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however, can be accounted for without was not an instance of death by palsy, the supposition of a superior degree of or eruptive diseases in those years. morality in the metropolis ;) and the Deaths by accident were nearly double greatest proportion in England in Lan- in the year 1832. On the other hand, caster and Hereford. We were grieved other diseases, particularly those reto see that our neighbours the Welsh bear lating to the stomach, increased enor. in this respect an exceeding bad charac- mously in those years; among these, ter; the proportion in England being of course cholera holds a fearfully one in twenty, while that in Wales is distinguished place. Enlargement of one in thirteen. The worst part of the heart appears to have been unEngland has one in thirteen, while one known previous to 1824, and contraccounty in Wales (Radnor) actually tion of the heart previous to 1826 ; displays one in seven!
from which period both increased raWe shall next notice a valuable ta- pidly, till 1831, when they disappeared ble, giving an “ Abstract of christen- altogether. We find, during the last ings and burials in the various parishes three years many verdicts, “ Died by of London and Westminster, and in the visitation of God.” Sudden deaths the out-parishes in Middlesex and appear to have been steadily diminishSurrey, comprehended within the bills ing; but, as apoplexy huis been inof mortality, stating the different dis- creasing, the fact probably may be, eases whereby the deaths have been that the death has been accounted for, caused, in each year from 1820 to and entered under the latter title. In 1833, inclusive." Our limits will not 1825, we find two cases of “broken permit us to notice more than a few of heart;" this year, it will be rememberthe most remarkable diseases ; but we ed, was famous for ruinous speculacannot help expressing our opinion, tions. We shall close these observathat much valuable information, and tions with the melancholy fact, that many practical conclusions might be suicides are on the increase, and avederived by medical men from these rage, in the district above mentioned, tables, by comparing the progress of above fifty annually. This leads us, each disease, as well as observing those naturally, to the next division of our that were contemporaneous, or the re- subject, the annals of crime. verse ; and it is also possible that some From these returns we find that, in of the phenomena occurring in such England and Wales, Lancashire stands investigation might be explained by unrivalled, (with the exception of Midother parts of the work, showing the dlesex,) for the number of crimes comcircumstances of the people at the pe- mitted in it ; displaying nearly double riod. Consumption appears to have the number in any other county-nearincreased in 1823, and to have then ly treble that of any except York. remained stationary till '29; since We do not mean to draw any inference, when it has been decreasing. Convul- from the fact we are about to statesions were steadily decreasing, during but it is a curious coincidence that this the whole period : the different kinds county abounds with Roman Catholic of dropsy, especially that in the brain, priests—Jesuits and popish seminaries, increasing ; erysepilas, typhus, palsy, in unexampled multitudes. We do not ossification of the heart, scarlet fever, pretend to say whether it is to this, or and rheumatism, increasing: Common to its vicinity to Ireland, or to both fevers, small-pox, sudden deaths, and causes combined, that it owes its unmeasles, rather decreasing. The years enviable superiority in crime. In 1831, '32, and '33 are remarkable from this list our Welsh friends will find a the fact, that a great number of com- subject for pride, which may justly mon disorders totally disappeared ; for wipe from their recollection the little instance, teething, the deaths by which secret we were obliged to tell of them annually averaged nearly 500, was not a while ago. We find the returns from fatal in a single instance in the years the Welsh counties shewing units and 1831 and '32. The same holds true tens, where the English counties show in 1832 of still-births ; of which there hundreds and thousands. It would was not in that year one, while in really appear, that the beauties of naevery year before and since they had ture, and the pure air of mountain averaged abovc nine hundred!! l'here scenery, had a beneficial effect on the
mind ; for next, in innocence, to the for the result of these facts, a result for Welsh counties are, Cumberland and which we fearlessly assert, that the disits neighbours. Crime appears, upon gusting pseudo-philanthropy of our the whole, to be increasing much more rulers is responsible, we refer to the rapidly than the population. This in- Poor Law Inquiries in England ; where crease, we are sorry to say, has been our readers will find that on walking rather on the part of the fair sex. The into a workhouse, you can generally total committed for trial in England be furnished by the paupers with an acand Wales, in 1833, was 20,072 ; the curate list of the bills of fare attending total convicted, 14,446 ; sentenced to each degree of criminality, and they death, 931 ; executed, 33. The last will tell you to your face that they are two totals display the necessity of an only waiting for an opportunity to earn alteration in our criminal law; as, of all each superior stage of comfort. the incentives to crime, none is equal in Prisons were in one extreme when efficacy to the uncertainty of punish- they were visited by Mr. Howard ; ment. We cannot avoid connecting and we have now run into the opposite; with this another, which appears in the but in the name of all that is just, and returns for London and Middlesex, all that is merciful, let us not longer during twenty-one years, ending 1833. continue to put our wretched criminals The executions, in that period, had to death, for attaining one stage of decreased from 138 in the first seven crime, and hold out every species of reyears, to 81 in the last seven ; while ward to them for approaching to it as the convictions had increased from 9000 nearly as possible. in the first period, to 16000 in the latter. Our northern neighbours may well Transportation appeared to have been be proud of the fact that the total numa favourite punishment during this pe- ber of persons committed for trial in riod. It is undoubtedly true that tran- the year, in the whole kingdom of Scotsportation is to many persons, and espe- land, does not appear to average twocially to the lower orders of Irish, in it- thirds of those in London and Middleselfas severe a punishment as death ; but sex alone. Among the several counwhen we say this, we would be under- ties in Scotland, Lanark appears by far stood to mean transportation considered the worst ; and next to it Edinburgh in itself alone, and not as surrounded and Renfrew. The list of crimes apwith the fascinating attractions with pears much more minute, and in many which our silly and short-sighted soi- respects very different from that in the dissant philanthropists have contrived other parts of the empire, as if the into clothe it. We have before, and we dictments were very special. Among do now, and we will again, for we can- these, for instance, we find an excessive not too often, draw the attention ofour exercise of marital authority, which we readers, and implore that of the legis. hope is not a common offence. Its lature, to the monstrous, the criminal title is as follows,—“ Throwing his wife anomaly, displayed in the treatment of over a window two stories high.” prisoners on board our convict ves- In the arrangement of the crimes in sels, and in our prisons. We ask, is Ireland, the county of Clare has been, not a legislature answerable for the for what reason we cannot divine, anruin of the moral principles of its citi- nexed to the province of Connaught, zens, which so arranges the whole sys- whereas it really belongs to that of tem of its penal establishment, as to Munster. We stated, when connecting hold out an increased degree of com- the quantity of crime existing in Lanfort, and even luxury as a reward for an cashire with the great prevalence of increased atrocity of crime? The fact popery in that district, that we would is, that while the English pauper lives shew our readers a similar phenomenon more tolerably than the English la- in Ireland. We shall subtract the bourer—the suspected thief more com- county of Clare from the province of fortably than the pauper—and the con- Connaught, and add it to that of Munvicted felon more luxuriously than the ster, to which it properly belongs, and suspected thief-the transported felon requesting our readers to remember is indulged with viands scarcely at- that Connaught, Munster, and the tainable even by our country gentlemen greater part of Leinster, are chiefly of small fortune. These are the facts, popish, and Ulster almost wholly
Protestant, we shall give the returns served, the indignant censure of the of crime for the year 1831 as follows– judges of assize. But little did a proConnaught, 8375; Munster, 3950; fligate ministry care for their opinions : Leinster, 3062; Ulster, 1334. To they gained their two points ; the first this great contrast must be added the to fulfil the mandates and forward the circumstance, that the returns for designs of the man whom they deUlster include nearly the whole num- nounced from the throne as an enemy to ber of crimes committed, inasmuch as his country. The second to get a prethe peaceable state of the country, the tence for raising their guilty heads in total absence of intimidation, and the the legislature, to put forth the lying intelligent and educated character of boast that crime was diminishing in the jurors, render the detection and pu- Ireland. But we shall turn from this nishment of crime at least as easy as in disgusting specimen of unprincipled any part of England ; while the con- corruption, which we trust will, with trary of every one of these existing in many others of the same kind, be soon the popish districts, renders the return forced upon the attention of the public. of convictions very small indeed com- We shall now proceed briefly to nopared with the crimes actually com- tice the last division of this great work, mitted. We cannot avoid, while upon the statistics of foreign countries. It this subject, calling the attention of would not be consistent either with our our readers to a most audacious and limits or our plan, to go with any miprofligate interference on the part of nuteness into these details ; we shall i he present government with the course therefore only notice a few curious of justice, and the rights of property facts. It appears from the Russian and life. At the late Spring Assizes, returns, that the nobles in St. Petersthe government, directed by Mr. burgh, form about one-tenth of the O'Connell, sent orders to the crown population ; that they are nearly oneofficers throughout the kingdom, not half as numerous as the servants ; alto set by any jurors. The consequence most equal to the whole military force of which was, that in repeated instances more numerous than the burghers ; and the friends and agents of murderers four times the number of either the were to be seen on the juries which merchants or the artizans !!! No wonwere to try them ; and in one instance der Petersburgh is called a noble city, we were ourselves witness to the fol- nor were we at all surprised to find that lowing specimen of Whig justice:- out of an import trade into the Russian An individual had excited the atten- ports, of near eight millions annually, tion of all present, by going back and considerably above eighty-two thousand forward with papers from a murderer a-year was expended in Champagne; in the dock, and acting as principal upwards of sixty-nine thousand a-year agent between him and his attorney in precious stones; a hundred and fifand counsel. Immediately afterwards, teen thousand a-year in coffee ; upwards this very fellow being put upon the of two hundred and fifty-five thousand jury, to try his employer, some persons a-year in silk; and above a million in expressed their indignation to the sugar. The number of manufactories crown officer, but his reply was, “ I see in Russia, has more than doubled beall this as well as you do, but my orders tween the years 1812 and 1824. are positive, and I dare not disobey The whole population of the Danish them.” The consequence of a succes- empire is not equal to that of Ulster, sion of acts of this kind was, as might and yet she possesses nearly four be expected, the total failure of justice thousand ton of shipping. by the obstinate disagreement of juries ; In the “ Statement of the several and the repeated spectacle of the mur- charges of a public nature, borne rederer dancing from the jail to the spectively by a national and a foreign court-house, waving his hat in tri- vessel of three hundred tons' burden, umphant answer to the applauding upou entering and clearing from the shouts of his fellow-miscreants, con- port of Bordeaux,” we find a remarkscious that his friends and protectors, able difference made in favour of the government, would secure bim. Great Britain--the total expenses of against any danger. These infamous a national vessel being £56 195. 10d. ; proceeding's drew down, as they de- of a British vessel, from British port in Europe, £57 14s. 10d. ;--- while a tics and the municipal authorities, with foreign vessel not from British port in respect to the important fact, as to Europe, is charged £88 18s. id., ex- whether the population is increasing, clusive of consular fces.
or the opposite, since the census of We were surprised to find that the 1811, which estimated it at 112,000operative population of the town of the ecclesiastics stating its present Lyons exceeded a hundred and six population to be 120,000, while the thousand-among which there were municipal authorities assert it to be 35000 silk manufacturers ; considerably only 100,000. It would be amusing above 8000 shoemakers ; 6000 tailors; to trace the causes and motives of this 4600 hatters ; 1100 jewellers ; and discrepancy. 1050 hair-dressers. We find that 171 We were glad to find that emigracwt. of cod fish were in one year ex- tion from Ireland was rather decreasported from Marseilles to Cayenne. ing during the interval from 1827 to This may be on the principle of bring. 1834. That trom Scotland has ining the mountain to Mahomet ; but creased ; and that from England nearly we cannot help thinking the more na- trebled, during this period. tural and useful way would have been We shall close our remarks on this to bring the Cayenne to the cod-fish. most important work, with one obser
The average consumption of wine in vation, that we do not know any class Naples annually, is about a tun to four of society who may not derive informamen!
tion and amusement from some portion An important dissension appears to of it, while to many, its pages would exist at Venice, between the ecclesias- form a most valuable study.
MEMOIRS OF SIR WILLIAM TEMPLE.
The name of Sir William Temple has well in the latter years of his patron's been so associated in our minds from life, has described him as a person of the early years, with every thing that is greatest wisdom, justice, liberality, popolished, elegant, and classical in cha- liteness, and eloquence of his age and racter, that it is with pleasure we select station ; the true lover of his country, and out of the reams of biographical rubbish one that deserved more from it, for his that dishonours the press of our day, eminent public services, than any man the memoir at the head of this article. before or since; besides, his great de
It has made substantial additions to serving of the commonwealth of learnour previous knowledge of the subject ing, having been usually esteemed the of the memoir ; and notwithstanding most accomplished writer of his time.f some inaccuracies, both in matter, and The Hon. Charles Boyle also, after. style, and that too many of the “ nugæ wards Earl of Orrery, and nephew of canoræ" are scattered over his pages, we
the celebrated Robert Boyle, speaks of deem the author entitled to the chanks him as the most accomplished writer of the reading public, both for the ad- of his age, whom he never thought of ditional light he has thrown on Sir without calling to mind the happy lines William Temple's private habits and of Lucretiuscharacter, and for the strain of good
Quem tu dea tempore in omni, political feeling, and, what is far better,
Omnibus ornatum voluisti excellere rebus, of religious feeling that distinguishes --a character which he adds, “ I dare the work.
say Memmius did not better descrve Swift, who knew Sir William Temple than Sir William Temple." Notwith
• Memoirs of the Life, Works, and Correspondence of Sir William Temple, Bart. By the Right Hon. Thomas Peregrine Courtenay. Two vols. 8vo. London: Longman, 1836.
+ Life of Swift, by Sir Walter Scott, from a memorandum copied by Thomas Steele.
standing these panegyrics, it is but too sions, the authorities for his respective true that neither his writings nor his statements, that the reader may judge life are generally known. His style for himself whether the foundation has been a favourite theme with will bear the superstructure. He gives writers on English literature ; his po- as the result of his experience, what litical and diplomatic character which every one, we believe, can confirm latter is every way peculiar and well who is conversant with historical and worthy of intimate acquaintance-chas political writers, be they of what age, been the subject of much historical country, or language they may, that praise ; his works are on the shelves even the most honest and veracious of every library--and yet neither they are not to be depended on for matters nor his character are by any means of fact, where they make an averment, generally known. It is justly said by and give no authority for it. In such his present biographer, that an in- cases there is too often an equal chance corrupt statesman in the days of whether the averment be false or true. Charles the Second, a diplomatist who If founded on an unnamed document, rejected deceit and intrigue, a writer there is a high probability that that who gave elegance and harmony to document will bear another constructhe English language, assuredly de- tion; and he who, writing of matters serves that his actious should be re- that occurred before he was born, concorded, and his writings perused. ceals from his readers the ground of
It is a singular fact that the first his notions or bis belief, may be justly memoir of Sir William Temple was suspected of caring more for establishwritten, not by a countryman of his ing his own views, than for the truth own, but by a Frenchman Abel of the matter. Boyer, a Protestant refugee from William Temple was born at BlackFrance, with whose grammar and dic- friars in London, in the year 1628. tionary we were acquainted in our The family of which he represented a school.boy days. Lady Gifford, how- younger branch, had long been seated ever, the sister of Temple, seems to at Temple-hall
, in Leicestershire, and have been the first who gave to the the head of it was one of the first public any of the particulars of his baronets. The earlier genealogy of private life ; but even her memoir, the house, which pretended to the which was prefixed to an edition of most ancient nobility, may be left to his works, published in 1731, was the heralds, but so much of its history prepared for publication by omitting may be given as illustrates the conall that related to his “more private nections and opinions of those who life.”
stood nearest to the subjects of the Temple's present biographer has, present memoir. The most indepenthrough the medium of the Rev. Robert dent mind takes an impression from a Longe, into the hands of whose father, father, and is often imperceptibly afthe Rev. John Longe, late vicar offected by occurrences in the life of a Coddenham, in Sussex, the MS. me- grandsire. moir by Lady Gifford, and other The grandfather of Sir William papers relative to Temple and his Temple, who bore the same name, and works, had come, furnished us with was knighted, was secretary to Sir much valuable and interesting materials, Philip Sidney, to whom he had preon which the former biographical viously dedicated two treatises in elememoirs of Temple were silent. gant Latin. After the hero's death he
Mr. Courtenay has shown good acted in the same capacity with Robert sense in steering clear of a too com- Devereux, the unfortunate Earl of mon fault of our modern biographers, Essex, whom he is said to have acthat of converting what ought to be companied to Ireland when Lord strictly a biography, into a flimsy and Lieutenant. That he served in Iresuperficial " history of the times.” His land is the more probable, because object is, almost exclusively, to de- after the death of Essex, in 1600, he scribe only those transactions in which retired into that country, and became Temple was personally concerned. afterwards a master in Chancery, ProHe is also much to be praised for his vost of Trinity College in Dublin, and anxiety to give, on almost all occa- representative of that city in Parlia