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P. clxxxv, Universal redemption. It seems to be the established opinion of his Lordship, that the evangelical clergy, especially such of them as believe the doctrine of personal election, hold what is called particular redemption ; whereas in fact very few of them adopt it. The author of these remarks, urged by local circumstances rather than by choice, above twenty-four years since, avowed his dissent from the doctrine of particular redemption, as held by many professed Calvinists, especially among the dissenters.' In this he has since been surprised, and rather amused, to find, that his Lordship deduces nearly the same conclusions, from many of the same premises, which he before had done! Indeed - general • redemption, as distinguished from particular redemption, is the phrase, which he uses, in prrference to universal. The latter word might be understood to include other intelligent beings, not of Adam's race; and it seems to lead to universal salvation. But about a word, thus connected, and not directly implying, or leading to any thing, in our view erroneous; it would be futile to contend. Only, it is proper, that it should be understood, “what “ we say, and whereof we affirm."
“ God so loved the world, that he gave his only “ begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him « should not perish, but have everlasting life."2 « Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the “ sin of the world."3 “The propitiation, for our “sins; and not for our sins only, but for the sins qe of the whole world."* Were it possible, that a preacher could go into other worlds, and address sinful intelligent beings, of other orders, than Adam's race: he could not address them, as we may any
3 John i. 29.
Sermon on election, &c. 2 John jii. 16.
4 1 Jobo ii. 1, 2.
of the human race, in every part of the world. He could not say, “ Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, « and thou shalt be saved.” But, wherever we meet with a human being, we can, consistently, feel no other embarrassment, in thus addressing him, than in calling to those, who are asleep, after the sun is risen ; and exhorting them to arise and go forth to their labour, for the natural light of the world shines and suffices for all.
The infinite value, and sufficiency, of the atonement made by his death, who is God and Man in one mysterious person; the way in which the Scripture calls on sinners, without distinction, to believe
in Christ; and every circumstance respecting re| demption, shew it to be a general benefit, from
which no one of the human race will be excluded, except through unbelief. Every exhortation, invi. tation, and encouragement imaginable, may there. fore be used without reserve, in addressing men of any nation and description.--Yet some line must be drawn by all, who do not hold universal salvation. “ He that believeth not shall be dained." The difference then is, in this respect, less between Calvinists and others, than it is supposed. Calvin himself
says, Redemption is sufficient for all, effectual only to the elect.' His opponents say, “Sufficient 'for all, effectual only for believers.' « Faith is the “ gift of God;" and the only question is, whether hę determines to give faith to one man, and not to another, at the moment ; or whether he previously
decreed to do it: and, whether he gives faith to one and not to another, because of some seen, or foreseen, good disposition, or conduct, in one above the other, previous to his special preventing grace. If he do no injustice to those, who are left to themselves and continue unbelievers; it could not be unjust to decree from eternity, thus to leave them. Some of us think, that none ever truly believe, except the elect: others suppose us in this to be mistaken, perhaps interpreting the terms elect, and election differently than we do. But all,, who allow the truth, and abide by the plain meaning, of the Scripture, agree; that, through this general redemption, believers, and none except believers, among adults, shall be saved.
P. clxxxv. I. 18. • It is, &c.” It is allowed, that the remedy is commensurate, as to sufficiency: but if all, who partake of Adam's corrupt nature, were 'to partake also, of the appointed remedy ;' all must finally be saved. It is evident, that all are not recovered to holiness in this life; and there is no intimation, that any will be recovered to it, in another life; nay, much to the contrary: yet“ without holiness no man shall see the Lord.” P. clxxxvi. I. 23. ! In this, &c.' It may be
1. It is natural to conclude, that the remedy, proposed by a Being of infinite power and infinite mercy, would be commen
surate to the evil; and therefore, as the evil operated instantly • in producing the corruption of Adain's nature, which was soon • transmitted to his offspring, we may infer that all, who were
to partake of that corrupt nature, were to partake also of the appointed remedy.' 2 Is. lii. 6. 3 'In this passage, the universal depravity of mankind is as
questioned, whether the prophet, in the passage referred to, be not speaking of the whole church, rather than of the whole human race: but, however that may be, it is the expiation itself, which is declared to be universal; and not the actual efficacy or event; which is every where limited to believers.
P. clxxxvii. I. 19. And I, &c.” The effeet and application is evidently meant in the first of these texts; and if all men be actually drawn unto Christ, as an universal proposition, all will finally be saved : for “ him that cometh unto him, he will in no wise “cast out.” But is it commou to use general language, where an interpretation of the word all, or every, as meaning, what admits of no exception, would be absurd ? In the very chapter, from which
the second quotation is made, and just before it, the i evangelist says of John Baptist, · The same came
for a witness, to bear witness of the light, that all 'men through him might believe.' Did the sacred historian mean, that all men, or even all Jews, without exception, did actually believe in Christ, through John's testimony? The testimony was intended for a general benefit to all, without exception, who would avail themselves of it: and in the same sense we must understand the subsequent clause, “ That “ was the true Light, which lighteth every man that “cometh into the world.” “With this light he en
serted, and the expiation of Christ is declared to be as universal as the depravity of man.' "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men anto me." St. Jobn in his gospel, says; that Christ is “the true "light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world."
• lighteneth every man, namely, who doth receive
him." Christ is the sole Source of all true light, in religion, by which any iman in the world ever was, is, or shall be, enlightened. But as all men do not actually believe, so all men are not actually enlightened.-" Then shall every man have praise of “ God.". Did the apostle mean, that every individual of the whole assembled world, would at the day of judgment, “ receive praise of God?"_" All seek “ their own, not the things of Jesus Christ."3 Was this meant universally ?It is undeniable, that those, who hold the universal salvation of mankind, without exception, seize on a few of these general expressions, as the only support of their cause, against the most direct declarations of the whole Scripture; and some circumspection is required, in adducing and applying them. P. clxxxviii. Note. This passage, &c.'*
The Scripture here referred to, is full to the point, on the subject of the last remark. Had the saving grace of God at that time actually appeared, been made manifest, to all men universally? or had it actually brought, or offered, salvation to all men? Or will it ever thus bring salvation to all men universally? Or is it only meant, that the salvation was made known to men, without distinction of nation, or rank in life, as the benefit of all who embraced it?
1 Whitby. I Cor. iv. 5. 3 Phil. ii. 21.
4. This passage is stronger in the original than in our transla* tion, Επεφανη και χαρις τε Θει σωτηρια» σασιν ανθρωπους; it should
have been translated, “ the grace of God, which bringeth (or “ offereth) salvation to all men, hath appeared." Mr. Wakefield • gives this construction.'