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tion, there is a mountain valley in Wales that where a street is widened at the exwhich might have been worth, at the out- pense of the rate-payers by taking one side, £800 a year as a sheep farm. But side of it, and by so doing the value of coal and iron were found, works created, the other side is greatly increased, the and a town of 10,000 inhabitants sprung owner of the soil ought to contribute some up, and the landlord now gets a secure in- fair proportion of the rates ? come of £8,000 a year. This extra value These are the sort of questions which has been created by the outlay of capital- are fast coming within the range of pracists, most of whom lost their money, and tical politics, and they are obviously in a by the labor of the community who live totally different sphere of ideas from specon the soil.
ulations as to the original equality of manNow I do not care how the landlord's kind, and the abstract rights or wrongs of ancestors got the land in the times of the the principle of private property. Tudors or Plantagenets, nor would I pro- They will be solved not by any appeal pose to confiscate his income on the plea to such abstract theories, but by what of equal rights or ancestral robbery. But Professor Huxley admits to be the only without being a Rousseauist, I may be method of solving such complicated social permitted to say that I think the original problems, by trial and error, by practical legislation was bad which did not reserve experience, and by the survival of the the mining rights for the State or Com- fittest in the struggle for existence. Such mune, and that the modern legislation was solutions are not far off, and it is pretty bad which did not impose some large clear in what direction they will be. In share of the local rates on the fortunate the mean time, I can only say that advanclandlord, to provide the requisites of civil. ing years and closer observation make me ized life for the community, which had every day less alarmed at the inevitable thus grown up, and to which he was in- progress of democracy, better satisfied debted for his enhanced income.
with the present, and more hopeful of the Again in the case of 'betterments in future. --Contemporary Review. towns. Am I a Rousseauist if I hold
A WINTER DAYBREAK, NEW ZEALAND.
BY ANNIE GLENNY WILSON.
From the dark gorge where burns the morning star
The cock crows in the misty winter morn,
Now from the shuttered East a silvery bar
PROFESSOR STOKES, M.P., ON PERSONAL IDENTITY.
We hope that the President of the Royal precisely the same groove of continuous Society intends to publish at length the purpose in which it was working before lecture delivered at the Finsbury Polytech- the blow fell. Could this be if the mind nic Institution on Sunday, of which the were nothing but the product of the molecTimes gave a short report in its Mon- ular action of the brain ? On the other day's issue. It is obvious that the lecture hand, the notion that the body is rather a was one of great interest, though a great dead-weight than otherwise, which limits part of its drift has been so much con- and confines the action of the soul, was densed in the Times' notice of it as to regarded by Professor Stokes as subject to diminish very much its value for those difficulties quite as great as the materialwho were not present. Professor Stokes's istic theory. We are not told in the remain thesis seems to have been that neither port what these difficulties are, but we is the intellectual part of man the mere think we could suggest some of Professor product of molecular changes in the brain, Stokes's objections. If it were so, there nor, on the other hand, is physical organi- would, one would think, be a greater apzation the mere cage or prison of the soul. proach to freedom and activity of mind Professor Stokes holds both the material- during the decay of bodily power which ist hypothesis which makes the conscious- precedes the dissolution of the tie between ness a blossom of the material organiza- soul and body, than there is in the ful! tion, and the psychic hypothesis which vigor of the mature body ; yet this is makes the material organization a sort of found not to be the case. The health bondage or confinement for the free spirit, and strength of the body inplies a more to be inconsistent with the facts of life. favorable condition for the vigorous action He illustrated the error of the former view of the mind than its frailty and decay. by remarking that after a great physical It is not in extreme old age nor in illness shock, such as a bricklayer is said to have that the mind usually acts with most free. received who was struck down and ren- dom and power, but, on the contrary, in dered unconscious for a time by a falling the maturity and highest vitality of the brickbat, the first thought on recovery of body. The mens sana is found more perconsciousness has been to complete the fect in corpore sano, than in any decadent sentence which had been begun before the state of the body ; nor have we any eviblow was received. Now, said Professor dence worth mentioning that at the apStokes, the blow must have caused a great proach of death the mind can take a more variety of important physical changes in lofty and stronger flight. the brain, yet the moment consciousness gests that the relation between mental returned, the mind went on working in power and physical power is not one either
All this sig
of mental effect to physical cause, or of a even chiefly, upon the will itself, though spiritual cause in a phase of conflict with that is the one element of character which an obstructing agency, but rather is the is self-determining, and wbich can more relation resulting from some deeper agency or less modify and change the set of the which contains in it, if we understand whole stream of tendencies and aspiraProfessor Stokes's drift rightly, the prin- tions. Let any man consider in what the ciple of individuality, and determines both individuality of himself or any of his the form of character and the physical most intimate friends chiefly consists, and frame as well as the connection between he will very rarely find that it is solely, them. Professor Stokes said that there
or eren mainly, the set of his
purposes, were indications in Scripture “ of a sort the attitude of his will. That enters very of energy lying deeper down than even deeply, of course, into his individuality, the manifestation of life, on which the but it is very seldom the most conspicuidentity of man, and his existence, and ous feature, and never the only conspicathe continuance of his existence, depended. ous feature in it. The individuality deSuch a supposition as this was free from pends still more on the bias of nature, the the difficulties of the two theories he had proportion between a man's feelings and previously brought before them, the ma- his intellect, the vividness of his sensaterialist theory and what he had called the tions, the tenacity of bis memory, the psychic theory. It represented the action rehemence of his passions, the eagerness on the living body as the result of an of his curiosity, the depth of his symenergy, if he might say so, an energy pathies,—all matters which are more or which was individualized ; and the process less determined for him, and which his of life, thinking included, was the result will, though it has the power to regulate of interaction between this fundamental and guide, bas no power to revolutionize. individualized energy and the organism. Thus individuality is something far wider The supposition that our individual being than thought, or even “ will ;' and though depended on something lying deeper down will ” enters into it, almost as the dithan even thought itself, enabled us to rection of the helm enters into the course understand, at any rate to conceive how of the ship, nobody can deny that indiour individual selves might go on in an- viduality includes elements which involve other stage of existence, notwithstanding deeply the physical organization no less that our present bodies were utterly de- than elements which are purely mental. stroyed and went to corruption. It Hence we agree with Professor Stokes would be impossible, we think, to doubt that individuality lies deeper than çither that our individuality, that is, our char- the purely mental or the purely physical acter, depends on something" lying deeper elements of life, and we should be very down than thought itself,'' for all that de- willing to find reason to think, that tho termines the direction and the drift of individuality moulds both the mental and thought, the passions, the affections, the the physical organization and the relation purposes, the will, must be conceived as between them, rather than that it is the preceding, or at all events as coexisting product of the mental and physical organiwith, thought, and giving it, so to speak, zation and of the relation between ther. its sailing orders. It is not thought which But as no one was ever conscious of the usually determines character, but in an moulding of his own or any other mental immense majority of cases, character and physical organization, and of the rewhich determines thought; and it is im- lation between them, it must be more or possible to conceive that which determines less matter of inference from more genotherwise than as preceding that which is eral considerations, whether the indidetermined. And we quite agree with viduality was first conceived so as to preProfessor Stokes that the individuality in- cede and determine the mental and physicludes more or less the physical organiza- cal conditions under which life tion. The desires, the tastes, the am- mences, with the relation between them, bitions, the affections, the spiritual yearn- or whether these conditions, and their ings, are more or less profoundly involved reciprocal influence on each other, constiin the character of the senses and the tute the individuality. Of course those physical organization. It is impossible to who believe that there is something more make the individuality depend solely, or in human life than any materialist hypoth
esis will account for,—especially those the corruption of social groups ; and our who believe in free-will, will be very knowledge of this truth renders it quite much more inclined to take the former impossible to say that the divine purpose view, than those who accept evolution as contemplates the evolution of individualexplaining not only the method but the ized characters as a thing apart from the absolute causation of human life. It is evolution of the whole social character of impossible to believe in free will without which they will form a part. Professor believing in a divine mind, for it is clear Stokes therefore would not dream of rethat material forces could never have garding the individualized energies in broken loose from their own fetters and which he finds the probable basis both of blossomed into freedom ; and the mo- mind and of physical organization, as ment you believe in a divine origin for formed without reference to the ancestors the will of man, it is impossible not to from whom those who were about to be believe that the divine purpose has placed brought into existence had sprung, and the evolution and training of human char- the society and nation in which they were acter as a whole above all the other pur- to be developed. Still, we think it may poses of our human life.
So much, we be said by all who believe in the free will think, then, may safely be said, that if of man and the providence of God, that the human will is free, as Professor Stokes human character cannot be regarded as the evidently belieres, the evolution of the
mere product of circumstances and organphysical part of our life must have been ism, but must be treated as stamping a more or less subordinated to the evolution new individuality on the life and the orof the moral and spiritual part of our life ; ganism, by which in no small degree the so that it is not unreasonable to conclude character of that life and the power and that there is some individualized energy, elasticity of the organization are controlled deeper than life itself, which has more or and directed. Professor Stokes believes less controlled the development both of the that this individuality more or less evolves mental and the physical organization of the bodily organization, and cannot be every man, and the relation between them. left without a bodily organization, even
more or less controlled,” be- after our present bodily organization falls cause no one, of course, can say how far into ruin or decay. To him the body is the laws which regulate the evolution of a constituent element of the individual, social relations may not interfere with, or which will express itself in another, perhaps even supersede, what we should regard as a Jess imperfect body, so soon as the old the evolution of individual character. No body disappears. That is certainly the man in his senses denies the lineal trans- suggestion of revelation, and appears to anission of good and evil tendencies from be quite consistent at least with reason, parent to child, or even the contagion of not to say of something which looks rather good and evil between mere companions like the beginning of experience. -Spectaand friends, which has so astounding an tor, effect as well on the regeneration as on
EXILED TO THE ARCTIC ZONE
SIBERIA, the land of the exiles, is a vast that national calamity of ours. My object country with many climates, many soils, is to say a few words about the exile into and many towns, which are all places of the far North not visited by Kennan, punishment for those whom the Master of where the exiles have to undergo not all the Russias and the commander of merely complete intellectual isolation, but millions of soldiers deems dangerous to a series of most cruel physical and mate
rial sufferings, which make that form of George Kennan has described to the in arbitrary punishment just as heavy as, if dignant world our exile system as a whole. not heavier than, the hard labor in the I will not retrace his steps in speaking of mines.
Let me tell the reailer the story of one things issued by tbe secret press, saying of the early settlers in that inhospitable that the local police superintendent was a region, a certain Zalessky, a land surveyor good man, who did not open the letters in the province of Kursk. In 1877 he
In 1877 he of the exiles. This letter was intercepted was arrested on the charge of having dis- by the Kharkoff police, and Jordan was tributed a few Socialist pamphlets, and sent off to the Arctic zone to Vilusk, lat. exiled without trial to Verko-Yansk, a 63° 45', where he had to live quite alone village in latitude 67° 34', numbering 290 among the savage Yakuts. The sufferings inhabitants, wretchedly poor, and com- and privations he underwent were such pletely savage. In that awful place, that he died there in 1888. where he was at that time the only edu- When the number of exiles increases cated man, Zalessky remained for full they mutually help each other morally and cight years without a book, without a materially so as to make life more tolernewspaper, without a letter, suffering able even in such places cursed by nature from the terrible Arctic cold, from hun- as Verko-Yansk, Sredne-Kolymsk, and ger, and want.
It was not the cruelty of Vilusk. Still, the sufferings and privathe gendarmes which inflicted so dire a tions to which they are subjected are expunishment for so trifling an offence; we tremely severe. These are non-inbabitwill not bring against our enemies any able places, for Europeans at all events. unwarranted charge. Zalessky was sim- Nova Zembla, which is visited by men ply forgotten by them. When, by mere
When, by mere only during the summer months, has a accident, his existence was discovered, an much milder climate than the Arctic region order was sent to Siberia to bring him of Siberia. In the former the
average back to his native country. As he had temperature for a year is 13° F., with 7° no money to make the journey at his own below zero for the three winter months ; expense, he had to travel rigbt across while in Verko-Yansk the average both for Siberia on foot, under escort, with a batch the winter and autumn months is 31° F. of vagabonds sent to their native villages below zero, the average temperature for in European Russia. It took him a year the three months of eternal night, Decemto come to the Moscow central prison, ber, January, and February, sinking to which he reached in 1886; there he was 53° F. below zero, which is full 13° bemet by a number of political exiles on
low the freezing point of mercury. As their way to Siberia. One of them, who to the average temperature for the year, escaped afterward, told me that the ap- it is only l° F. above zero, the lowest pearance of Zalessky was that of a man temperature that has been observed at any who had spent twenty years in a gloomy point of the northern hemisphere. Durdungeon. Though under forty, he looked ing the short summer the temperature like an old decrepit man, with bent and rises, rapidly reaching 56° F. But with shattered body, blinking, almost sightless the warm season come the mosquitoes, eyes, and toothless mouth.
which are a plague of these regions more It is not only the climate which works difficult to endure than cold. such havoc upon a man's frame, but the would have believed,” says the correlife of utter misery and isolation. When- spondent of the Russky Vedomosty (Mosever an exile is sent to a new place, where cow), who has been exiled to these parts, he is quite alone, his fate is always ex- " that the insects could appear in such tremely hard. Here is another example swarms.
They literally darkened the of more recent date. In 1884 Jordan, a light, filling the air with an incessant student of the Kharkoff Veterinary noise, covering, as with a black mantle, Schools, was arrested for having taken our horses, whose flanks were soon bleedpart in the printing of the pamphlets of ing all over. Maddened with pain, the the peaceful Socialists—those who were horses kicked and reared, but seeing that against political terrorism. After a year all was unavailing, they drooped their of imprisonment, namely in 1885, he was heads and submitted to the inevitable. exiled without trial to Verko-Lensk (not In vain we tried to protect ourselves with Verko-Yansk), a town in Southern Si. veils, travelling, notwithstanding the hot beria. On reaching this place be wrote weather, in winter gloves and overcoats. to his friends at Kharkoff asking them to The mosquitoes penetrated through the send him at his own address all the new sleeves under the shirts, stinging the breast