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flatter them with the persuasion that more morally corrupt than those they are so. I once entered a Calvin- large cities where Calvinism is the istic meeting at Heckmondwicke, in prevailing religion-Edinburgh, Rot. Yorkshire, when the preacher was la- terdam, Amsterdam, &c. Dr. Smith, bouring to convince the congregation when pressed for his proofs, will perthat, though they thought themselves haps say, that by blaspherny, impiety the Lord's people, and talked much and irreligion, he meant only Arianabout religion, they had not more realisin and Socinianism; and by opeo righteousness than their neighbours : flagitiousness and dissolute manners, “You have much of religion upon he meant only to say that the Genevese your lips, much religion in your heads, passed their Sundays like other Probut of what use is it to you? It ne- testants and Catholics on the Conti. ver sinks lower. I may truly say of nent. But unless be can make a betmany of you who now hear me, that ter defence than this, he must retire if your heads were cut off, you would from the field with the word calumny have no religion left at all; it has emblazoned on his banner. He may never sunk so low as the heart." This be armed with much scholastic learnwas coarse but cutting eloquence, and ing and logical subtlety, and he will its meaning was very intelligible. Per- doubtless despise the opposition of a haps Dr. Smith may say it proves layman, but learning and subtlety will nothing, as the preacher was well as- not avail against plain facts. Goliath sured that the experiment would not of Gath came forth to taunt and defy be made, for though the heads of his the worshipers of the one God, and hearers were stuffed with a very indif- " his armour was brass,” but he fell ferent sort of religion, in other re- before a simple shepherd boy. spects they served them well enough We have examined “ the sins of for the common purposes of life, and, commission;" “ the sins of omission," therefore, they had no disposition to which he charges against the Generese, try the truth of the assertion. It remain to be noticed: the principal would be extremely painful and invi- one shews Dr. Smith's ignorance of dious to draw the comparison in de- the subject, or the obliquity of his tail between the English Calvinists moral vision, when those be deemnis and the members of the Genevese heretics are concerned. After acouChurch, particularly were we, like Dr. sing the Genevese pastors and people Smith, tu look only on the dark side of remaining in a state of deadly inof the scene. Nothing would be more difference and infidelity for three geeasy, but, at the same time, more dis- nerations, he proceeds tauntingly to graceful, than to select instances of de- ask, “What have these children of pravity from a large community, and improvement ever done for the relithen to charge the whole body with gious benefit of the dark and miserathe crimes of the few. Now, unless ble districts which lie at their gates; Dr. Smith have done this with the for Savoy, Piedmont and le Vallois, Genevese, I am at a loss to understand the last of which, though an indepenwhat he means by the terms and epic dent Republic, is scarcely above the thets he applies, in the serious charges level of Spain and Portugal ?" of profuneness, blasphemy, gross im- Now, every one acquainted with the morality, impiety, irreligion, open fla- government of Savoy, of Piedmont, gitiousness and dissolute manners. To and of the Vallois, must know that support these charges, he must, with the Genevese could not interfere with the aid of his friends, rake long and the religion of either of these coundeeply in the mire of Geneva ; but let tries, without endangering their own him not rake up the crimes of the safety as a state. Though the ValTrinitarian part of the population, lois is an independent Republic, its (now very large,) and throw them at religion is so exclusively Catholie, the Genevese Church. Even with all that I believe no Protestant would be his raking, I defy him to make good suffered to reside in the country, at his charge, for Geneva " is unques- least he dare uot have public worship tionably the most moral city in Eu- in his own house. The Catholic re. rope." Instances of individual depra. ligion is guaranteed to the people by vity will not serve his purpose, unless the Helvetic league, and any attempt he can prove that Geneva generally is to interfere with it would nearly 597 amount to a declaration of war. In of empty, or nearly empty, Calvinistic no part of Europe have the Jesuits Meeting-houses that were to be seen and priests more influence, and the in various country places, thirty or Genevese have neither the power nor forty years since, is a proof. Now, if the right to oppose them. The same this be true, and I think Dr. Smith may be said of Savoy : individuals not will not deny it, he surely would have connected with the government may, done well to have directed bis accusaat their own risque, secretly distribute tions of deadly indifference, &c., to books, but they would be imprisoned, persons nearer home. or sent away under a guard if dis- It is a remark more to be comcovered, as happened to M. Cæsar mended for its truth than its novelty, Malan.
as it has been inade by every moralist Now, during the lapse of the three since the days of Æsop, "Men have generations, *" when the Genevese are a magnifying vision when looking at accused of neglecting to convert the the faults of others, but are very shortSavoyards and Vallasiens, which it was sighted when looking at their own or impossible for them to do, – what those of their own party.” Now, were the sons of orthodoxy, the re- however common or obvious this regular Scotch and English Calvinists, nark may be, it seems entirely to doing to improve the Irish Catholics, have escaped the perspicacity of Dr. subjects of the same government as Smith, if he will allow me to use his themselves, but incalculably more ig- own expression; nor does the Doctor norant and degraded than the Catho appear to be acquainted with the welltics of Savoy or the Vallois ? What known passage, “First cast the beam were these sons of orthodoxy doing out of thine own eye, and then shalt for the conversion of the many thou- thou see more clearly to take out the sand gypsies in their own land, a race mote that is in thy brother's eye.” below the Hottentots in religious This ignorance is easily accounted for; knowledge? What were they doing the passage occurs in a sermon of for the conversion of the half savages Christ's, which is entirely moral, and in the inore unfrequented parts of as Dr. Smith has expressed his utter England and Wales? I believe the contempt for moral sermons, he could answer will be-absolutely nothing. scarcely think the simple practical For until the Methodists, whom the advice here given, was deserving the regular sons of Calvin at first affected attention of a divine so deeply read to despise, I say until the Methodists in all the mysteries of the Calvinistic had, much to their credit, begun to faith. preach to the greatly-neglected part If Dr. J. Pye Smith be really desiof our population in Cornwall and rous of knowing what the Genevese elsewhere, it does not appear that the have done for the Savoyards and ValKirk of Scotland, or the regular Cal- lasiens, if he will lay aside his anger vinistic Dissenters in England, ever and prejudice for a while, and let us bestowed a thought upon the subject. have a little sweet communing togeThe latter, at least, were content with ther, I will tell him, and I will tell dreaming over their own righteousness him truly. or with talking of the Lord, wbilst They have not, it is true, gone forth they were dosing over their pipes : to preach in the towns or villages of their congregations, in the mean time, Savoy; neither did their ancestors, were diminishing in almost every part the orthodox Genevese, do so, or if of England; t of which the number they did, it was always with the sword
in one hand, and the Bible in the * From 1700 to the French Rerolution.
other. In conjunction with the Ber+ I speak of what I observed in the nese, they sometiines entered Savoy country when I was young. And here I
to plunder and despoil the inhabitants, may state, that I have no prejudices to deface their churches, and afteragainst the Calvinists: it is Dr. $. who wards to preach to them the gospel has called forth the comparison between of peace; but the religion of Calvin, them and the Genevese, which I had no though watered with blood, did not desire to make. My own ancestors were flourish either in Savoy or the Vallois. for inauy generations zealous and con- Fifty-eight years after the conquest sistent Calvinists.
and conversion of Chablais (a province of Savoy) by the Bernese, it was re- voyard domestics in Geneva must deconquered by the Duke Charles Ema- rive much moral benefit from the good nuel, and all the Protestants who examples generally shewn them by would not renounce their faith, were the Genevese, and from the kindness permitted to dispose of their property and care which they see is taken of and retire. This was in the year 1594. their health and morals. Ever since that time the exercise of The Savoyards may truly say to the Protestant religion has been pro, the Genevese, “ We were naked and hibited, and all attempts to introduce ye clothed us, we were hungry and ye it were regarded as acts of hostility, fed us, we were sick and ye visited which the Genevese were desirous of us.” And what is the language of avoiding, as they were in no condition Christ, “ Inasmuch as ye did it to to resist. I have stated in my Travels the least of these, ye did it unto me”? the secrecy wbich it was thought ne- a praise far outweigbing the merit of cessary to observe, even in burying preaching the doctrines of Predestia Protestant without any religious ce- nation and Final Perseverance to an remony, who died at Duing, on the honest, simple-hearted people, who Lake of Auncey, when I was there in are more in vant of food and raiment 1821. The Genevese cannot be blamed than of unintelligible mysteries. for omitting what they had no power When a small part of Savoy, comto do; but though they could neither prising, with the town of Carrouge, preach Calvinism nor Unitarianism, nearly the worst part of the Savoyard something better remained to be done, population, was annexed to the ter and this they have meritoriously per- ritory of Geneva, the Genevese Goformed. They have shewn by their vernment and Pastors lost little time example how real Christians onght to in providing means for the instruction act, even to those who regard them and religious improvement of the Sa. as heretics and enemies. Many of the voyards. A large Protestant church Genevese have country-bouses in Sa. was nearly finished in Carrouge before voy, and are, I well know, actively I left Geneva. I shall now leave the engaged in relieving the great distress present state of morals in Geneva, but of the poor Savoyards, for which they propose on a future occasion to advert are looked upon with much suspicion to other parts of Dr. Smith's letters and enmity by some of the Catholic relating to that city, I have no prepriests: the latter have been known to judices in favour of the Gencyese refuse the consolations of religion to which can indispose me to see their those poor Catholics who receive aid defects, for I have stated thein fairly froin heretics.
and with some severity. Almost every On many occasions the Genevese nation has defects from peculiar cir. have assisted the Savoyards very ex- cuinstances. tensively in times of scarcity, and have
ROBERT BAKEWELL. saved numbers of families from starv, ing ; particularly in the year 1816; their charitable and well-timed aid gave Sir,
October 11, 1824. great offence to the Sardinian Govern, I tions of your correspondent Efe
ques. ment. I believe that no opportunity of doing good to the Savoyards, has tasns (p.539) should remain unanswerbeen neglected by the Genevese, though ed, as they seem to originate in a canit has ever been the policy of the Sar- did spirit of inquiry, equally creditable divian Government to excite an hos- to himself and interesting to others; tile feeling towards them, among the and I therefore offer a few reiparks Savoyards of all classes,
which appear to myself to obviate the I have decribed elsewhere, at some difficulties he states; though I am length, the warın interest which the so conscious of my own unfitness to Genevese took in the sufferings of the enter into deep arguments of this inhabitants of Monetier, a mountain nature, that I make it my particular village in Savoy, destroyed by fire, request that if any cominunication when I was at Geneva ; it was truly should reach you on this subject in interesting to observe the unostenta- which the questions are more ably tious but judicious exertions made discussed, you will not suffer this for their relief. I may add, the Sa- letter to appear.
I will just observe by the way, that person, and the absolution of a crithough Unitarians believe that the ininal? How is the latter a consereason stated by Efetasns for their quence of the former? There is rejection of the doctrine of Atone- difficulty in both suppositions : of inent is quite sufficient to justify that two difficulties, let us choose the rejection, yet many other objections least. If we chose the greatest, the remain: there is much besides in this other would remain : let us then reject doctrine both irreconcileable to their it altogether. The case seems to me reason and revolting to their feelings. to stand thus : The world was (for It is not necessary to point out these what reasons, it concerns not us to ohjections, as we have now only to do inquire) in a state of sin and misery with the questions proposed by your at the time of our Savionr's appearcorrespondent.
ance upon earth : it was to be re1st. Your correspondent asks, “Is deemed from this state by his mission it not as inconsistent with the justice and death. Now which appears the and equity of God to permit that an most consistent with what we know innocent person should suffer for the of the usual course of the Divine benefit of a criminal, as that he should government—that a perfectly innosuffer in his stead? Or, if the injus- cent person should die to appease the tice in the former case be not as great wrath of the very Being who made us (in degree) as in the latter, is it not to sin, and him to suffer; should take equally an injustice?"
upon himself the punishment due to That suffering should exist at all, un- the sins of all the criminals of that der the government of a perfectly bene- and of all succeeding times, provided volent Being, is certainly a difficulty: that they should have faith in him but we see that he has ordained it to be (the connexion between such a sacri. thus from the fall to the present time, fice and such absolution not being and there is every reason to believe discernible by us); or that this inno that the partial dominion of evil will cent person should die (being made not soon have an end. But we have perfect by his sufferings) to set the experience enough of the overflowing strongest seal and give the inost perkindness of our Heavenly Father to fect ratification to the new covenant be assured that the infliction of evil by which God declared his intention is intended to fulfil some benevolent of redeeming his people? This ratipurpose: and this assurance is much fication of the new covenant is to strengthened by the conviction daily establish and confirm such faith in impressed upon us, of the good arising men as shall enable them “ to work out of suffering, both to the sufferers out their own salvation," instead of themselves and to others. The con- having it wrought out for them by sequences of suffering are never con- the suffering of an innocent person, fined to its object alone; and that at tlie easy price of faith in him. others should derive benefit from it, 2d. “Does not the moral governis in the usual course of God's provi- ment of the world present similar dence. Punishment sustained by the instances of seeming injustice,-nay, guilty, serves as a warning to others. even of vicarious sufferings ?" No, The sorrows of the righteous exalt I cannot allow that it does : not even the hopes, confirm the faith, awaken the high authority which your correthe conscience, or aların the fears, of spondent quotes can make mne think those around him. In many ways so. When some persons help others besides do the sufferings of one secure out of the consequences of their vices benefits to others; but in no single and follies, they do not bear the puninstance do we find that an innocent ishment instead of the vicious and being has borne the whole punishment foolish, though they may participate of a guilty one. In the usual inflic- in their difficulties. 'We may by " the tion of evil, we can see, in some mea- law of nature” “afford them assistsure, how good may arise from it; ance” “ with very great pains and but in this case we cannot even dis- labour and sufferings to ourselves;" cern how any purpose is to be an- we may
“ by personal suffering? swered by an appointment apparently “ contribute to the relief of others ;" so unjust. What connexion is there but we do not sustain their sorrows between the suffering of an innocent for them; they do not lay the burden
of their griefs on our shoulders ; they by experience the uneasiness of doubt are not easy and happy while we are on subjects of such importance, f suffering for them. The instance ad- most heartily wish that Efeta575 inay duced by your correspondent of " chil- soon repose in the perfect conviction dren being punished (and that before that his Saviour died, not to appease they have done either good or evil) wrath, or to remove from the guilty for the sins of their parents,” is still the punishment denounced against less to the point; for do the pains of their sins by Him who cannot lie, the children in any degree lessen those but to induce " the sinner to forsake of their parents? Do they not rather his way, and the unrighteous man his increase them? I see nothing in either thonghts," by setting the seal of his of these cases, or in any which my blood to that new and better coveexperience of human suffering fur. nant which invites the transgressor nishes me with, in the slightest degree back to the “ Lord who will have resembling vicarious punishment. mercy on him, to the God who will
3d. “ Is not the whole animal cre- abundantly pardon." ation, though innocent of nioral guilt,
H. M. made subject to pain and death ?" Yes--and, as was before said, for rea
Sir, sons inscrutable to us. But why we N your number for February last, should, because one appointment does (pp. 88, &c.,) containing Corresnot coincide with our ideas of justice, pondence on a Charge of Heresy against believe in another wbich appears infi- Sir Rose Price, Bart., who has adoptnitely more unjust, and even absurd, ed Unitarian doctrines, and is said to I own I cannot see. Much might be have asserted that he knows it to be said in explication of the reasons why a fact, “that, with respect to the the animal creation are made subject Trinity, the king is of the same sen. to pain and death; but this is not to timents as himself,” you have subour purpose. I would only just ask, joined part of a letter signed (), which what connexion their suffering has appeared in the Bath and Cheltenham with vicarious punishment, or what Gazette, of the 27th of January, the resemblance to it; or whether any writer of which says, "he can easily one can conceive that portion of evil conoeive it to be true, and that a to be inflicted for any purposes of large proportion of his Majesty's subredemption ?
jects are believers in the Unity of the Your correspondent takes it for Godhead.” Little did the writer of granted that the Orthodox doctrine that letter expect to be so fully borne of Atonement is "certainly the most out in his conjecture, or that it would agreeable to the language of scrip- be allowed in so extensive a degree as ture." Unitarians in general do not is since admitted by the venerable think so. They believe that if the Archdeacon of Bath, in his late Charge mind were divested of all prejudice, to the Clergy of the Deanery of Bednothing could appear farther from minster. The Archdeacon there says, the language, as well as the tenor of speaking of Unitarians, that the name scripture, than this mysterious doc- is "a false distinction," and, repeattrine, and would easily account foring the expression, assigns as a reason the use of all the language which now for it, that "the Unity of the God. appears to the Orthodox to inculcate head' is holden by himself and his it, by remembering the custom of the reverend brethren as a vital principle writers of the Epistles to allude to in their faith. Jewish cereinonies and institutions; With due deference to Dr. Moysey, among others, to the very striking I beg leave to say, that I do not know institution of Jewish sacrifices. In a fitter name than Unitarians for those the Gospels there is nothing whatever persons who believe there is only One which can be twisted to the meaning God, or a more proper distinction affixed to certain passages of the Epis- between them and those who profess tles,
the doctrine of a Trinity. This doctrine must be acknow- Contemplating this subject in conledged to be attended with difficulties nexion with royalty, an argument very harassing to the mind anxious in occurs, which may have had some the search of truth; and as I know weight in the royal mind, and which