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for a little rest, and obtained leave from Still Cosmo was anxious to keep Cel. his princely patron to make a short pil. lini at work. He could thoroughly appre; grimage to Vallambrosa, Camaldoli, the ciate the artist's efforts, but he objected baths of Santa Maria, and back again. to pay the bill. Numerous plans for work At the baths he met with an old man, a were raised, and models made; but they physician, who was, besides, a student in fell through, either through the artist realchemy. This old man conceived a great fusing to adorn another's work, or through friendship for Cellini, and told him that the prince choosing the worst models. there were mines both of gold and silver The court, too, was full of intrigues, as in the neighborhood; and furthermore, the story of a block of marble will show. gave him a piece of practical information, A fine block, intended for a statue of to the effect that there was a pass, near Neptune, had arrived, and the duchess Camaldoli, so open that an enemy could contrived that Bandinelli shouid have the not only easily invade the Florentine ter promise of it. Of course Cellini could ritory by its means, but also could sur. not stand this, so he pleaded his cause prise the castle of Poppi without diffi. with the duke, with the result that it was culty. Being furnished by his old friend arranged that he and his rival should send with a sketch-map he immediately re-in models, and that the victor in the com. turned to Florence, and lost no time in petition should execute the statue. Benpresenting himself before the duke, and venuto says he produced the best; but, acquainting bim with the reason of his knowing the court well, he waited on the speedy return.
duchess with a present of some jewellery, The duke was well pleased with this and promised, if she would only be neuservice, and promised, of course, great tral in the contest, to make for her the things; but the favor of princes is pro- finest work of his life, a life-sized crucified verbially fickle, and when, in the course Christ of the whitest marble, on a cross of a day or two, he sought an interview of pure black. Cellini says Bandinelli for the purpose of being rewarded for his died of sheer chagrin ; and the duchess Perseus, he was met by a message from declared that as he, if he had lived, should the duke, through his secretary, desiring have had the stone, at any rate by his him to name his own price. This roused death his rival should not have it, so the Cellini's ire, and he refused to put a price marble was given to Bartolommeo Amupon his work, until, stung by repeated manati, who finished the statue in 1563. reiterations of the demand, he said that The feud between Bandinelli and Cel. ten thousand crowns was less than it was lini rose to such a height as even to interworth.
fere with their sepulchral arrangements. Cosmo was evidently a good hand at a The latter in disgust with the duchess bargain, and was quite angry at being had promised his Christ to the Church of asked such a sum, saying that cities, or Santa Maria Novella, provided the monks royal palaces, could be built for such a would give him the ground under it, on sun; to which the artist retorted, with which to erect his tomb. They said they his usual modesty, that any number of bad no power to grant his request, so, in men could be found capable of building a pet, he offered it on the same terms to cities and palaces, but not another, in all the Church of the Santissima Annunziata, the world, who could make such a statue and it was eagerly accepted. But Bandiof Perseus. His rival, Bandinelli, was nelli had nearly finished a “ Pietà," our called in to appraise it, and, whether he Lord supported by Nicodemus — a portook its real value, or liad some doubts of trait of himself — and he went straight to the consequences of the fire.eating Cel- the duchess and begged the chapel for lini's wrath in the event of bis depreciat. his own tomb. By ber influence, with ing it, he assessed it at sixteen thousand some difficulty, he obtained his wish, and
This was more than the duke there he erected an altar.tomb, which is could stand; and, after much haggling, it still in existence; and having, when it was settled that the artist should be re. was finished, removed thither his father's warded with a sum of three thousand remains, he was taken suddenly ill, as five hundred gold crowns, to be paid in aforesaid, and died within eight days. monthly sums of one hundred gold crowns. The next noteworthy incident in Cel. This soon fell to fifty, then to twenty-five, lini's chequered career was that he bought and sometimes was never paid at all, so a farm near Vicchio, about seven miles that Benvenuto, writing in 1566, says from Florence, for the term of his natural there were still five hundred crowns due life (in other words, an annuity), of one to him on that account.
Pierinaria Sbietta. He paid his.property
a visit, and was received with every and that Daniello Ricciarelli da Volterra, demonstration of affection by Sbietta, who had the work in hand, was too old to his wife, and his brother Filippo, a profii. execute it properly, so that there was an gate priest. Several persons warned him excellent opportunity for Cellini to return of impending danger from one or other of to France, and once more take possession them, but their kindness seems to have of bis Tour de Nesle. disarmed his suspicions, and he stayed to He asked Baccio to mention this to the supper, intending to sleep at Trespiano duke, as, personally, he was willing to go, that night. When he resumed his jour- but the duke would not listen to Benney, however, he was taken violently ill venuto going away, and selfishly kept with burning pains in the region of his hiin, without giving him employment stomach, and next morning felt as if on least as far as we know, for here Cellini's fire. Then he concluded that he had | autobiography ends, in the year 1562. been poisoned, and, after passing in re. In 1561, however, Cosmo presented view the things of which he had partaken at him with a house near San Croce, in the supper, be felt convinced that corrosive Via Rosajo, for him and his legitimate sublimate had been administered to him heirs male forever, and in the grant, in some very highly seasoned but palat- which is very flattering, is the following: able sauce, which he had so much rel. “ Possessing the house and its appurteished that he had been helped to two nances, with a garden for his own use, we spoonfuls. At Cellini's age
he was expect the return for the savors shown then sixty — this proved nearly fatal, him will appear in those masterpieces of especially as the physicians of that day art, both of casts and sculpture, which were profoundly ignorant. He hovered may entitle him to our further regard." between life and death for six months, Very little is further known about him, and did not thoroughly recover and attend but we know that on the 16th of March,
more to his business for a whole 1563, he was deputed, together with year.
Bartolommeo Ammanati, to attend the His illness was productive of another funeral of his old friend and master, event in his life, for, whilst lying sick, Michael Angelo Buonarotti. he made a vow, should he recover, to On the 15th of February, 1570, Cellini marry a woman who had nursed him with himself died, and was buried with great great care. He fulfiled his vow, and by pomp in the chapter-house of the Santishis wife, Madonna Piera, he had five sima Annunziata, in the presence of the children.
whole academy. When able again to work, he sought Vasari painted his portrait, in which he the dluke, who was at Leghorn, was kindly is represented with his back towards the received, told to return to Florence, and spectator, whom he regards, with his occupation should be found for him. But | beard on his shoulder. It is the face of a this does not seem to be the case, so he man of middle age, with features of no recompletely finished the inarble crucifix, markable cast, short, curling hair, and which he intended for his tomb, and crisp beard, the moustache slightly upshowed it to the duke and duchess, both turned, bushy eyebrows, and two warts on of whom were highly delighted with it. the right side of his nose. Cosmo hankered after it, and ultimately obtained it, in 1565, for fifteen hundred crowns, when he had it removed and placed in the Palazzo Pitti. In 1577 it was sent as a present to Philip the Sec
From The Contemporary Review. ond of Spain, who had it carried on men's shoulders from Barcelona, and deposited Іт
be a convenient introduction to in the Coro Alto of the Escorial, where it the subject of this paper if I ask the may now be seen, inscribed “ Benventus reader to suppose the case (which is not Zelinus, Civis Florent: faciebat 1562.” imaginary) of a river flowing with a very
Not being fully employed lie got fidgety; slight current, and accompanied in its and a friend of his, Signor Baccio del wanderings by the great humanly con. Bene, having arrived in Florence on a trived conveniences of a railway and a mission from Catherine de' Medici, they good ordinary road. Next, let him sup. had a conversation, in which it was men pose that three travellers are going in the tioned that the queen dowager wanted to same direction, and that they are persons finish the sepulchral monument of her of very different idiosyncrasy. One of deceased husband, Henry the Second, them, whom we will call A, is a praciical,
THE ANALOGIES OF SAILING.
energetic person, whose notion of travel to him as variety in most other things, ling is that the object of it is to arrive at and if he cares to be going fast he has one's destination. If you asked such a always the satisfaction of reflecting that person which of the three means of com- the earth, with all its waters, is Aying munication he voted for he would stare in along incessantly at a prodigious speed in astonishment at such a superfluous ques. space. tion. He would take the rail, of course, Sailing is a game in which the mental and look in his time-table for the quickest power and the bodily activity of the captrain. He would not listen to any other iain and his crew are pitted against the proposal, even if he were at leisure, but forces of wind and water. These forces would get himself whirled to the next are sometimes altogether favorable, in town on his itinerary, even though he did which case the sailor's business is to not know what to do with himself when he make the most of them, but more fregot there. Another of the three travel- quently they are only intermittently and Jers, B, might wish to see the country slightly favorable, or else directly hostile, more at leisure, and take a carriage for and iben the sailor has to exercise great the road, or he might even prefer to do the ingenuity and incessant vigilance so as to distance on horseback, is a saddle-horse make niggardly help do much for him, and were procurable. The third, C, suppos- even to make hostile forces serve his own ing him to have the boating instinct, private ends. Now, if you compare this would say, “Let us hire a boat, a sailing game with any other game, you will find, I boat, as there is not much current, and do believe, an essential difference, which is the whole distance on the river !" The this. All other games represent either a objections to such a proceeding on the contest of rivalry between the players in part of his companions may be readily an- some particular speciality of skill, such as ticipated. The lover of express trains throwing a quoit, strikiny a ball, directing would say that nobody could have any an arrow to a target, or else a mimic batidea of the time a sailing-boat would take. tle, as in chess, when each player has a The equestrian would answer that the small army under bis command and can mind is much more at leisure to see and only hope to win by dint of superior genenjoy a fine tract of country when one is eralship. But life itself is not always on borseback than when he has to be con- either a rivalry or a combat, it is more stantly thinking about ropes and sails and frequently the exercise of man's inge. a rudder, and studying every little varia- nuity and courage in dealing with natural tion in the wind. It is useless to argue circumstances and surrounding forces about matters of taste, but if C were im. over which he has no control, yet which pelled to speak in self-desence he would will either help or hinder him according probably reply that the very objections so to the art and craft applied by him to readily urged against a sailing voyage every successive situation. What I claim constituted its peculiar charm. The un for sailing is that it does not represent certainty of it makes it interesting, and simply a rivalry in special skill like bilthe fact that skill and attention are re. liards, nor a baitle like chess, but that it quired almost at every instant, gives the represents with wonderful accuracy the sailor an armount of satisfaction in the ex. great contest of the human race with naercise of his faculties which can hardly be ture, a contest in which man does not equalled, and can never be surpassed, in really conquer the natural forces but only the practice of any other amusement. avails himself of them. And I am fully Those who have no taste for sailing lose convinced that the real reason why sailing their tempers when the boat does not | is so attractive to many minds is because maintain at least that equality of speed the analogy is so close that even a short which may be expected from a pair of voyage represents in miniature the action horses, and if they bad their will they of the human race in the universe, so that would desire a sailing-boat to go as regu. the deepest instincts of humanity are larly and as fast as it she had a boiler in gratified by doing on a small scale what her cabin and a screw churning the water the race has done on a large one. The at her stern. For such persons the proper analogy is still more perfect when the amaplace is a bed in a sleeping.carriage or ateur sailor is also an amateur boat-builder berth in a transatlantic; but a true sailor (as many are), and has himself superiono more desires the monotony of. going tended the construction of his vessel, or, always twenty knots an hour than the still better, made it with his own hands. other monotony of remaining continually I have said that in sailing we becalmed. Variety in speed is as pleasing really conquer the forces of nature, we only exercise an ingenuity in using them the world we shall find in religion a sure for our own purposes, and in this we haven of rest. They describe a vessel exactly represent the action of humanity with a fair wind and rippling sea as the in its grand movement of advancing civil. type of prosperity, in which men are apt ization, as humanity cannot really achieve to forget the possibility of those tempesis anything against nature, and only ad- which they will probably have to encounvances by the most ingenious, the most ter. They exhort us to vigilance by the delicately observant conformity. It is example of the man on the look-out, who this which gives that intellectual interest strains his eyes to discern whatever danto sailing wisich, to those who practise it ger may be dimly perceived in the darkintelligently, is one of the keenest and ness of the night. The clerical similes, it most delicate of mental pleasures, but as may be observed, have generally reference sailing also requires great bodily activity to storm and calm, or to rocks and darkit completes the representation of man's ness, and beacons shining over the deep, action in the universe which is physical as or to shipwrecks or safe havens. Men of well as mental. In this respect sailing has business, on the other hand, have a strong a great advantage over all sedentary predilection for similes taken either from games of skill, for although sailing per- the depth of water or the floating power mits us to enjoy times of comparative of the ship. They have two ways of deal. rest, they are seldom of long duration, ing with the subject. Very frequently and the sort of vigilance that sailing re-water represents, in their minds, the quires implies bodily readiness quiie as black depths of poverty into which a inan much as mental quickness and prompti- will assuredly sink, unless he has either tude.
the good ship of a substantial private forThis, then, is the grand analogy of sail-tune to sustain him, or else the strong ing, that it so closely represents, on a arms and skill of a swimmer, by which small scale, the manner in which human- they mean the industry and talent of a ity makes progress by conformity to the successful professional man. Very fre. forces of nature; but it is likely that if quently also, by a strange inversion, when there were no other analogy than this, the men of business choose similes from naucharm of sailing would not be so com- tical affairs, they make the sea stand for monly felt, as the only people who under- not poverty at all, but just the con. stand the conditions of progress by contrary – abundant wealth. in these cases formity are those who have some tincture we hear nothing about the danger of of scientific education. Sailing has anal sinking, but a great deal about the inconogies which are much more generally un- veniences of running aground. The ship derstood. Not only does it represent the is no longer the man's fortune but the grand advance of humanity by means of human being himself, who will go on ingenious conformity, but it also repre- smo
moothly as long as he has money enough sents, on a small scale, the passage of the under him (the money is now supposed to individual human being through the fa- be neither metal or paper, but a liquid), vorable and the unfavorable circum- and come to a standstill, perbaps to total stances of existence. Thousands of met- destruction, by fracture, when the liquid aphors and similes in many literatures money is too shallow to swim in. Acbear witness to the general consciousness cording to this view, a stranded ship with of this analogy, and even the ordinary con- her back broken, so that she can never versation of people who are not poetical or float again, is the exact type of a imaginative in any way, and who despise pletely ruined man. I suppose it was poetry in their hearts, connects sailing Shakespeare who first set this simile with such practical matters as prosperity going by the passage about the tide in the and adversity in business. Some clergy-affairs of men, though he does not seem men are excellent sailors and have been to have looked upon the water as riches, accomplished oarsmen, but many other but only as a means of pursuing the human clergymen know hardly anythiný about voyage in search of riches. the subject, yet I wonder if there is a Neither clergymen nor men of business preacher in all Christendom who has not say much about beating against the wind, adorned bis sermons with nautical similes, and here they seem to miss an excellent precisely because the variety of experi. opporiunity, for of all analogies between ences through which the sailor passes in sailing and human life there is not one so managing bis vessel is so apt a represen- encouraging and inspiriting as this. A tation of human life. They tell us that clergyman might say: “When Providence alter being tossed on the rough ocean of I tries you with what appears to be the
irresistible opposition of the powers of know what you mean. They will tell you, this world arrayed against you, do not with that air of conscious superiority give way to despondency, but remember which is often the accompaniment of the that your courage and your intelligence profoundest ignorance, that sailing is very were given to you in order that you might well when the wind is fair, but of no use turn even apparently hostile forces to in any other circumstances. I remember your advantage. These forces, which a very respectable-looking gentleman, who seem so terrible, may be friendly, for asked me some questions about my sailing they may so discipline your minds in pa. excursions in the following manner :tience and skill that they themselves may Q. With sails you can go when the be the appointed means by which you wind is in the direction you intend to folshall prevail against them.” A man of low, but when it blows on one side, what business might say, in his own language: can you do? “ Beating against the wind is an essential A. Sail. part of the education of a man of busi- l. (with a very incredulous air). And
If the winds in his sails were con- when it blows dead against you? tinually favorable he would lose the skill A. Sail. which is necessary to make way against Q. (with an air of much increased in. difficulties. If all speculations were nec-credulity and a laughi). How so? essarily profitable there would be no room A. By beating to windward. for the exercise of talent in business, and Q. What? therefore neither interest nor pleasure. A. If you will take the trouble to study It is in difficult times that a real genius the laws of lateral resistance (for the keel for business has an opportunity, and then in the water), and the decomposition of he takes the helm of his vessel in his own forces (for the action of the wind on the hand and beats against the wind, feeling a sails), you will understand it ultimately, deeper inward satisfaction in a compara. but not otherwise. tively small result attained by his own This gentleman went away perfectly skill when everything seems against him, unconvinced, and evidently thinking that than in large profits when trade is easy beating to windward (which was practised and everybody may make a fortune.” It with perfect success in the days of Co. seems as if clergymen and men of busi-lumbus and earlier) was a creation of my ness might expatiate very effectively in own fancy, the dream of a student, not to this way, and perhaps they do occasion- be realized on
I should have ally, but I never heard them. The plain thought that in two such countries as truth is that very few people who are not France and England it would have been sailors, either professionally or as ama- worth while to teach boys in school the teurs, are aware that it is possible to sail first elements of that great art of sailing against the wind at all. The present on which commerce has so long depended. writer has lived both in England and The best allusion to the moral signifi. France - two nations with a vast extent cance of beating to windward which (for of coast, and possessing the most power- the moment) I am able to remember in ful navies in the world and he is firmly literature is Emerson's, convinced that the great majority of
Chambers of the great are jails, landsmen (not to mention the more charm
And head-winds right for royal sails. ing but generally less nautical sex) do not know, or at least do not believe and There is a fine ring in these lines; but realize in their own consciousness, the notwithstanding a great love and admiragreat central truth about sailing, that tion for Emerson, I have never quite every properly constructed vessel can sail known why he employed the epithet "royagainst the wind. They do not even al,” unless it was for alliteration and the know that a boat can sail with a side movement of the
Sailors call wind. Their notion is that the art of those sails royals which, in a fully rigged sailing consists in spreading a certain ship, are above the top-gallant sails, and area of canvas when the wind is perfectly the truth is that head-winds are right, not fair, and going along swimmingly so long only for those, but for all other sails that as it blows in the line of the vessel's mo- can be properly set, and more particularly tion, but they fancy that when the wind for the fore-and-aft sails of cutters and changes a little the captain has nothing to schooners which are without royals. do but cast anchor. If you ask them what Of all the modes of progression ever he is to do with a lee-shore, an iron. invented by man, beating to windward in bound coast, and no anchorage, they don't a sailing vessel is morally the most beau