tem of canals, with their ancillary rivable from the melting of one of oases, darkened with growing crops these formations; yet the experiment between August and October, and re- is worth trying as a help towards demained conspicuous until the close of fining ideas. Let us grant that the the observations. The southern polar average depth of snow in them, of the inundation thus ran itself out only delicate Martian kind, is twenty feet when it had reached to about the equivalent, at the most, to one foot of fortieth parallel of northern latitude. water, The maximum area covered It was expended, besides, in fertilizing of two million four hundred thousand districts just at the depth of the local square miles, is nearly equal to that winter. Surely there must be some- of the United States, while the whole thing wrong here. We can hardly globe of Mars measures fifty-five mil. imagine so shrewd a people as the lion five hundred thousand square irrigators of Thule and Hellas wasting miles, of which one-third-on the preslabor, and the life-giving fluid to ent hypothesis-is under cultivation, economizing which their labor is de- and in need of water. Nearly the voted, after so unprofitable a fashion. whole of these dark areas are situated,

In reality, however, it would not be as we know, in the southern hemileft to their discretion to share with sphere, of which they extend over, at the opposite hemisphere supplies the

very least, seventeen million which would certainly fall short of square miles; that is to say, they cover what

wanted for their own. an area, in round numbers, seven There is every reason to believe that times that of the snow-cap. Only onethe Martian snow-caps are quite seventh of a foot of water, accordingly flimsy structures. Their material could possibly be made available for might be called snow soufflé, since,

their fertilization, supposing them to owing to the small power of gravity get the entire advantage of the spring on Mars, snow is almost three times freshet. Upon a stint of less than lighter there than here. Consequently, two inches of water these "forest its own weight can have very little

lands” are expected to flourish and effect in rendering it compact. Nor,

bear abundant fruit; and, since they indeed, is there time for much settling completely enclose the pole, they are down. The calotte does not form until

necessarily served first. The great several months after the winter sol- emissaries for carrying off the excess stice, and it begins to melt, as a rule,

of their aqueous riches would then shortly after the vernal equinox. appear to be superfluous construc(The interval between the two epochs

tions; nor is it likely that the share in the southern hemisphere of Mars is

in those riches due to the canals and one hundred and seventy-six days.) The

oases, intricately dividing up the wide, snow lies on the ground, at the out

dry, continental plains, can ever be side, a couple of months. At times it realized. melts while it is still fresh-fallen

We have assumed in our little calThus, at the opposition of 1881–82 the

culation that the entire contents of a spreading of the northern snows was

polar hood turn to water; but in actual delayed until seven weeks after the

fact a considerable proportion of them equinox; and they had, accordingly,

must pass directly into vapor, omitsooner reached their maximum

ting the intermediate stage. The than they began to decline. And Pro

process may often be watched in Lonfessor Pickering's photographs of

don itself, where large patches of April 9 and 10, 1890, proved that the

soiled and dishonored snow, ignored southern calotte may assume its

by the vestries, are, by a particulai definitive proportions in singly

"courtesy of Nature," removed aërinight.

ally. And in the rare atmosphere of No attempt has ever been made to

Mars this cause of waste must be estimate the quantity of water de- especially effective. Thus the polar






reservoirs are despoiled in the act of seem to be most easily explained by the being opened. Further objections anticipated illumination or retarded might be taken to Mr. Lowell's irriga- extinction of lofty summits catching or tion scheme; but enough has been detaining sun-rays. The effect said to show that it is hopelessly un- seen with peculiar distinctness workable.

August 27 last, by Professor Hussey, Mars is, nevertheless, a globe highly of the Lick Observatory. sensitive, if we may so express our Nevertheless, we seem, as Mr. Lowell meaning, to the vicissitudes of the sea- expresses it, to be placed “in a dilemma sons. At the time when frigid bonds between mountains on the one hand and are loosed in each hemisphere, striking canals on the other.” The network of variations occur in the configuration of watercourses, if such indeed they be, what we must still continue to call land peremptorily demands, to our apprehenand water. Among the elements of sion, a continental tabula rasa. change are assuredly to be reckoned

The system seems sublimely superior to polar inundations, on a scale much re

possible obstructions in the way; the lines duced from Mr. Lowell's portentous running, apparently, not where they may, design, and there is no reason to deny but where they choose. The Eumenidesthat the development of vegetation may Orcus, for example, pursues the even play its part. The effects of wintry tenor of its unswerving course for nearly rains the hemisphere partially thirty-five hundred miles. Now, it might be averted from sun and earth, and hence possible so to select one's country that one not directly perceptible to us, most

canal should be able to do this; but that likely become visible in the darkening of them fairly comparable with the

every canal should be straight, and many of pre-equinoctial canals, while moun

Eumenides-Orcus in length, seems to be tain torrents may here and there con

beyond the possibility of contrivance. tribute to alter temporarily the planet's physiognomy. From his atient study Our present author extricates himself of these phenomena, Schiaparelli has from the dilemma by substituting been led to conclude "that abnormal clouds for mountains everywhere, exvariations in the markings of Mars cept at the pole, where they are innocfollow no casual or irregular succession, uous to theory; but his reasonings on but that identical changes may be repro- the subject fail to carry conviction. duced after long intervals of time. The Additional facts are needed, and they form and extent of such variations, he will soon, we may hope, be forthcoming. continues, "are determined by some Careful locations, for instance, of the stable, or at least periodical, element."1 "bright projections," just described as

The mountains of Mars form a theme visible above the terminator, like the of no slight perplexity. The southern mountains of the moon, must prove depolar area beyond question bristles cisive as to their nature. The key to with peaks; they show isolated by the Martian enigmas of all classes can only melting of the snows, and star-points of be found in persistent observations-in sunlight, directly flashed back by them, observations pursued night by night were caught by Green at Madeira in and month after month, excepting only 1877, as well as by Lowell at Flagstaff when the planet's position is not merely in 1894. Yet the detection of numerous unfavorable, but impossible. With inequalities in the "terminator" (the modern telescopes its disc can be dividing line between light and dark- studied with profit when no more than ness when the planet is gibbous) ranks seven seconds of arc in apparent diamas one of the most noteworthy of the eter. Mr. Lovell has, then, taken the Flagstaff achievements; and bright right way, and means, apparently, to spots above that same sunrise or sunset persevere in it. He has arranged to obverge, as the case may be, have been serve the opposition of December nextfrequently and surely observed, and not a particularly propitious one-from

a post near the city of Mexico, and has 1 Astr. Nach, No. 3271,


added to his equipment for the occasion These inferences are, to say the least, a 24-inch refractor by Alvan G. Clark, questionable. The geological history of the powers of which have already been Mars is for the present a sealed book to displayed by Dr. See's re-detection with us; nor can we pretend to determine the it of the long-hidden companion of stage of development at which he has Sirius.

arrived. It may possibly be a backThe spectrum of Mars will probably ward one; in which case the anomalous receive much future attention. The mildness of his climate might be expresence in it of dark bands due to plained by the still sensibie effects of aqueous absorption was announced by his internal heat. We are ignorant of Huggins and Janssen in 1867, was con- the epoch when he was first set spinfirmed by Vogel in 1873, denied by ning as an independent globe; we are Campbell of Lick in 1894, and almost ignorant as to the conditions by which immediately reafirmed, on the ground his rate of cooling was regulated and of fresh and highly critical observa- modified. The difficulty of assigning tions, by Dr. and Mrs. Huggins. They on any cut-and-dried principle the order obtained, in addition, signs of the arrest- of planetary seniority is illustrated by ing action upon light of an unknown the significant fact that Uranus and ingredient in the planet's atmosphere. Neptune, the exterior members of the Mr. Lewis E. Jewell, of Baltimore, U.S., solar system, although small by comno mean authority, holds that oxygen parison with Jupiter and Saturn, are is not unlikely to disclose itself after { unmistakably less advanced on the road similar fashion. Nay, it has been sug- towards completion

habitable gested that the emergence of chloro- worlds. phyll-bands in the rays derived from Such Mars appears now to be; to asthe greenish areas during the Martian sert more would be to launch into the spring might establish beyond appeal realms of speculation. The extraortheir sylvan character. But this is a dinary difficulty of interpreting the one-sided test, since negative result map of this planet cannot legitimately would be valueless.

be evaded by attributing its peculiarOne of the popular assumptions about ities to the intervention of engineering our neighbor-planet is that it is far ad- genius. The Alexander's sword of cosvanced in senile decay. Hence, accord- mical intelligence, so freely wielded by ing to Mr. Lowell, the perennial water- Mr. Lowell, is not a scientific weapon. famine by which its inhabitants are In physical investigations knots have stimulated to superhuman exertions. to be untied, not cut. Upon the It is "just what theory would lead us to geometrical regularity of the canal expect.” For Mars, being smaller than system our author bases his chief arguthe earth, “is relatively more advanced ment for their artificial production. Its in his evolutionary career. He is older “very aspect,” he exclaims, "is such as in age, if not in years; for whether his to defy natural explanations.” “Diverbirth as a separate world antedated sity in uniformity" he takes to be disours or not, his smaller size, by causing tinctive of unassisted nature; wbile him to cool more quickly, would neces- “too great regularity” raises more than sarily age him faster.” And again:- a suspicion “that some finite intelli

gence has been at work.” The doubling

of the canals, although he has no We have before us in Mars the spectacle recipe of explanation at hand for it, of a world relatively well on in years, a world much older than the earth. To so

strengthens this persuasion. “It is the much about his age Mars bears evidence

most artificial-looking phenomenon of on his face. He shows unmistakable

an artificial-looking disc." signs of being old. Advancing planetary To the Greek mind, however, the makyears have left their mark legible there. ing of the world was, it might be saint His continents are all smoothed down; his by rule and compass; the Divine idea oceans have all dried up.

was essentially mathematical. Schia


parelli has made some admirable re. systematic and rapid circulation of marks in this very connection. Speak- water, which is the most obviously ing of Martian "geminations," he says: executed process of the planet's internal

economy The geometry of nature is manifested in

We venture to disclaim, on behalf of many other facts, which entirely exclude

humanity, the extramundane jealousy the idea of artificial labor. The perfect spheroids of the heavenly bodies and the imputed to it by Mr. Lowell. At the ring of Saturn were not constructed in a

close of this nineteenth century, after turning-lathe, and not with compasses has

so many poignant disillusions, amid the Iris described in the clouds her beautiful wreck of so many passionate hopes, it is and regular arch. And what shall we not enamoured with its own destinies to say of the infinite variety of those ex

the point of desiring to impose them as quisite and regular polyhedrons in which a maximum of happiness upon the unithe world of crystals is so rich! In the

verse. Rather, men cherish the vision organic world also, what wonderful

of other and better worlds, where intelgeometry presides over the distribution of foliage on certain plants, orders the nearly

ligence, untrammelled by moral disasymmetrical star-like forms of flowers and bilities, may have risen to unimaginable marine animals, and produces in the shell leights, and sense and reason alike are a perfect conical spiral excelling the finest dominated by incorrupt will. But it is masterpieces of Gothic architecture! In improbable that the vision can ever be all these objects the geometrical figure is located in any one of the disseminated the simple and necessary consequence of orbs around us. The problem of unithe principles and laws which govern the versal life is an enticing, yet insoluble physical and physiological world. That

one. That inorganic nature has, everysuch principles and laws are but an indica

where and always, for its designed and tion of a higher intelligent Power we may admit; the admission has, however, noth. appointed final cause the production of ing to do with the present argument.

organic life may be true, but can

scarcely be assumed as a matter of There is, then, no compulsion upon us course; while, on the other hand, the to regard the surface of Mars as thought that millions of globes roll modelled to suit their vital needs by the through space tenantless for all time industry of rational creatures. Irriga- revolts our sense of the rational in tion hypotheses, inland navigation creation. Science can only declare that hypotheses, and the like, are super- a given planet appears,

far as fluous, and, being superfluous, are inad- physical investigation can tell, to be missible, Not that they are, in all habitable; nihil obstat is its last word on shapes, demonstrably false, but that the subject. The word "habitable” has, they open the door to pure license in however, a very wide implication. The theorizing. The admission of vegetable hierarchy of life has endless gradations. growth and decay as an element of visi- The “roof and crown of things" in some ble change is less objectionable, and is remote worlds may be a race as far beapparently capable of being justified low the genus homo as it is above it in spectroscopically; but. until that or others. Could the veil be lifted, incom. some other kind of definite evidence is prehensible diversity would, without forthcoming, the subject invites only doubt, be found to prevail here as elsenebulous conjecture.

case, where in the works of Infinite Wisdom. Martian seas cannot be abolislied, their For "one star differeth from another presence being indispensable to the star in glory."

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In any

Sixth Series,
Volume XII.


No. 2734.–November 28, 1896.

From Beginning,

Vol, CCXI.






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I. THE BULLY. By Ivan Tourgenieff.

Part III. Translated for THE LIVING
AGE by

Mary J. Safford,
By A. Kenney Herbert,

National Review,
III. Two ARCHBISHOPS. By Dean Farrar, Contemporary Review,
George Newcomen,

Selby Oakley,

Nineteenth Century,

A Reply,
By Harriett McIlquham,
Price Williams,

Temple Bar,

London Times,

Spectator, X. IN DARK DONEGAL,

Blackwood's Magazine, .
XI. MODERN LIFE. Translated for THE

LIVING AGE by Jean Raymond Bidwell
from the Spanish of

Ramon Navarrete,
Andrew Lang,

Illustrated London News,




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