varieties were imported. These included | tunny. R. Chia b. Asche recommended an Egyptian fish not yet identified, which small fish as calculated to prevent intes. was brought into the country in barrels, tinal disorders, and to promote health and and a fine species of mackerel from Spain. strength. Another rabbin held that a On the other hand, the cured and pickled diet of this kind was well adapted for fish for which the Jewish merchants were invalids, but regarded it as injurious to celebrated were largely exported, princi. women suckling their young, and to peopally to Greece and Rome. Besides the ple whose eyes were weak. It was usual members of the finny tribes a good considered dangerous to eat fish within many kinds of fish foods, ingeniously twenty-four hours after blood-letting, and compounded and prepared, were sold in in the month of Nisan such food was the markets, and were very popular with believed to promote leprosy. On the the general public. There was a soft-fish other hand, it was the practice to give fish cake called tris terufa — mentioned very to women who were enceinte, not only frequently in the Talmud – which was because of its invigorating virtues, but doubtless a compound of the flesh of because a popular superstition regarded thrissa with other ingredients. Then the it as beneficial to the unborn child, and entrails and roes of certain fish were sold calculated to give it a pleasing appear. separately in order to be made up into ance. Even to such matters as the method a kind of caviare. In Nedariin we find of eating fish the rabbins gave a large mentioned several times two other prepa. attention. They advised that food of this rations calied zir and murais. The for. kind should be eaten slowly and with care, mer was a sauce, in the making of which as a fish-bone sticking in the throat might, the fat, juice, and blood of fishes largely they observed, have very serious conse: entered; the latter was, without doubt, quences. The Talmud has also worked identical with the Roman muria, a pleas- out in copious detail the simple division ant-tasting fish pickle which was sold of the fish kingdom into clean and unwithout the fish itself, and probably em. clean which we find in the Bible. Among ployed as a condiment. This murais the unclean - or rather as further characappears to have been in much favor, for teristics of such fish — it classes those in Aboda Sara mention is made of a ship with tapering heads, imperfect vertebral entirely laden with it. Large quantities columns, and symmetrical bladders and were imported from Spain. A thin fish roes. It further states that the permitted broth called harsena was also sold; this fish are oviparous, and the prohibited was a drink, and was served up in goblets. viviparous - a rough and zoologically The references to fish in the Talmud are primitive distinction which might have not confined to its commercial aspects. been more correct had the definition Copious discussions as to its domestic viviparous” been exchanged for those use yield a full picture of its method of "that fecundate their eggs before excluconsumption, and of the superstitions and sion.” With reference to fins and scales, other ideas by which the popular taste it is pointed out in Nidda that as the was in part regulated. The rabbins latter may sometimes appear before the wisely insisted on the necessity of obtain. former a fish or piece of fish with scales, ing only fresh fish, and for this purpose but without fins, may, in cases of doubt, be recommended that purchasers should al- eaten, but under no circumstance may it way's see that there was a certain redness be touched if the scales are absent. The about the gills. When salted or cured it Talmud differs from the Bible in having was enjoined that the curing should be rather a full ichthyology of its own. perfect, otherwise the fish was deadly. In cases of doubt, however, a strong drink taken after the meal was prescribed as a possible antidote. Some varieties of cured fish, such as the herring and an.

From The Spectator. chovy, might be eaten without super-cooking, but in all cases rigorous washing In almost every monarchy the position was ordered. Small but full-grown fish of the members of the royal family is one appear to have been much in favor with of the difficulties of statesmen, and we the Jews, and this considered in connec. should not wonder if it became one even tion with the general predilection for in England. Princesses, indeed — unless thrissa would seem to point to that fish they fall in love unwisely, an event which, having been, if not exactly the anchovy, though it has occurred both in France at any rate a smaller variety than the land Austria, witness the cases of the


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Duchess de Berry, and of Napoleon's and of the Stuarts, who were three times widow, the grand duchess of Parma, supplanted by cadets — Mary and Anne happens wonderfully seldom – are rarely both reigning because they were Stuart troublesome. Either they marry more or princesses, and the electress Sophia being less acceptably, and go away, or they live selected by Parliament for the same rea. at home as quiet daughters of the house, son - there was that still obscure affair or they vegetate apart from the current of of the old Duke of Cumberland in 1835. affairs in dignified retirement. They can. Thousands believed that he aspired to not form political parties, they very rarely the throne - aspired, we mean, by active lead society, and they have not often been intrigue – and Joseph Hume, a keen so popular as to be individually formida. observer with exceptional means of infor. ble. In modern history, two princesses, mation, attacked him in his place in Parour own Mary Stuart, and the German liament. It is difficult to believe that the lady who became Catherine II. of Russia, duke could have so deluded himself, but have headed successful rebellions, the he had an energetic Orange following, Duchess de Berry was Louis Philippe's party spirit ran very high, and he may most dangerous foe, and the princess of have hoped for a Parliamentary vote. He the Asturias was for a short time sup- had a much better position than Mon. posed to govern Spain; but as a rule, the mouth, and it seems incontestable that lives of royal ladies have interested Monmouth thought the people of England courtly biographers, rather than serious would declare for him, and against the historians. Princes, however, are often legitimate line. He was not wrong in troubles. It is, we suppose, impossible thinking that a “usurpation was possito base a system upon pedigree without ble. conferring some kind of importance upon

The rise of a cadet branch in this counall who can claim that pedigree as their try with a distinct political or social posiown; and in all States the rivalries, am- tion justifying a pretence to the crown bitions, popularities, or unpopularities of seems quite impossible now, and, we preprinces have fretted or perplexed states. sume, it really is so.

A soldier prince Either the princes have been em. might save the country from an invasion, ployed by the sovereign, which is the and so establish a claim; but, apart from more usual policy, and then their disasters the improbability of the event, the Enhave reflected disgrace upon the dynasty glish people would be shocked by his in a special manner, and have cost it pop- asking for that particular reward. They ularity with the army; or they have been would give him anything else, in money, shunted out of politics, and then they or honors, or even office; but, from a have been discontented subjects, formida change of feeling which has been little ble from their rank. Some families, such observed, but which, we think, has ceras the Hapsburgs, have been nearly ex. tainly occurred, they would think him as empt from this danger, which is scarcely unreasonable in aspiring to the throne as noticed in Vehse's pages; but it has been they would have thought the Duke of a great one for the Bourbons, it was felt Wellington. Napoleon believed the Iron by English Tudors, Stuarts, and the Duke would never remain a subject, and house of Brunswick, and it has not been could not imagine that if ten days after entirely absent from the history of the Waterloo he had ordered a regiment to Romanoffs. Even in very recent years march on the House of Commons, his the Russian grand dukes have headed officers would have laughed in his face, parties in a dangerous way, and the son and the people would have considered of Alexander 1., the grand duke Con- him a lunatic. No prince in a country stantine, never reconciled himself per. like this could show himself a Bismarck fectly to his brother's elevation. The or a statesman of the first order in other late emperor was repeatedly called upon ways; and if he did, though he might to “regulate” family difficulties, and in conceivably be beyond dismissal, he could the gossip of Russia, at all events, they never get the 'vote of Parliament, without press heavily on the present czar. Even which he would be powerless as an aspiin England, where all such cabals are sup- rant to the throne. Even in extreme cir. posed to be hopelessly out of date and cumstances, with the Empire visibly fallforgotten, history has been compelled, ing, the claim to that one prize would and that very recently, to take note of destroy the public confidence and the them. Not to speak of the Tudors, whose popular affection. The single contingency reigns were one long war against possible in which such a trouble could occur would rivals resting their claims on pedigree, I be the existence of a Jacobin prince of the blood in whom the body of the people be a severe embarrassment to any but a confided, at a moment when they were first-class premier. If the sovereign fa. demanding something, say the nationaliza. vored the claimant, the premier would tion of the land, which the sovereign and have to resist the claim by nearly imposthe middle classes were resolute not to sible explanations to Parliament; and if grant. That contingency is not probable, the sovereign disapproved, he might find as little probable as another which was party feeling extend itself to hostility to once threatened, and by possibility might the wearer of the crown.

Observers say, occur, the election of a cadet prince by the and sometimes write, that the difficulty people of Ireland to be their favorite and will be met by the abolition of George their king. A Guelph Parnell would be III.'s Royal Marriage Law, and that the an ugly phenomenon, but it is out of the princes will carry off the heiresses, and range of practical politics, and even of so become county gentlemen; but in that political dreams. Nevertheless, though case they will be subjects, and a prince we do not expect to see an English house not restrained by the etiquettes of his of Orleans, English statesmen may yet be caste might be a dangerous politician. Is troubled by the princes. Every sovereign there any law or binding custom which may not be as wise as Queen Victoria, or prevents a prince, not being either peer as coolly constitutional, and we can easily or pensioner, from standing for the House imagine an unpopular premier seriously of Commons, to which, if he were able, a embarrassed by a claim like that which, big democratic borough — say, for exam. on Monday, Mr. Gladstone, with a frown ple, Stoke – might be quite willing to for Baron H. de Worins and a smile for send him? The suggestion will strike the Duke of Albany, so quietly pushed most of our readers as a little bizarre, aside. That will not be the last claim of but the "royalties” are growing numerthe kind. It will be much more difficult ous, and, but for accident, there might one day, unless the House of Commons have been in twenty-five years half-a-dozen possesses more backbone than at pres. Campbells alive, each one eligible to Parent, to resist the claim of the Duke of liament, and each one a direct and acConnaught, "who has seen service,” to knowledged representative of every family the command-in-chief; and by-and-by, the ever seated on the British throne. Time princes of the English house may possi- arranges all things, the matter is not bly be many, and their position worse. pressing, and the drift of opinion is reEven now, a prince of ability is most un publican; but some day the question what pleasantly placed, – he is forbidden by to do with so separate a caste will be etiquette to take a political part, the func- among the preoccupations of a premier tion of social leadership is to many minds who, even before that time, will be puzzled most ennuyant, and the great offices are whether to find appanages indefinitely, or practically closed to him. Mr. Gladstone to face the risk that a prince may open a wisely refused to say why he had not ap- theatre, turn Jacobin politician, or inarry pointed the Duke of Albany, hinting that a dancer at the opera. if he could be questioned in favor of one prince, he might be questioned out of bostility to another, but we doubt not that if he had spoken, the nomination of princes would have been proved to be

A VISIT TO THE NORE. impossible. Thirty years hence we may see a dozen personages in society all THERE are few places more interest. within the succession, all claiming to take ing or instructive than the “Nore Lightprecedence of the Dukes of Norfolk, all ship.”. Some one - I fancy the author of noticed by the people as few statesmen “My Watch Below" — has written that are, and all in circumstances which of all the crew of the vessel bear the expression others most provoke ambition. Parlia- of melancholy on their countenances - - the ment will be most reluctant to vote them effect of long and anxious confinement. incomes every such vote now calls out Certainly, two of the men rescued from the a democratic demonstration - and will jaws of death a few weeks previous to our certainly not vote them adequate incomes, visit impressed one with the quietness and without such votes their position will and, perhaps, gravity of their manner and be indescribably provoking. Some of speech, and their faces may have been a them may be able men, as the Coburgs reflex of their minds to some extent; but bave often been, and a solidly able prince, they one and all met us with a hearty and poor to pauperism, but so favored by so- cheerful “Good morning!” as we clamciety as to bave a party at his back, would | bered up the sides, and to us it seemed that

From The Field,

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for men who carry their lives in their hands our sending them a box of books, and we for eight month's out of the twelve, and have just despatched four large bound rarely taste alcoholic beverages, they were volumes of the Graphic, including the bright and cheerful, and disposed to make war of 1878, and a miscellaneous collecthe best of everything. Of course, wetion of smaller works. L. added some saw the lamp, and how it revolves by creature comforts in the shape of tinned clockwork, and the oil-room, and the milk, cocoa, and fresh butter, and I verily powder magazine, and gun-cotton for believe we shall be canonized by the men blowing up wrecks, and the hammocks, at the Nore. If this should meet the and tasted the biscuits, and inspected the eyes of any yachting men or landsmen, meat, and bought some of their handi- for the matter of ihat, to whom, even work in the shape of a tea-caddy and amidst the busy life of London, it is a, and, of course, too, we drank pleasure and a relaxation to retire a while their healths and they drank ours. But, alone and ease or refresh the mind with as I remarked immediately after we had whatever literature administers most joined the “ Jeannette" again, the impres- wholesomely to their minds, let them pic. sion left on the mind is not immediately ture to themselves the solitude from which reducible to words. There is a longing there is no escape, the dull monotony to return, and shake those weather-beaten which cannot be relieved, experienced by men again by the hand in the name of the men at the Nore; and, while rememhumanity and our common gratitude. We bering the thousand and one distractions are not very seriously disposed, this friend within reach of the landsman and the and myself, but I think it was not until the rich, let them be mindful how welcome is engineer called our attention to the fact the smallest parcel, be it what it may, that the inspirator was choked, and the that adds a new idea or awakes an old water rapidly disappearing in the glass, recollection, calling forth blessings on the that we awoke from our reverie induced heads of the donors from the grateful somehow or other by what we had seen bearts of the lightship's crew. There is and heard about the lightship. We asked something grand in the self-sacrifice each other why should not these men be which duty like this entails. Amid the decorated like the heroes of Tel-el-Kebir? hurricane and the rushing tide, the snapThey risk their

es in their country's ping of a cable wo signify that death service every day: Sometimes death was near in a thousand forms. It is the comes in the ordinary routine of work. same through all the walks of life. The Here is a case: a few weeks ago the gas- British character is instinct with human. light, which is kept burning on the sand ity. Nihil humani a me alienum puto, about half a mile off, went out. The this is the motto of the race. The battle men's duty is to at once relight it. Four field, the fire brigades, the hospitals (in a of them launched a boat for the purpose. higher sense), all supply examples of the They effected their object, and a tug-boat, great heart, the noble manhood, the enpassing at the time, offered to tow them nobling sympathies which bind together back to the ship. Suddenly their rudder the British people, and find expression, gave way, and their boat, sheering under when no other occasion is forthcoming, the steamer's side, was capsized. One in the God-like offices of martyrdom. It man disappeared, and his body has not did us good, our visit to the Nore. It is yet been recovered. There are placards not far from the metropolis. It is a nice about Sheerness offering £2 reward for little sail, due S. E., from Southend Pier. .it. The others were rescued, two of them It will afford much food for reflection, in an apparently lifeless condition, and we It can absorb much sympathy, and endless had the pleasure of congratulating them boxes of books, etc. It reminds you of upon their restoration to health. The life old cupboards and their contents to no these men lead is calculated to astonish the one less useful than yourself. It reminds Londoner, particularly if he be a luxuri. you of home comforts, and how to appre. ous West-ender. Ten pounds of salt beef ciate them. It calls up thoughts of patriper man a week and biscuits constitute the otism, obedience, and courage; and it menu for two montlis at a stretch. Whis. gives you the key-note of this country's key had been a stranger to them for close greatness duty. But the recognition on two months. The most curious cir- of true manliness is a first principle with cumstance, however, is the absence of the English people. It is the old, old any animal life on board. There was not tale even a white mouse or a canary. Light

In our rough Island story, literature, too, was conspicuous by its

The path of duty is the way to glory. absence. The men jumped at the idea of

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