distinct national characters, pecuilarly applicable to two equally opposite and distinct, though very disproportionate parts of the Hebrew nation; characters which are unquestionably expressed in the original name of their own capital city, though this has never before been explained, it seems, either by Jews or Christians. 28.
The Itinerant, or Genuine Memoirs of an Actor-by S. W. Ryley:- 3 rols. 11.. 18.
An account of the Life and Writings of James Bruce, of kinnaird, Esq. F. R. S. Author of Travels to discover the Source of the Nile--by Alexander Murray, F. A. S. 4to. 21. 128. 6 d.
Characters, Moral and Political, of the principal Personages throughout the French Revolution, the Consular and Imperial Government. 8vo. 78. 6d.
An Authentick Narrative of the Causes which led to the Death of Major John Andre, Adjutant.general of the British Forces in North America-by Joshua Hall Smitli, Esq. 8x.
The Cottagers of Glenburnie; a Tale for the Farmer's Ingle-Vook-by Elizabeth Hamilton. 8vo. 78. 61.
The Siege of Rochelle—by Madame Genlis. Translated by R. C. Dallas, Esq. 3 vols. 12mo.
Mr. Scrgcant Williams is about to publish a new edition of Sir Edmund Saunders's Reports of Pleadings and Cases in the Court of King's Bench, in the Reign of King Charles the Second ; accompanied with Notes and References. It will be printed in two volumes roval octavo.
The Life of Romney–hy Mr. Hayley, is nearly finished. This is expected to be an interesting work, that will tend to make that eminent painter more universally known; he to whom Mr. Hayley has already paid so classical a tribute of affection, Mr. Isaac Peach, one of the painter's earliest pupils, las lately gained the first prize given by the English school.
FOR FEBRUARY, 1809.
FROM THE EDINBURGH REVIEW.
Outlines of a plan for educating ten thousand poor children, by establishing schoois
in country towns and villages; and for uniting works of industry with useful know. ledge. By Joseph Lancaster. 8vo. London.
THOUGH it fell to our lot to defend Mr. Lancaster against the cruel and unfounded clamour to which he was exposed, -partly because he had. the misfortune not to be a member of the church of England, principally on account of his great merit,-our observations, at that period, were more calculated to repel the aggressions of his enemies, than to explain the nature, and to enforce the importance of his improvements in education.
We premise that we are going to say a great deal about slate pencils, primmers, and spelling books. We are aware such details must be very dull
, and would be very unpardonable, if they were not eminently useful. We would not, however, load our pages with them, if the object were to recommend an ingenious theory for trial, rather than to explain an invention which has been already attended with the most perfect success. If an artist comes with a tiresome and complicated machine, and boasts of its extraordinary powers, we have a right to say, go to work and give us some proof. But when he accepts the challenge, and in practice outdoes his own boastings, it is necessary to look over every rack and pinion of his instrument-to speak of it honourably, that it may be studied, and to describe it perspicuously, that it may be imitated.
We shall state the methods of Mr. Lancaster in the branches of educa. tion which his school comprehends ; point out the leading principles on which he appears to have conducted his institution ; discuss, shortly, the question of his originality, and then take the liberty of making a few remarks on the much, and lately agitated question, of the education of the poor.
The first or lowest class of children are taught to write the printed alphabet, and to name the letters when they see them. The same with the figures used in arithmetick. One day the boy traces the form of the letter or figure; the next day he tells the name, when he sees the letter. These two methods assist each other. When he is required to write H, for example, the shape of the letter which he saw yesterday assists his manual execution; when he is required to say how that letter is named, the shape of the letter reminds him of his manual execution ; and the manual execurion has associated itself with the name.
In the same manner he learns syllables and words; writing them one day-reading them the next.
The same process for writing the common epistolary character, and for reading it.
(A) This progress made, the class go up to the master to read; a class consisting perhaps of 30. While one boy is reading, the word, ex. gr. Ab-so-lu-ti-on, is given out with a loud voice by the monitor, and written down by all the other 39 boys, who are provided with slates for that purpose ; which writing is looked over by the monitors, and then another word called, and so on. Whoever writes a word spells it of course at the same time, and spells it with much more attention than in the common way. So that there is always one boy reading, and twenty-nine writing and spelling at the same time; whereas, in the ancient method, the other twenty-nine did nothing.
(B) The first and second classes write in sand; the middle classes on slates; only a few of the upper boys on paper with ink. This is a great saving in point of expense. In books the saving is still greater. Twenty or thirty boys stand round a card suspended on a nail, making a semicircle. On this card are printed the letters in a very large character. These letters the boys are to name, at the request of the monitor. When one spelling class have said their lessons in this manner, they are despatched off to some other occupation, and another spelling class succeeds. In this manner, one book or card may serve for 200 boys, who would, according to the common method, have had a book each. In the same manner, syllables and reading lessons are printed on cards, and used with the same beneficial economy.
(C) In arithmetick, the monitor dictates a sum, ex. gr. in addition, which all the boys write down on their slates. For example,
9 He then tells them, aloud, how to add the sum. First column-6 and 8 are 14, and 4 are 18 ; set down 8 and carry I to the next column; and so on. In this manner, the class acquire facility of writing figures, and placing them; and, by practising what the monitor dictates, insensibly acquire facility in adding. Again, they are placed round arithmetical cards, in the same manner as in paragraph (B) and required to add up the columns. This method evinces what progress they have made from the preceding method of dictating; and the two methods are always used alternately,
It is obvious, that a school like this of Mr. Lancaster's, consisting of from 700 to 1000 boys, would soon fall into decay, without a very close attention to order and method. In this part of his system, Mr. Lancaster has been as eminently successful as in any other; contriving to make the method and arrangement, so necessary to his institution, à source of amusement to the children. In coming into school, in going out, and in moving in their classes from one part of the school to another, the children move in a kind of measured pace, and in known places, according to their number, of which every boy has one. Upon the first institution of the school, there was a great loss and confusion of hats. After every boy has taken his place there, they all stand up, expecting the word of command: Sling your hars!
This is the only instance of solitary reading, and is used rather as a more parti. cular trial of a boy's progress. li general, Mr. Lancaster disapproves of it, as it creates no emulation.