From the True Sun. Ivanced in almost as great a ratio, and the people COMMERCE VERSUS GLORY.

appreciate the importance of peace. They are

aware that it is only in time of peace that the peoOne of the most marked developments of the ple become strong and the government weak:past few years, more particularly in the last that an occasional war is necessary to produce a twelve months, has been the fact that commerce new fusion of military feudalism in society, to enand industrial interests, so far predominate in all hance the dependents on government patronage, countries, that international wars have become and to diminish that private wealth which forms the nearly impossible. The present skirmish with strength of and will ultimately enfranchise the Mexico, so far from being at variance with this po-people. sition, only proves its truth. Nearly all the great nations of the world are at this time at war with barbarous nations, while the most profound peace

MISCELLANY. marks their rapidly growing intercourse with each The next step in the emancipation of the people other. Russia is combating in the Circassian of Europe, will be on the death of Louis Philippe or mountains with a brave, fearless, but semi-barbar- Prince Metternich, one or both. The rare sagacity ous race. France continues her bloody attempts to of these two chiefs has hitherto sufficed to retard oppress the tribes of Algeria, England has not the progress of popular rights, and their demise sheathed the bloody weapons that forced her way will be the signal for a mighty effort throughout into Lahore. France and England together are Germany and France, to recover into the hands of attempting to crush the spirit of independence the people those rights of which they have been so on the La Plata, and the United States are repell- long deprived. The result is inevitable, and the ing the attack of the despotic chiefs of a weak, an- train may be fired at any moment. The consequenti-commercial people. On the outskirts of civiliza- ces none can foresee, and all governments are wisetion in all directions, from one cause or another, the ly preparing for the end. It must be a great strugarms of the larger powers are enlarging the circle gle of the people of all countries for their rights, of the general commerce.

and the operation of railroads and increasing comThis operation it appears is not interfered with merce are yearly uniting the people of Europe in as long as it does not take a shape to interrupt mutual interests. A popular movement in one natrade. Governments and politicians pursue their tion will be responded to by the people of all. The old trade of war unmolested by the commercial in existence of despotism in one government cannot terests, as long as the free action of the latter is not

survive its extermination in another, and the liberrestrained by the hostilities. Time was when the ties of Poland may be restored in the general emanaction of the English government was controlled by cipation of all from monarchical rule. To excite an those who reaped all the fruits, the honors and emol-international war and promote national antipathies uments of a state of war without incurring any of will be the policy of royalists, but each year evinits hardships. The interests of commerce and the ces an increase of international sympathies. and the rights of the people were in those days of far less union of the masses against oppressors. importance to government rulers than a fancied point

In the chambers of Baden-Baden a motion was of honor or the sovereignty of a patch of land. England went through long years of warfare and

agreed to, inviting the government to bring under the bloodshed at the expense of most of the debt which no

che notice of the German diet the vast extent to which now crushes her people into the dust, because her

emigration to America is being carried. Last year minister could not find it in his heart to fulfil the

the number of emigrants was 62,000, or 800 more terms of the treaty of Amiens into which he had

than in the preceding year, and it was increasing solemnly entered, and which stipulated that Eng

every month. The emigrants of last year formed not lish troops should evacuate the Island of Malta.

less than one five-hundredth part of the whole popu

lation of Germany. Such a draft from our people He could not bring himself to surrender that rock which did not belong to him, and as a consequence,

is felt, especially as Germany is not thickly popuafter twelve years of war, the people have for thirty

lated like England. One half of the emigrants, it years groaned under the annual payment of

is not too much to say, are imposed upon by knav$ 150,000,000 for the interest on the debt created

ish emigration agents, and by fellows who persuade to carry on that war, and the debt is still as large

them to sell their little properties (when they have as ever. Notwithstanding that debt, commerce has

any) for less than their value. continued to grow, and the industrial interests have Tue correspondent of the European Times says: annually gained upon the aristocratic power of the “ One or two of the journals have expressed great nobles. The result is, that they will no longer suf- mortification at seeing such vast numbers of Swiss fer war.

and Germans wend their way to the United States, During that old period of arrogant pretensions, instead of to Algiers, where they think the chances England laid claim to the Oregon, and refused to of getting richer are better. But, unfortunately, settle it on equitable principles. She adhered to they overlook one thing, and that is, that Algiers her grasping policy in negotiation down to 1846, is governed by the iron hand of military tyranny, and then consented to take that which she always while in the United States, there is freedom. Some had refused, because her commercial interests little pamphlets have lately been put forth in Paris, overpowered the arrogance of her aristocracy. She strongly recommending emigration to the United consented to take, in June, 1846, the same quantity States, and telling most marvellous tales of the forof land that her minister, Mr. Packenham, declared, tunes to be gained there by everybody. I have in August, 1845, to be inconsistent with “ fairness also seen a pamphlet in Germany to the same and equity.” Thirty years ago, she could not, effect; but adding that the number of Germans in with safety to herself, have receded so palpably America is so great as to be already almost equal from her pretensions, in the face of Europe, almost to the native-born Americans, and that not only do avowedly from fear of a war. She can do so now, the Germans keep up their distinct nationality, because the commercial interest of Europe has ad- speak their own language, and employ it in public

documents, but that, in the course of a few years, ner. The Gazette admits that they were not satis they will be sufficiently strong to effect a separa-fied, and that “ distant kindred" were separated. tion from the Anglo-Saxon States, and establish an The Spectator speaks of it in the following terms: independent German nation on the American conti- $* Yesterday there was witnessed in the yard at nent. What likelihood there may be of such an government house a scene disgraceful to a free event I am not able to say ; but I can tell your country-a scene bearing a striking resemblance to readers, on the authority of a German gentleman what is witnessed in a professed slave market. The who has the means of knowing, that it counts for a Indian immigrants, by the Lord William Bentinck, great deal-more, perhaps, than would readily be from Madras, and the Cadet, from Calcutta, believed in the estimation of the thousands of Ger- amounting to 453, were distributed gratis to the mans who quit their beloved · Vaterland' for the favorite applicants by the immigration agent genNew World."

eral, in pure Baltimore or Cuban style. In apporJewish EMIGRANTS TO AMERICA. –The Orient applied for, no regard whatever was paid to the

The Orient tioning to the planters the respective numbers has the following from Ellwangen, May 11:-"A applied for, no regard whatever was paid to the

ties of family or friendship. Wives were separated large and peculiar troop of emigrants to America passed here this day. The whole company con

from their husbands, and children from their pasisted of Jews from the neighboring town of Ober-1 re

rents. While being thus meted out as mules, if a dorf. The poverty which characterizes the appear.

husband rushed towards his wife, or vice versa, ar

a mother to the lot containing her sons, the poor ance of German emigrants for America was happily not perceptible in this instance. On the contrary,

affectionate creatures were rudely pushed back in affluence appeared to pervade their ranks. Ele

the most brutal and unfeeling manner by that gant omnibusses conveyed the parties to the place

amalgamation of inhumanity and self-conceit, the of embarkation, and all were dressed, particularly

immigration agent general. Shall such things be the handsome Jewish girls, who formed no mean

tolerated in Trinidad in 1846 ?"

Demerara.-The following paragraphs, from part of the company. The whole had a gay and cheerful appearance. The company carries

Emery's Journal, are worthy of perusal : with them a Sepher Tora,' (scroll of the law,)

“ Most people in this quarter anticipate, as a which they had solemnly dedicated in the syna

now inevitable event, the outbreak of a war with gogue of Oberdorf previous to their departure. The

the United States. The feelings consequent on emigrants follow their relations and friends, who such an expectation are of a very gloomy kind. had preceded them several years, and encouraged

dNot that a foreign invasion appears to be the most them to seek the well beloved land of North Amer

serious ill that could befall us. A permanent ocica, where they are not, as in most German states,

cupation of the province by a hostile force is imdeprived of their natural rights and privileges as

probable. But it has been the policy of our rulers

to discountenance the cultivation of every product citizens, on account of adhering to the faith of their

of the soil except sugar and its kindred staples. ancestors."

Peace and high prices at home enable us to buy EMIGRATION INTO VIRGINIA.—The emigration food from America. The results of a fall in prices from western New York and the New England or a war must be obvious. Moreover, our rulers states into the northern part of Virginia is very contemplate that, of a public revenue of $ 820,000, large. Fairfax county is coming fast into the pos- $ 290,000 shall be raised by a tax on imports. A session of settlers like these. Other portions of the war would cut off this branch at once. state are also likely to be rescued in a similar man- “ The scarcity of money continues to prevail to a ner. “It is a singular spectacle," says the Rich- degree not paralleled in the recollection of any. mond Republican, " which Virginia now presents ;/ body. " the departure of her own sons to other lands, and "So many coolies, half naked, scabby, farishing. the immigration into her borders of citizens from helpless from ignorance, and overrun with vermin, other states. For years has she been drained of infest the highways of the metropolis ; the authonthe flower of her youthful population, leaving their ties have hounded on them the police, who drive place to be supplied by men who seem to place a them into the lock-up house, (surely an illegal act.) higher value upon the advantages which they have and the planters cry out for permission to conclude surrendered." In due time, no doubt, Virginia contracts of indenture, that is, with beguiled stranwill awaken to the perception of the main causes gers, who cannot comprehend the signification of her premature decrepitude. The western por- thereof. That some coolies are doing well, is un tion of the state will show something by its exam-deniable. But, as we have paid for the introduc ple, by and by, of the true sources of a common- tion of all, and are bound to reëxport all, at the end wealth's prosperity. Gov. McDowell's messages of five years, at our own cost, every hour of cooley have some useful references on this subject, with vagrancy aggravates the loss of our foolish speculafacts and statistics which speak a very plain lan-tion." guage of their own.

WEST-INDIA IMMIGRATION.-By the Zulette, at EARL DARNLEY felt the venom of Lord EllenNorfolk, we have full files of West India papers, borough's wit in the house of lords, where he had from which are gathered the following items rela- been making a wearisome oration on the never-endtive to the much spoken of Coolie immigration to ing theme, the wrongs of Ireland. He had exthe British colonies.- United States Gazelte. cited a contagious drowsiness in the house, which

Trinidad.--The Gazette announces the arrival extended to himself, and was stopped in the midst of another batch of immigrants, from Madras and of a parenthetical sentence by the necessity of Calcutta, amounting, in the whole, to 353. The making a hearty yawn. “There's some sense in Madras people, the editor states, are a fine, athletic that, however,'' growled the impatient judge, with set, superior, as a whole, to any that had as yet ar- a derisive gravity, whose influence not even the rived. The distribution of these immigrants seems bench of bishops could resist. to have been conducted in a very discreditable man

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A GOOD specimen of pungent humor, not al- | are not eliminated by any of the secretory organs; ways observant of time or place, is given by Lord a small portion only is evaporated by the lungs. Eldon Upon one of the royal marriages, there If the quantity taken be very great, the arterial being much talking during the ceremony, in one blood preserves the color of venous blood, and corner of the drawing-room, Lord Ellenborough alcohol may induce apoplexy. Alcohol, under the exclaimed, “ Be silent in that corner of the room, influence of oxygen, incessantly introduced into the or you shall be married yourselves."

system by the respiration, may be immediately The Egyptian Pea.-Several years ago, Sir

converted into water and carbonic acid, but in Gardiner Wilkinson found a vase and an Egyptian

many cases ascetic acid has been obtained.-A sarcophagus, 2,844 years old, in a mummy pit,

paper was received from M. Lassaigne on the air which he subsequently presented to the British

of crowded rooms. The author proves that the Museum. On examination, the vase was found to

carbonic acid is found in the entire mass of air in contain a few grains of wheat, a few peas, and

the room—and that the partial admission of fresh other decomposed matter, supposed to have been

air will not suffice for the purposes of health. originally similar substances. Three of the peas

Atheneum. were presented by P. J. Pettigrew, Esq., to Mr. SUPPLY OF Water to ROME AND LONDON. W. Grimstone, of the Herbary, Highgate, who, A correspondent of the Mechanics' Magazine has on the 4th of June, 1844, planted them in a coin-the following speculations on the relative supplies post resembling the alluvial soil of the Nile. They of this important agent of health and comfort to were placed in a forcing frame, and in exactly one modern London and ancient Rome :-*. The probmonth he was most agreeably surprised by the able supply to the 1,000,000 inhabitants of which sprouting of one of them. The product was nine- Rome. could at one time boast, amounted to teen pods, from which fifty-five peas were pre- 50,000,000 cubic feet-being equal to about 50 served. Some of these were planied on the 230 cubic feet for each individual. This is probably of April, 1845, and some on the 4th of June, in 20 times the quantity which London now receives the open air, and in a similar compost, and all for each of its inhabitants—a fact which goes far were soon in a most flourishing condition, pro- to justify the application of the disgraceful term ducing quite a plentiful crop of seed. The Egyp- bathless' to this the largest, the most opulent, tian pea is very prolific, producing from seventy to and the most powerful city in the world. How one hundred pods. The tree grows similarly to miserably insignificant do our water-works appear, a dwarf grape vine, about three feet in height, and and how trifling the supply they furnish to this has many stems, two or three mother stems gene- mighty city of more than 2,000,000 when contrastrally springing from the parent stalk.-Britannia. ed with the immense flood of pure water poured Paris ACADEMY OF SCIENCES.- July 13.-A

into old Rome by her gigantic aqueducts! And paper was read by M. Séguier on the construction

how discreditable the difference between the two of railroads. M. Séguier is an advocate for rail

capitals, when we reflect on the far superior reroad travelling; and is of opinion that a very much

sources which modern science has placed at her greater rate of speed than that which is now

command, and on the well known fact, that, through altained could be adopted with perfect safety, if

the happy constitution of the strata on which Lonproper care and skill were taken in the construction

don stands, she has at her command-requiring as of the roads and of the material, and due skill and

it were, but the smiting of the rock, to make them attention manifested by the persons employed.

gush forth-boundless supplies of the purest pogHe thinks, however, that any rate of speed how

sible water !!'- Athenaum. ever sinall, is dangerous, when all the conditions ParTIAL DESTRUCTION OF THE HIPPODROME AT of safety are overlooked. He indignantly notices Paris.--A terrible fire broke out at the Hippothe indifference to human life in the construction drome about three o'clock on Monday morning, of railroads on the border of precipices without and reduced to ashes a portion of that building. parapets in the mode of making tunnels and via- The guardian perceiving that considerable smoke ducts-in that of laying down the rails, &c. He issued from the side of the stabling, immediately suggests many improvements--and particularly one gave the alarm, and the most prompt assistance to which he attaches great importance. He rec- was immediately organized : but every effort was ommends a middle rail with a centre wheel for the unavailing to save the building, and part of it was locomotive ; by which means the weight would totally destroyed. The fire unfortunately broke have an equal bearing, instead of throwing it all on out in the most valuable part of the edifice, where the sides, and thus rendering a déraillement almost were situate the stables, the hay and corn lofts, as inevitable in the event of any sudden shock. well as the dressing rooms. The halters of the MM. Bouchardat and Sandras completed their horses were immediately cut, and the frightened series of coinmunications on the digestion of food, stud were seen to gallop in every direction, some by an article on the effect of alcoholic liquids. towards Paris, others towards the wood of Boulogne. They state that these liquids do not undergo in the The sight was a most extraordinary one, and those apparatus of digestion any other change than that who witnessed above a hundred horses, with their of being weakened by the gastric juice and mucus, manes erect and their nostrils dilated, flying in all the saliva, and the other liquids which may be directions, might have imagined they witnessed a present. The absorption of alcoholic liquids is ef- real Barbary chase. The cries of the monkeys fected by the orifices of the veins. It is particu- were truly frightful, and some difficulty occurred Jarly in the stomach that this takes place, when in saving them. Every one endeavored to catch these liquids are taken in excess or mixed with them, and a large ape in particular was caught with sugar. The absorption, however, may be con- considerable trouble, the animal preventing every tinued throughout the intestines. The chyliferous one approaching him by throwing stones, chairs, vessels perform no part in this absorption. Spirit-everything in his reach at the persons who attempt nous liquors, when introduced into the circulation, led to seize hold of him.--Examiner.

REVIVAL OF JOHANNA SOUTHCOTISM.-For some enclosed with a stone wall, about fifteen feet high time past, the most active exertions have been made and ten thick. This wall serves the double purpose by the surviving followers of Johanna Southcote, of enclosing the ground and as a place to deposit and several rooms, termed chapels, been opened at the dead. Litle niches are made in it large various parts of town; and numerous preachers, enough to receive a coffin, like the pigeon-holes in chiefly females, hold forth every Sabbath on Ken- a desk. nington Common and other public places, intimat- The whole area, is laid off in gravel walks and ing the near approach of the only true Shiloh. bordered with flowers and shrubbery, and beautiful

DISAPPEARANCE OF LAKE_It is announced. marble tombs all over it. Lamps are always kept from Inspruck, that the inhabitants of the valley of burning at night, and altogether I have never seen Oetzthel, in the Tyrol, have just been witnesses of any other last resting place which had so little gloom an extraordinary event; not claiming, however, the

about it. character of a phenomenon-inasmuch as the cause

The lower classes are buried in other places and is apparent, and of the most ordinary kind. The W

The without coffins; they are carried to the grave on waters of the lake of Vernagther have suddenly rude ntters, bu

rude litters, but the children and women generally disappeared ; having flowed out, in a single night,

in dinala nich on beds made of roses and other flowers. through a large opening broken through the bottom

The wife of General Canalizo died whilst he was of their basin.

President ad interim, during the absence of Santa

Anna. She was embalmed and had a pair of glass The Nile.-Mr. Nasmyth, the eminent en-| eyes inserted, and lay in state for several days, gineer is constructing two of the powerful machines

gorgeously dressed and glittering in jewels; every invented by him for driving piles, and which are to one was admitted to the great chamber of the palbe employed in the great works at present in pro-ace where the body was exposed. It was a most gress, by order of Mehemet Ali, for damming up revolting spectacle, and all the more so to those the Nile, and rendering the irrigation of Lower who knew the modest, gentle and unostentatious Egypt in a great measure independent of the annual

character of that very uncommon woman. She rising and overflowing of that river.

seemed to be unconscious of the great dignity of the In the House of Commons, on the 9th of July, a situation to w

situation to which her husband had been elevated. somewhat curious petition was presented, of which and spent her whole life in acts of charity and the following notice is given :

benevolence, and was singularly averse to all sorts Mr. T. Duncombe presented a petition from of ostentation and parade.-Recollections of Merio. Charles Augustus Frederick, Duke of Brunswick. CAPTAIN PARRY was once asked, at a dinner The petitioner said he claimed the protection of party where the veteran joker was present, what that house because he had not been able to obtain he and his crew had lived upon when they were justice in the courts of law; that on his father's frozen on the Polar Sea. Parry said they lived death he became possessed of immense wealth ; upon the seals. “And very good living too," exthat at that period the Prince Regent, afterward claimed Lord Erskine, “if you keep them long George the Fourth, was appointed his guardian ;enough."" that at the age of eighteen, when, according to the

THE LAND Rail, or Corn CRAKE, A VENTRILlaws of the Duchy of Brunswick, he attained his majority, he claimed possession of his privileges and

OQUIST.-We cannot write of the land rail, before

dinner, without a certain exudation from the palate. fortune, which claim was refused ; that when he attained the age of twenty-one, the Duke of Cam

This fat little bird must not be confounded with the bridge, who was then viceroy of Hanover, was

water rail : besides that its bill is much shorter, it appointed his guardian ; that a revolution afterward

al is much more timorous ; indeed, so much so, as to

*/ be almost invisible but to the most persevering took place, and the then reigning Duke of Brunswick was deprived of his crown, and also of his pri- Po

pointer and sportsman ; and it is made so strong in vate fortune, that in nearly all revolutions it had

Aihe lower limbs, by the length of the leg, shank, been customary to allow the deposed prince to retain

and toes, that its rapidity of motion appears next to his private possessions ; that the crown of Brunswick

miraculous. What need of wings at all to a cresis now held by the King of Hanover, who is self

ture, considering its proportions, with such an styled “curator," contrary to all law and usage;

enormous capacity of stretch. Talk of seven-league that the petitioner has made various attempts to

boots, indeed! You must drop the simile, and obtain redress, all of which had failed; and that it

think of the railroad car. It is named corn crake, had been stated, in accounting for the revenues of

from its noise, or call, “Creke, creke, creke," the duchy, that £100,000 a year is remitted to this

which may be heard " now here, now there, now country for the support of the petitioner, who denies everywhere, and now nowhere ;" and wherefore ! having received a single shilling. The petitioner

| Simply, that the bird is an uneducated ventriloquist,

and deceives you into the belief that he is at any not only prayed for inquiry on his own account, but because there were certain allegations made, affect-spot

spot the farthest from the actual one. In many ing the character of some portions of the royal fam

respects its habits are similar to those of the water ily of England. The hon. member moved that the

rail ; for, though the first seeks the thick grass petition should be printed with the votes, and gave

meadows and moist and sheltered vales, yet are its notice that he would, to-morrow, call the attention P

preferences chiefly aquatic, taking to osier-beds, of the house to the subject.

young grass, or grain in moist places, and low-lying

districts, before any others. Here he will choose The burial-ground of Santa Maria in Mexico is his position, uttering his " creke" from a clod of the most beautiful of the kind I have ever seen- earth, and you shall be running on one side and the and it is really not a misapplication of the term other, and ever so far away after his call, which beautiful, to apply it to a grave-yard such as this. I possesses all the modulations of distance. --Craven's It is a space of ground of some eight or ten acres, | Recreations in Shooting.


[Bearing in mind that the Edinburgh Review may be foreign manufactures, they desire that all restricsupposed to express the opinions of the present ministry, tions on foreign trade, which limit the external deour readers will appreciate the importance of this article. mand for their goods should be abolished. On the It foreshadows a great change which will promote the other hand, the agricultural body has adopted the cause of peace, and will draw emigrants from all nations cast-off prejudices and alarms of the manufacturers to British colonies.]

and merchants ;-that system of selfish error which, From the Edinburgh Review.

from its authors and promoters, obtained the name

of the Mercantile System. Sophismes Economiques. Par M. FREDERIC Bas

During the war, corn, although the importation TIAT. 12mo. Paris : 1846.

was from 1800 to 1815 practically free, rose, on M. Bastiat has, in this well-written volume, various accounts, to a very high price. The collected and exposed the most popular Protection range of high prices during this period produced a ist fallacies; those sophistical arguments which are double effect. In the first place, the existence of most frequently employed in defence of protective scarcity and dearness during the war, combined duties on imports, and against the freedom of trade. I with the violent anti-commercial policy of NapoThe publication of such a book is of itself a proof | leon, had created a genuine conviction of the imthat the doctrines of Free-Trade are beginning to portance of relying on home-grown corn, exclumake some progress in France; and that the coun- sively of foreign supplies.f The Corn-law report trymen of Turgot are not all deluded by that spu- of 1813, in which the modern protective policy of rious patriotism which identifies the exclusion of this country originated, puts forward the danger of foreign goods with the promotion of national inter- this commercial dependence, as the main argument ests. The simplicity and directness of the argu- for prohibition; and it particularly dwells on the ment in favor of Free-Trade, ought, indeed, to probability of large supplies of grain being obtained secure it a ready acceptance in all countries where from Ireland, for the supply of the manufacturing reason can make herself heard, and where sectional population of England, under an improved system interests have not a complete ascendancy. But of cultivation. In the next place, the agricultural the present state of France is similar to that of interest, having been accustomed for several years England at the time when Adam Smith wrote his to an extraordinary height of prices, were desirous Wealth of Nations. The manufacturers and mer- of preventing a sudden and (apparently to them) ruchants were at that time the principal champions inous depreciation. Accordingly the report of 1813 of the restrictive system in England; the agricul recommended that the importation of flour and meal turists--as he observes--were not infected with the should be totally prohibited ; that the importation same selfish and narrow-minded spirit as the trad- of wheat should be prohibited when the price was ing part of the community.* The system of pro- under 1058.; and that, when it reached this price, tection is, by the French tariff, extended indeed to it should be admitted at a duty of 24s. 3d. a quarall native products, whether of agriculture or man-ter. These propositions, which now sound almost ufacture; but the persons interested in manufac- fabulous, were, at the time, considered fair and reatures are in France the most active and zealous sonable by statesmen still living; and it was then advocates of protection. The landed interest prin- thought by persons favorable to freedom of comcipally desire protection in their capacity of owners merce, that the government, which took up the subof wood for burning. In England, however, partly ject in 1815, had made a great concession in fixing owing to the vast increase of our manufacturing the point of prohibition at so low a price as 80s. inindustry, and partly to the influence of the last war stead of 90s. or 100s.-the amounts proposed by with France, the opinions and interests on this Sir Henry Parnell and the other advocates of resubject have been completely reversed since the strictive policy. In consequence of the corn-law time of Dr. Smith. The manufacturers of Eng-*

ngal * The average prices of the imperial quarter of wheat land have ceased to confine their ambition to the for the following years, stood thus :supply of their native market; they work for the

Average prices. general market of the world. The monopoly of the

1810, English market is therefore no longer important to

- - -


5 1611,

95 3 them; and instead of asking for the exclusion of


126 6 1913,

. - 109 9 ** Country gentlemen and farmers are, to their great An allowance must, however, be made for the depreciahonor, of all people the least subject to the wretched tion of the currency during this period. spirit of monopoly. Country gentlemen and farmers, dis- † Mr. Tooke, in his History of Prices, vol. i., p. 309, persed in different parts of the country, cannot so easily has given some curious details as to the increase of the combine as merchants and manufacturers, who, being expenses of freight during the later years of the war. collected into towns, and accustomed to that exclusive In 1809-12, the freight and insurance from the Baltic to corporation spirit which prevails in them, natutally en-London, was, on an average, for a quarter of wheat, 508.; deavor to obtain, against all their countrymen, the same in 1837, it was 4s. 6d. For a load of timber, the same exclusive privilege which they generally possess against expenses were L.10 in 1809-12; and L.I in 1837. the inhabitants of their respective towns. They ac- ! This report is printed at length in Hansard's Parl. * cordingly seem to have been the original inventors of Hist., vol. XXV, app. p. 65. An abstract of it may be those restraints upon the importation of foreign goods, found in the Annual Register for 1813: State Papers, which srcure to then the monopoly of the home mar- p. 371. ket." Wealth of Nations, book iv. ch. 2. This passage & Sir H. Parnell's opinions on this subject afterwards was quoted by Sir Robert Peel, in his speech on the intro- underwent an entire change, and he became an advocate duction of the coro-law measure, at the beginning of this of a free trade in corn. See bis speech on Mr. Villier's session.

motion, House of Commons, 15th March, 1838. CIXIV. LIVING AGE. VOL. X.


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