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cle, as well as a belief neither sufficiently I apparently so much a general tendency to consistent in tone with the dutiful Cathol- superstition which was at the basis of icism officially expressed in the last sen- Louis Napoleon's particular illusion, but tence of his will, nor with the “enlight- that it was the heat and intensity of imened” views of his more radical adhe- agination with which he dwelt upon the rents, to admit of the hypothesis that he fact of his relationship to his uncle, and wrote these clauses of his will for the on the political consequences which this sake of any effect they might be supposed relationship might involve, that led to the to have on the people of France. We are superstition. In short, the illusion was disposed to think that even in his last ex- the over-growth of a particular vein of ile, when his sainted uncle's protection intense thought in which any politician of had so entirely failed him, he would not the same birth and origin would necessahave hesitated to reaffirm these same su- rily have more or less indulged, and not a perstitions. Indeed, a man who trusted mere individual instance of a generally so much to the angelic guardianship of superstitious temper. Louis Napoleon's an Emperor who had completely broken superstition was due to the enormous erdown in his own career, would hardly aggeration of a shrewd and sagacious withdraw his confidence because the tu- conviction, — that his relationship to the telary power had also failed to save the First Emperor was a mine of unworked prestige of his protégé from a catastrophe power which he could work if he pleased. of a similar, though more humiliating na- It was not the wild exaggeration of a ture. It would be hardly reasonable to germ of religious feeling, but the wild expect a man even from the other world exaggeration of a perfectly correct worldto show more sagacity in overruling the ly appreciation of the power that lay for destiny of another than he had shown in him in the connection with the great Emruling his own. Indeed Bishop Butler peror. There are superstitions which would have constructed a very ingenious come of religious feeling, superstitions argument to show that the same moral in which the impression exaggerated is and intellectual defects which showed a more or less religious impression, like themselves in Napoleon I.'s career as religious melancholy generally, and the Emperor and General, might have been religious visions of such a dreamer as expected a priori to show themselves Swedenborg; and again, there are suagain in his career as guardian angel. perstitions which come of mere over
We believe we may assume, then, that concentration of thought on some these superstitious beliefs of the late Em-half-felt and half-perceived chance of peror were not only a real part of his worldly advancement. Thus, Macbeth's mind, but were very deeply ingrained in superstition was evidently little more it, were of the very warp of his character. than the dreamy exaggeration of the There would seem to be something murderous ambition in his own mind. strange in the admission of what may be And Louis Napoleon's was, we suspect, called such an intellectual taint in the nothing more than the exaltation of his character of one who was able to gain the own profound belief that the heir of the position which Napoleon III. did gain in great Emperor ought to find in that EmEurope, and it will seem not perhaps the peror an immense store of political power less strange if we hold that it was in great and the occasion for a brilliant destiny. measure by virtue of this taint and in this notion, long entertained and cher. consequence of it, that he was able to ished and dreamt upon, led no doubt to reach the height he did. For no one can a perfectly sincere conviction that the really doubt that but for Napoleon III's late Emperor was the actual author of all firm belief in superhuman influences aid- his nephew's highest dreams, most ambiing his plans, he hardly would have ven- tious plans, and most successful political tured either on the successful or on the ventures. Nor apparently would his mere silly enterprises by which he endeavoured belief in the power of his birth have been to gain the French Throne. That a great adequate to qualify him for his actual capart of the moving force of Napoleon reer, without the superstitious extension III's career was in his superstition, the which it continually took in his mind as Emperor's will seems to us to place almost the working of a potent will external to beyond doubt. And yet it will seem, as himself, and wielding powers which he we have said, remarkable that a man of could not wield. This unsafe and indeed the Emperor's great power should have in its essence insane exaggeration of his been the victim of this strange kind of sense of the political value of his birth, illusion, till we observe that it was not had this advantage for him, that it gave
him the sense of an unlimited power to tween a superstition of this kind, — vulfall back upon, whereas the sane convic- gar in origin, whatever it be in manner, tion would have given him no such assur- and that grander and deeper kind of suance, but would have told him that there perstition which comes of religious awe were very well marked limits to the and wonder. The Emperor seems to have strength it lent him, that it was a mere had exceedingly little of this. He reopportunity for his use, not an indepen- garded himself not as the servant of dent force on which he could lean. Of Heaven, but as the protégé of the first course it is never safe for men to believe Buonaparte. What he was to do in the they have a force behind them which they world was not God's will, but the will of have not got; but it does seem that some the “Exile of St. Helena." He worslow natures like the late Emperor's need shipped at second-hand ; was the instruthis sort of false stimulus to give them ment of an instrument; and felt not that staying-power, if they are to be anything he was serving Man as a Divine tool, but great at all as men of action. Louis Na- that he was working out the uncompleted poleon in our view was not naturally at thought of the coarse genius with whom all constituted for a man of action. He he claimed relationship. Never was there was a slow, hesitating dreamer, of consid- less of that humility, awe, and wonder erable power and lucidity, who had no which are at the basis both of true worgifts for action ; but just as nature some- ship, and often also of that extra-belief or times seems to go out of her way to pro- Aberglaube, which, according to Mr. Arvide a compensation even by a sort of nold, constitutes superstition, than in the monstrosity for a great deficiency, just as late Emperor's heated illusions about the she sometimes gives a dwarf arms of pre-protection of his demi-god uncle. It was ternatural strength and length, so Louis the worship of the Roman world for the Napoleon was in great measure made into divus Augustus over again in a cruder a man of action from a mere dreamer by and somewhat baser form. The late Emthe growth of the morbid superstition peror's mind could not reach, and did not which led him to find in his uncle's de- care to reach, the throne of the supreme parted soul a sort of fetish that impelled Omnipotence at all. He stopped at the him into the thick of the contest. Com- best idol he could form for himself of the moner men have a milder degree of the Divine Ruler, — namely, the caricature same kind of superstition. When the contained in that coarse, vigorous, fertileMr. Whitbread who gave rise to Can-minded, supremely self-willed incarnation ning's celebrated couplet, recalled sol- of selfish ambition who had founded the emnly to the House of Commons the fact | Democratic Empire of France and his that the day was sacred to him because own house. It was a poor, pinchbeck it was at once the day of the foundation kind of worship, and led, as such kinds of the Brewery and of his father's death, of worship do, into superstitions that are - whereupon Canning wrote down, at least as ruinous in the end, as they are This day I still hail with a smile and a sigh,
sometimes, by accident and for a time, For his beer with an e, and his bier with an i,
| mines of political force. - Mr. Whitbread had evidently been unconsciously engaged in making a mild sort of fetish of the founder of his own fortunes, precisely similar in kind to that
From The Spectator. which Louis Napoleon, with a more gran
THE PROGRESS OF THE SPANISH REVOdiose imagination, made of his mighty
LUTION uncle. The Emperor's egotistic exag- SPAIN is evidently in for much more geration of the importance of a relation-than a series of changes of goverment. ship which had transmitted hardly any | She is undergoing, nearly a century later, hereditary quality for empire to him, was something very like the same process nevertheless a superstition the constant that France underwent in her great throes brooding on which made him into an em- of 1789 and the following years, but unperor, as a queen-bee is made by being dergoing it in a milder form, — milder fed on a particular kind of food into a partly on account of the familiarity of queen. But the superstition was essen- the mind of Europe with the character of tially vulgar in origin, though taken up the social movements which created so into a grandiose nature capable of a cer- much wonder, enthusiasm, and terror tain loftiness of manner and phrase. then, partly on account of the more
In fact, there is no real connection be- 1 phlegmatic nature of the Spaniard, which
does not seem to take the malady of sus-curse of France does not seem to take picion nearly so violently as the nature root easily in Spain. The danger rather of the Frenchman. There was — as De is an apathy too great to admit of the Tocqueville very well brought out in those people taking any side definitely, so as latest chapters of his book on the French to render organization possible. As the Revolution which Mr. Henry Reeve has French have always had a genius for just added to the second edition of his centralization,- which it is a pity, by the excellent translation - a universal expec- way, they did not manage to impart more tation of completely new social forces and effectually to the Spaniards during their new possibilities of government, pervad- occupation of Spain, -- the Spaniards aping Europe for years before the French pear to have always had and still to have, Revolution, an expectation which added a taste for decentralization, and the fear enormously to the exciting character of is that this will so favour disorganization that great event. Throughout Europe as to render the process of new political men believed that they were on the eve crystallization difficult, tardy, and inadeof changes in which society would be quate. The example of Madrid has none quite transfigured, and this belief, which, of the fascination for the other great curiously enough, pervaded most com- cities of Spain, for Barcelona, and Seville, pletely not those classes which were most and Malaga, that the example of Paris miserable, but those which were far above has for Lyons, and Marseilles, and Bourwant and living in luxury, stimulated deaux. This indeed, is the argument for every wave of emotion and passion which that “ Federal” Republic which is now spread over France, and intoxicated the apparently in the ascendant. But this actors in those great scenes. Spain has fact makes the political future of Spain at least the advantage that the changes even more uncertain than the political which her political and social life seem future of France ever was. Spain is like destined to undergo are no longer waited a ship built in cellular compartments, less for with awe, as if they were the results easy to wreck as a whole, more easy to of the inspiration of a sort of divine Muse. break up into distinct parts. Now that The excitement of the drama has been in the Army is in active decomposition, and great degree discounted by the history of that the voice of the only actual authority the revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 1848. left, is favourable to Federalism rather Spain knows that no golden era of society than unification, it becomes a very diffiis to be expected from any changes, how- cult matter indeed to anticipate the course ever fundamental; that the alternative of political change. between anarchy, and strict taxation under It seems, however, from the accounts, some form of government, is the only al- that the actual Government is not only ternative to be hoped for; that the most not in fault for suppressing the Permaenthusiastic republics have once and nent Committee appointed by the Naagain been much severer sufferers than tional Assembly before its separation, but even despotic States ; that if a Federal that it was almost compelled to take that Republic is to succeed, the Federal Re-course. A rebellion had been apparently public must not hope to restore a social organized by the friends of the PermaParadise, but must drill its troops, im- nent Committee against the Government. pose discipline, resist riot, adjust taxa- | The Government was called upon by the tion, and enforce justice. There is now, Permanent Committee to revise the thanks to France, no vast illusion, no course decided on by the National Asrainbow of imagirtary hope, to dazzle the sembly, to recall that body and put off eyes even of ignorant Spain. There may the election of a Constituent Cortes. An be great changes for the better, or great armed demonstration, it is said by “ Monchanges for the worse, and for a time, archical ” Volunteers, was made in faat least, we fear the latter are the more vour of this policy, so that it became a likely, but there will be no such wild question of life and death between the intoxication as alone rendered the great Permanent Committee and the GovernFrench agony of hope and fear possible. ment. If the Permanent Committee had And fortunately, too, Spain takes differ-won, there would have been a coup d'état ences of political opinion easier than and a reaction. But the victory of the France. Carlists, Alfonsists, Radicals, Government only means the dissolution and Republicans, get on very fairly to- of the Permanent Committee. The unigether, except during the crisis of a tary party, some of them Reactionists — physical struggle. That “fear” which including apparently Marshal Serrano — M. Gambetta justly tells us is the great some of them Radicals, clearly deinanded
a retrograde step, and the indefinite post-| federation, and Federalists governing ponement of the election of the Constit-only by the favour of the masses, and uent Cortes. They have been beaten in j without any power to enforce their will fair fight, and Señor Castelar and his concerning any matter on which the friends remain at the head of affairs, and masses do not regard it with complacency, intend to convoke the Constituent Cortes it seems to us more than likely that Spain for the 1st of June, when there seems at is on the way to a complete dissolution present little doubt that the idea of a of her political unity into its elements. Federal Republic will be broached, and But though we see, or think we see, probably command the votes of a major signs of a much longer interval than we ity of the members.
had hoped before civil order can be reBut to our minds, it matters far less established in Spain, we are disposed to what kind of government is to rule at think that the very process of disinteMadrid, than what sort of authority that gration itself is as likely as not to overgovernment is to exercise. The reason come that strong municipal feeling, that we look upon the crisis at Madrid as a new preference for the authority of local junstage in a slowly-developing revolution, is tas and the federal idea, which is now for that hitherto at every change in the political the moment clearly in the ascendant. kaleidoscope since the death of General History seems to show that a despotic Prim, there has been clear loss of admin- monarchy, while it admits of something istrative force to the Government. Ama- very like practical federation under it, deo found little, and that little ebbed without endangering the outward form of gradually away, during his short reign. national unity, has very little tendency to The Republic which succeeded Amadeo produce such ardent popular love of nainherited a very small remnant of author- tional unity as we have seen prevalent in ity, but even that it has wasted through Europe of late years. But it seems also to the fear of incurring unpopularity. It show that the inevitable tendency of popucannot maintain any of its Captains in lar revolutions like that which is now proCatalonia, but removes one after the gressing in Spain is to bring about, other for their unpopular measures for re- through much grief, through tribulation storing discipline to the demoralized and anguish, and perhaps much blood, Army. The last report, not yet confirmed that sense of mutual need and mutual before the news came of the struggle in dependence out of which true national Madrid, was that General Velarde was unity grows. Revolution on the large about to resign because his measures of scale,-- on such a scale as Spain seems discipline against the mutinous soldiers but too likely to undergo,- is a terrible were not supported by his civil superiors. fire ; but it does frequently seem to fuse Of course it is the special danger of a the component elements of national life Federal Government to yield too much as nothing else fuses them, and this in to local opinion on all political matters. spite of the bitter party animosities it is But a Federal Government without a cen- apt to excite. We fear the Federal Retral army to depend upon is not really a public in Spain is little more than a name Government at all, it is only a Board for for a period of revolution ; but we should hearing complaints from all sides on expect to find that the Federal idea itself which it has no power to take action. would hardly survive the chaos into With the Northern provinces overrun by which it will probably plunge Spain, and the Carlists, with secret Alfonsists clothed that Spanish unity will mean a much in whatever military prestige may be left more solid thing after the chaos than it to the officers of the Army, with Radicals | did before. dreading the break-up of Spain into a
One reason why Christianity has so little Christians, it would be on the sure way to the success in the world is because professing world's throne, though it might be through Christians subordinate it to so many other suffering. “Art thou a King then? He an. considerations. Local residence, occupation, swered, Thou sayest. To this end was I born, friendship, marriage, are settled, and the ques- and for this cause came I into the world, that I tion of religion goes for little or nothing. It should bear witness unto the truth.” is compromised, and a compromise is close to
Thoughts by the Way, a surrender. Were it the ruling principle with l
MISUSE OF WORDS. — It is amusing, if not poets and some other writers, the word was something pitiable, to see how a simple Eng- employed to signify 'both,' it did not in this lish word, the word either, is systematically case before the court.” Though such was the misunderstood and misapplied. The real decision, we do not expect that the misuse of meaning of the word is, “one or the other;" either will be dropped. In comparison with just as, in a negative sense, neither signifies, each, the word is thought pretty, and it will “not one nor the other.” Shakespeare, in An- doubtless continue to be misapplied, both in tony and Cleoputra, uses both words correctly : speaking and writing; though, perhaps, testaLepidus flatters both,
tors have received a salutary lesson on the Of both is flaitered; but he neither loves,
subject. Nor either cares for him.
We might present other instances of the From a strange freak, the term either has been
inveterate misuse of words, but content curvery commonly employed to signify each of
selves with drawing attention to one of daily two. or both. For example, "there stood a occurrence. We refer to the word none, which pillar on either side of the gateway; " or, “they is sim
or other is simply a contraction of “no one,” or “ not were seated on cither side of the fireplace: ") one, and is accordingly to be used in applicaor to take two examples from Lord Lytton's
tion to only one thing. Instead, however, of last novel, “A pleasant greensward bordered
speaking of it in the singular, as “none is," it on either side" - "the mouth singularly
or “not one is,” or “not one was,” it is almost beautiful, with a dimple on either side,” the
constantly pluralized; writers saying, “none meaning in each case being "both sides; " or,
are,” or “none were.” They might just as to go a peg lower in the literary scale, and
well say “no one were,” which they would quote from the comic song of the Bear-skin
hardly think of doing. As the English lanCoat :
guage is a precious inheritance, it would surely
| be worth while to avoid such a petty misuse Fine pockets, large and wide,
of a very simple class of terms. Stood out from either side.
Chambers' Journal This misuse of either is not new. The error occurs several times in the authorized version of the New Testament. Two instances may be given. “They crucified two other with him, on either side onc," St. John xix. 18.
AMONG other evils which the world seems “On either side of the river was there the tree a
er destined to endure until it comes to an end is of life." Rev. xxi. 2. It says little for the Greek brigandage. It was confidently asserted scholarship of the translators that they should a short time ago that arrangements had been have perpetuated this abuse of our vernacular, ente
nacular entered into between the Greek and Turkish and sanctioned an error so inveterate as to be!
Governments by which brigandage on the now almost past correction. Perhaps sound Greco-Turkish frontiers was to be extirpated, has had something to do with the improper but it appears that the proposed convention use of either. Consisting of two syllables, it
it remains in abeyance. In consequence of the may be considered to be more fluent and ele- recent change of the
Auent and eles récent change of the Ottoman Foreign Minisgant than the little word each: in which way ter, the Porte, says the Levant Herald, has not sound is probably preferred to sense. Fashion, yet communicated to the Hellenic Legation however, cannot be permitted to alter the the proposal it desires to substitute for that plain meaning of the English language, and suggest
i suggested by the Greek Government for the we are glad that, according to the newspaper eş
establishment of a neutral zone of a consider. report, the correct definition of either was ;
sable extent on the border, within which the lately vindicated in a suit in Chancery. We Greek and Turkish troops, either alone or in give the matter briefly, as it is related. “A concert, should be free to pursue or otherwise certain testator left property, the disposition operate against the brigands without restricof which was affected by the death of either' tion. The Seraskierate, it is understood, obof two persons. One learned counsel conjects that this intermediary frontier belt of tended that the word “either' meant both: in some twenty-two miles in extent would emsupport of this view he quoted Richardson. / brace the Turkish town and fortress of Arta, Webster, Chaucer, Dryden, Southey, the his. and a number of Turkish villages and castles tory of the crucifixion, and a passage from
in the mountain ranges of Otrys and Agraphi, Revelation. The learned judge suggested that
and it presumably does not altogether favour there was an old song in the Beggars' Opera,
a plan which would give Greek troops a free known to all, which took the opposite view:
range in those places. It seems nevertheless
rather hard on those who are robbed and murHow happy could I be with either, Were t'other dear charmer away.
dered by the brigands that the two Govern.
ments, whose duty it is to preserve order and In pronouncing judgment, the judge dissented prevent crime on their frontiers, should have entirely from the argument of the learned any difficulty in coming to an understanding counsel. “Either' meant one of two, and did on this question. In the meantime how the not mean .both. Though occasionally, by brigands must chuckle!