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ART. 53. A Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, in Answer

to a Letter respecting the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Lauderdale; to which is apperded, fome Anticipation of Mr. Burke's Thoughts on a regicide Peace. By the Reverend George Neale, suthor of Elloys on modern Manners, Bc. c. 8vo. Is. 6d. Darton and Harvey. 1796.

Mr. Neale is angry with Mr. Burke, and not very fond of the Bishop of Rochester. He thinks the attack of the former on the Duke of Bedford unjuft, and sneeringly, to use his own words, pits against him the Bishop, as priest and author, in order to look at the progress of Mr. B.'s career. . We cannot say that Mr. N. is very happy either in his style or his arguments.

ART. 54. Mr. Burke's Conduct and Pretensions conhdered; with illuf

trative Anecdotes. By a Royalif. 8vo. 32 pp. IS. Allen and Weft. 1796.

“ To banquet the press with prosaic eccentricities, should seem a distinction more especially attendant on the pen of Mr. Burke.” This is the second sentence of the pamphlet, by which every intelligent reader will judge how well qualified this royalis is to become an antago.nift of Mr. Burke.

ART.55. Three Letters to the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, on the State

of public Affairs; and particularly on the late outrageous Attacks on his

Pension. By an old Whig. 8vo. 52 pp. 1s. 6d. Robinsons. . 1796.

This pamphlet holds out false colours. The term “outrageous attacks” in the title-page, seems to announce a defence of the Right Hon. gentleman ; the letters form a furious attack. The author has well enough characterized the swarm in which he himself condescends to appear. “ You have challenged,” says he to Mr. Burke, * and I forelee there will be no lack of combatants-the insect youth in the vicinity of St. Giles's are already on the wing; already they begin to hum and buz.” The writer dates from West-Park, and signs himself R. P. We leave those who are more studious of such intelligence, to decypher these intimations.

Art. 56. Remarks on Conversations, occasioned by Mr. Burke's Letter.

In a Letter to a Prof for on the Continent. 8vo. 31 pp. 1$. Cawthorne. 1796.

In this anonymous writer Mr. Burke has the good fortune to meet with a defender more eloquent by far than the generality of his affailants. His sentiments on the privileges of old age and affiction, are manly and generous. · But, as a topic more pleasing, we shall select. what he says in defence of Mr. Burke's enthusiasm for the late unfortunate Queen of France.

“ His eyes have roistened at the sufferings of a woman! Behold his crime. He had seen the fairest of her fex in the luxuriant dawn of beauty, joy, and youth. His imagination warmed at the recollec

tion. He viewed the fatal reverse-and wrote from the heart. The fears that tell were crerflowings of ihe milk of human kindness. I faw her when the luitre of her diadem was beginning to fade--but its gems till faone with an autumnal ray. I remember the air of digni. fied sorrow which inellowed too haitily the lilies on her cheek. Slamefully has this unfortunate qucen been traduced. Nine-tenths of the scandalous tales which malice has industriously circulated, are as folie and unfounded as that last impious charge, to which the mother replied with all the majesty of offended nature. She was gay and unthinking. Transplanted from the cold regions of her mother's chamber, when scarce the baby blush had left her cheek--at the very mo rent when the passions began to be strong, and ere reason had yet time to cease to be weak, she was placed at once in the Versailles hor-bed of vice-in a court where immorality was fashion, and where a trumpet prefided. What, in such a situation, some people may fancy themfelves entitled to expect from a girl of fifieen, I know not. But this I know, and feel, and own-that againit temptations so varied and alluring, the strength of man, in the full meridian of his reason, would have proved but weakness.” P. 12. This is a morsel worth preserving, ainidit so much calumny and anger.

Art. 57. A Reply to the Letter of Edmund Burke, Ejg. to a noble

Lord." By Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. late Fellow of frjus College, Cambridge. The third Edition, with confiderable Alterations and Additions. 8vo. 72 pp. 15. 6d. Kearlley. 1796.

That Mr. Gilbert Wakefield should continue in retirement when any field for political controversy was thrown oven, could not be expected. He who cannot refrain from interlarding the most irrelevant poems, ancient and modern, with his anti-monarchical bitterness, would surely not be filent when Mr. Burke had opened a debate. He fights like a hardy veteran, with ancient arms, and in order to be able to employ the sword of Homer, comments upon his Doca con muap, by endeavouring to prove that the poor, at least, of England, are at this moment flaves. To detail, however, what this author has said upon the present controversy, cannot be neceílary. It is known to many of our readers what Mr. W. infallibly must say, with such an opportunity given; and they who do not know already, will not at this time be very anxious to learn. They who have perceived him to be violeni, will find him only more so than usual on this occasion. • Myself,” he says, " who have exulted in the successes of the French, and the disgrace of their infolent arid odious foes, with a keenness of transport not to be described; I have been long prepared to hail the triumphant entry of a republican representative, and shall exclaim, with equal sincerity and rapture,

Dicite lo Pæan! et lo, bis dicite, Pæan!" We have already noticed a warm reply to Mr. Burke, this may properly be called a red-hot one.

Ri

Art. ERIT. CRIT. VOL. VII. MAY, 1796.

ART. 58. A summary Defence of the Right Honourable Edmund Barle.

In two Letters. Letter 1. Address to the Reverend Gilbert Wakefield, in Refutation of all his Positions. Letter II. Addreded to the Hox. Somerset Lowry Corry: including Striflures upon a late virulent Pax. phlet written by Mr. William Miles. by Thomas Townsend, Ej. op the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn. 8vo. 135 pp. 25. 61. R. White. 1796. Mr. Townsend writes with ability: and one proof of the success of his endeavours is, shat they have made some of his antagonists very angry. After wading through so much confentious disputation, it cannot be expected that we should dwell even upon a pamphlet which has so many claims to approbation. Ten articles of the kind are already ftrung together in our list, and several more remain for another Month.-Dreadful prospect!

MEDICINE.

ART. 59. An Address to Medical Students ; A Letter to Dr. Fordice;

quith Remarks and Questions upon Quotations from Dr. Fordyce's Dija sertation on fimple Fever. 8vo. 32 pp. is. Bell, Oxford-freei, 1795:

These remarks are ushered by a letter to the students of medicine, admonishing them to reason rather than harangue, to which he ob. ferves, they are too prone; a piece of advice which might with propriety be given to the author : also a letter to Dr. Fordyce, whom the writer condemns for making a large pamphlet of what might, he thinks have been comprised within a few pages. Yet the great variety of opinions existing relative to the causes, essence, and methods of treating fevers, seems to require a greater latitude than this critic is disposed to allow. We Mall examine the first of his remarks, by which our readers will be enabled to understand to what sort of a banquet they are invited.

si Fever, Dr. Fordyce has told us, is a disease, the exiflence of which no man could have the least suspicion of, supposing him acquainted with the itructure of the body, the properties of the solids and fluids, the various operations which go on in it in health, the manner in which they take place, the powers which produce them,

tle connection of the body and the mind, as well as those known to . phyfiologists, anatomists, or those who have studied medicine itself, or any of the branches of knowledge conducive, or which have been thought conducive to it. It is, therefore, only to be known by ob. serving it in the diseased bodies of men amicted with this distemper."

" As much of the above sentence,” our critic says, “ as is true concerning fever, is true concerning all other diseases. Merely reading never made a man know one disease from another: but merely read. ing will teach a man to have a suspicion of a disease. Suppose a man acquainted with physiology and all the other branches of medicine,

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but had never seen a fever in his life. If such a man received a writa ten account of an attack of indifpofition, which corresponded with the attack of fever, as described by authors, would he not have a fufpicion of the existence of fever in the person so attacked ?” This is certainly not refuting Dr. Fordyce's position. To have done that, the critic should have shown, that from as complete a knowledge of the anatomy and economy of the human body as we are now pofitiffed of, any ingenious person, although he had never seen or heard of the disease called fever, might have conjectured, or foretold, that a body so made and organized, would be liable to, and might be affected with the aggregate of the symptoms which constitute that complains. As head-ach, furred tongue, cold and shivering, heat, depression of strength, derangement of the intelleet, &c. This the critic has not attempted to prove, but contents himself with asserting, 6 that as much of the above sentence as is true of fever, is true concerning all other diseases.” That is the phenomena of fever; are as easily to be deduced from the known structure and economy of the human body, as the phænomena of any other disease whatsoever. To try this posic tion, we will apply it to some particular aifections. A very moderate acquaintance with the anatomy and economy of the human body would be sufficient to teach the use of the lungs in respiration, and the neceflity of respiration to the existence of life. Any person acquainted with the anatomy of the lungs, and the nature of respiration, would therefore be enabled to foretel, even although he had never feen or heard of an animal dying strangled, that whatever would prevent the ingress of air into the lungs, must necessarily occasion death. In like manner he would be able to foretel, that any cause capable of diminishing the capacity of the bronchia, and consequently rendering them less fit for the free admission of air, muft occasion a difficulty of breathing or asthma. Thus also jaundice and various other affections might be predicted by persons acquainted with the anatomy and eco. homy of the liver and other parts of the body, although they had never seen or heard of the diseales. But the symptoms of fever seem to have so little dependence upon the structure of the body, as far as we are acquainted with it, that no person who had not seen or heard of the disease, could ever have conjectured, merely from his know. ledge of its ftructure and functions, that it would be obnoxious to such a complaint. We shall not examine any more of this writer's remarks, which are, in general, not inore important than this we have noticed ; and, although some of them may be just, as, perhaps, may be that on Dr. Fordyce's affertion, or that where a man is affitted with the most intectious fever, if he be in a clean room, with clean bed clothes, nei. ther the eye, the taste, smell, or feel, give the smallest notice of theie being any infection present ;" which may, we think, be controverted; although it may be difficult to demonstrate the contrary; and sup. pofing it to be done, it will scarce pay the trouble of the investiga

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ART. 60. An Essay on the Abuse of spirituous Liquors ; being, An At

tempt to exhibil, in its geruine Cclours, its pernicious Effects upon the Property, Health, and Morals of the People, with Rules and Admonitions refpeeling the Prevention and Cure of this great national Evil. By d. Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S. Member of ihe Royal College of Physicians, of the Medical Secieties of London, Edinburgh, and Paris, &c. Svo. 32 pp. 1S. Crutwell, Bath. 1796.

After some general observatjons on the pernicioys effects of drunk. enness on the fortune, the health, and the morala of the people, and ferious exhortations to them, to check even the lightest propensity to drinking fpirituous liquors, the author proceeds to how in what manner the habit may be cured in the more hardened and inveterate drinkers. This may be effected, he says, by attending to and observing a simple rule, “ to bear and forbear. To bear the present want of their accuitomed liquor, and to forbear ever after io taste it.” P. 28. The author does not, however, entirely depend upon the efficacy of this laconic apothegm, but recommends to his patients, to enter into a voluntary bond, with an obligation to forfeit a sum of money if they shall taste fpirituous liquors, for a time to be limited; and this obligation is to be renewed until the habit shall be entirely .conquered. The advice is certainly good, though not extremely difficult to discover; but, as the end proposed is highly desirable, we hope it will prove fuccessful. The essay is addressed to the Bath and West of England Society, instituted for the encouragement of agriculture, arts, manufactures, and commerce, who voted the author their honorary premium, and directed the discourse to be printed, that the members might be enabled to distribute it in their respective districts.

Art. 61. The Works of Charles Vial de Sainbel, Profeffor of Veteria · nary Medicine. To which is prefixed a sport Account of his Life.

Including also the Origin of the Veterinary College in London. 4to. · 128 pp. 21. 25. Martin and Bain. 1795.

Mr. Sainbel having been ruined by the revolution in France, which not only deprived him of the resources conferred by the monarch, but also of a benefactor in M. de Flesleille (the second victim of popular fury) who had allowed bim an annuity of five hundred livres, determined to settle in England. In the year 1790 he attracted the notice of the Odibam Society for the Improvement of Agriculture, &c. and on the 18th of February, 1791, a committee from that fociety, joined by several gentlemen in London, detached themselves from that body to form an institution called The Veterinary College of Lone don, of which they appointed Mr. S, Professor. The Duke of Nor. thumberland became their president, and several other noblemen and gentlemen took the offices of vice-presidents and directors. From This time the College continued, we are told, to flourish, till the death of M. Sainbel, on August 23, 1793. This pofthumous volume is swelled out to an unnecessary fize by the mode of printing, but may probably be of service in promoting a branch of medicine, which hitherto has but seldom been considered scientifically.

MISCELLANIES.

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