give explanations and to obtain reinforce. I own cousin, should be played off agaiost ments, he was forth with assassinated by the authority of Philip 11. the direct orders of Philip and Perez; and Nor was this all. Besides the Austrian the appeals of the hapless governor of the archduke, a French claimant to the govNetherlands for money, for support, for ernment of the Netherlands appeared in counsel, for encouragement, were left un. the person of the Duke of Anjou — the answered. It was as if Philip, disgusted most contemptible member of an odious by his want of success, or alarmed by race — who in the intervals of his absurd signs of independence and ambition, was courtship of Queen Elizabeth engaged in content to leave him to perish. The vis deep intrigues with the Flemish insurions of glory and ambition which had gents, to which Orange was also a party. crowded around his earlier years were The train had been laid by Queen Mar. fast passing away; and disappointment garet of Navarre, who was passionately and defeat marked the remaining months attached to her brother, when she paid of his life.

her stately visit to Don John at Namur; Driven to extremity, and believing that the plot was encouraged by Catherine de his own life was threatened, Don John Medicis, the queen's motlier; and Anjou seized by a ruse the fortress of Namur, arrived at Mons at the head of levies where, as the king's representative, he raised from the royal troops of Henry had a very good right to command. An 11. Another enemy was in the field, and attempt, which failed, was made to obtain the breach widened between the royal possession of Antwerp. Letters from houses of Spain and France. It is satisDon John to the king were intercepted, factory to know that Queen Elizabeth which proved that he had lost all confi. emphatically condemned both the advendence in the States. “God knows,” lieture of Matthias and the projected French wrote, “ how much I desire to avoid ex. alliance. She informed the Estates that tremities, but I know not what to do with if it were persisted in she would with. men who show themselves so obstinately draw her friendship, and even take up rebellious.” But be clearly foresaw the arms against them. iinminent necessity of exchanging the pen Mr. Motley, in his history of “ The Rise for the sword, and he earnestly prepared of the Dutch Republic,” has devoted sevfor the inevitable contest.

eral chapters to the administration of the Whilst these events were occurring or Netherlands by Don John of Austria. in preparation, two underplots were car. Many of his statements are singularly inried on which bore a singular relation to accurate, and his whole work is animated the great contest between Orange and by a fierce hatred of Don John, which Don John of Austria. The ascendency breaks out in coarse invective. To Mr. of Orange had awakened the fears of the Motley he is "the double-dealing bastard Catholics in southern Flanders and the of a double-dealing emperor;” frenzied jealousy of the great nobles. The rift with furious passion, irritable, sanguinary; which was soon to separate the western and unjust. What in Orange is described Catholic provinces from the Dutch Prot. as “slight dissimulation ”is denounced in estant confederacy, and restore the former Don John as “odious deceit.” Mr. Motportion of the Netherlands to the domin. ley is a very intemperate writer, whose ion of Spain, became apparent, and by a views and expressions are not uofre. strange device the young archduke Mat- quently colored at the expense of truth. thias, brother to the emperor Rudolph, No one can read the more careful and was invited to place himself at the head dispassionate pages of Sir William Stir. of the Estates in Brussels. He accepted ling Maxwell without forming a very dif. the invitation, escaped from Vienna, and ferent estimate of the character and posiarrived in the Low Countries. Orange tion of Don John of Austria. It is was equal to the occasion; he saw that impossible to doubt, on the evidence of the lad might be made his tool, and used these volumes, that the young governor by himself against the Spaniards. He of the Netherlands entered upon his artherefore received the archduke at Ant. duous task with a sincere and honest werp with all honor, and eventually placed desire to pacify the country by liberal him in a chair of state at Brussels. That concessions to the civil and religious was all that Matthias ever attained to; rights of the people; that he deplored the power he had none; but it was an artful severities of Alba and the atrocities of addition to the perplexities of Don John the Spanish troops, whom he soon agreed that a representative of the German to send away altogether; and that he acbranch of the house of Austria, and bis tually surrendered everything short of his

own liberty and life (which were threat that six or seven thousand of the Nether. ened), and the king's sovereignty, to the landers fell on that day, though the vicmaintenance of peace. It was Orange tory cost the Spaniards' but a handful of who was resolved to make peace impossi. men. Immediately the towns of Louvain, ble. It was Orange who was intriguing Tirlemont, Aerschot, Nivelles, and half a with France and Austria, and who raised dozen more, submitted to the conqueror. the terms of compromise (which had been the battle of Gemblours can hardly be accepted by both parties) until they be said to add to the military fame of Don came impossible. It was under the influ- John, for it was won by the dash and ence of Orange that, on December 7, proivess of his cousin, the prince of Par. 1577, the States-General declared that ma, who, at the head of six hundred Don John was no longer stadtholder, gov- troopers, forded a miry ravine, outHanked ernor, nor captain.general, but an infractor the enemy, and decided the victory. "Tell of the peace he had sworn to maintain, Don John,” exclaimed the young hero, and an enemy of the fatherland. So much who was reconnoitring the position, “that, is acknowledged by Mr. Motley himself. like the ancient Roman, am about to “ To this point,” he says, “had tended all plunge into a gulf, and by the aid of God, the policy of Orange, faithful as ever to and under the auspices of the house of the proverb with which he had broken Austria, to win a great and memorable off the Breda conferences, that war was victory." Alexander Farnese 'kept his preferable to a doubtful peace. .* Orange word. Such were the men and the forces may have been right from his point of which Don John refused till the last mo. view, though his policy led very shortly to ment to use. War being declared, it was great military disasters, and to the ulti- carried on with the sanguinary ferocity of mate severance of the provinces. What the age. During the spring Elizabeth he had in view was the Protestant cause urged Don John to grant a “susceance of and the independence of Holland. But arms,” and Mr. Fenton, the queen's agent, he was resolved that Don John should made the following report on the position not have fair play; that the system of of the governor: conciliation should not be tried ; and that

Don John remaineth in that part of Hainault every artifice should be employed to tra that bordereth upon France, and commandeth · duce and resist it. Don John himself was sixteen walled towns. His whole camp cona man of a courteous, kindly, and liberal taineth eighteen thousand men for the fight,

not cruel, not unjust; his ambi- viz., three thousand horsemen and the residue tion was lofty, and be looked to the pacifi-footmen, Of these he maketh special account cation of the Netherlands as the road to of six thousand being Spaniards of the old higher things. No doubt when he saw nations and customs, and of resolution and

hands; the residue are inercenaries of sundry his efforts met by contumely and violence, valor doubtful. He lieth not encamped in any he conceived a strong resentment against one place, but has disparted his companies into his enemies. But he seems to have shown garrisons within the towns he hath won, by an extraordinary amount of self.command which impediment he is not able to put an under great provocation, and it was only army to the field, nor advance any great exploit in his secret despatches to Madrid, which of war, having withal no store of great artille. were intercepted and made public, that he ries, field pieces, nor gunpowder.

He ex. exhaled his bitter disappointment. The pecteth a provision of these munitions from unanswerable defence of his policy and

Luxemburg He entertaineth great intelliconduct appears to us to be that, although of the Estates, by whom gaining the factions

gence with certain particulars in the Council arms were his profession, although he he hath contracted with the Duke of Brans. was trained to war and excelled in it, al- wick for four thousand reitres and two thouthough he had far more to fear from the sand lance-knights, who, as soon as they arrive, national party in the closet than in the he meaneth to take the field and march, pretield, it was only as the very last resort, tending to bestow in his towns the lance. and when all other means were exhausted, knights and revoke to the camp his own comthat he engaged in hostilities. When panies., But I hear that by the Diet of Worms that day came, and the commander, at the the Duke of Prunswick is forbidden to make head of the king's troops, was able to any levies against the Estates. Such places as meet his enemies, the result was not Don John taketh by composition he observeth doubtful; they were dispersed like smoke the country where he commandeth liveth in no

justly his covenants with; every particular in on the field of Gemblours by the supe: less freedom and security than if there were no riority of the Spanish arms. It is said war at all. The husbandman under his protec

tion laboreth the ground in safeiy, and bring. • Motley, vol. iii., p. 289.

ing victuals to his camp he receiveth his money



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in quietness and returneth without fear of vio. entertainment comparable to him. If lence. He punisheth with death all sorts of pride do not overthrow him, he is like to pillage and insolvency, not sparing in that become a great personage.” As for the crime any nation or nature of soldiers, of

terms, Walsingham said to the prince, what merit soever. By these humilities he maketh deep impression on the hearts of the it is only by pure menace that we have ex;

they are too hard ; but, bad as they seem, people, and so changeth the course of the war that he beginneth to make less in the popular torted them from the Estates.” “Then,' sort the hatred universally borne to the nature said Don John, “ you may tell them to of the Spaniards. He is environed with a keep their offers to themselves. Such grave council, with whom he liseth to counsel terms will not do for me." This is altouching all expeditions and directions of the most the last recorded utterance of the

These are of his Privy Council : "the ill-starred prince whose life began in all Prince of Parma, Ottavio Gonzaga (he gov- the radiance of glory, and ended in all the erneth him most), Don Gabriel Nino, Doctor gloom of defeat and despair. Ten years del Rio, Count Barlaymont, Count Charles of Mansfeldt, Don Lopus, Don P. de Taxis, Mon- embrace the whole career of Don John of sieur de Billi

, and Mondragone. These in all Austria, marked without intermission by their behavior do wonderfully reverence him, the vicissitudes of fortune and of fame. and by their example he is honored with a But it was not the pride of empire that wonderful obedience of the inferiors.” (Vol. was to lay Don John of Austria low. A ii., p. 304.)

humbler and a sadder fate was at hand.

After the rupture of the last negotiations Yet at this very time Philip was in. Don John had withdrawn his army to an triguing against his brother: he secretly entrenched camp at Bouges, near Namur, offered to the Estates to place the Prince a position which commanded a long reach of Parma or even the archduke Matthias of the river Meuse. It had been occuin his place; in March Escovedo was pied by his father when hard pressed by murdered ; Don John himself would the force of Henry 11., and it was chosen gladly have accepted any change; in his for sanitary as well as strategical reasons, more sombre moments he was for retir. a pestilence having broken out amongst ing to some wild hermitage amongst the the troops in and around the town of Sierras of Spain; his life was attempted Namur. Don John took up his quarters by two assassins from England; and his there towards the middle of September. health began to fail. In July another battle was fought at Rijnemants, with far He had been again attacked by the fever, less decisive results, for the Spanish which indeed had been for weeks lingering in troops were opposed, not to the burgher his system. His last illness was reckoned by levies of the Netherlands, but to some of those about him to have commenced on Sep.

tember 17. the French Huguenots under François de

He thought the change of air la Noue, and to a body of English troops he was nearer his works and his daily duty.

might do him good; and, besides, at the camp commanded by Sir John Norris, rein. So great was his weakness that he was carried forced by a Scotch detachinent, who met up the hill from Namur on a camp-bed borne the enemy by first singing a .psalm and on men's shoulders. His arrival, very uvex. rushing to battle nearly naked. The vic. pected, had not been prepared for. Refusing tory was claimed by both sides, the action to allow any of the superior officers to be disbeing, in fact, indecisive. This was the turbed on his account, he desired to be carried last appearance of Don John of Austria to the quarters of the regiment of Figueroa, in the field. Sick in body and soul, anx

one of whose captains, Bernadino de Zuñiga, ious and yet hopeless, he consented to established himself in a ruined grange, and an

was attached to his household. Zuñiga had reopen negotiations for peace, and to re- old pigeon-house attached thereto was selected ceive the envoys of the Estates. But the as the only apartment available for Don John. conditions dictated by Orange were in. The place was hastily cleaned ; its rough walls possible. They required that the gov- were clothed with some rich armorially embla. ernor, then at the head of a powerful zoned hangings, and damask curtains were army, should evacuate the country. Wal. placed over the holes which served as windows. singham and Cobham, the English en. A wooden staircase was constructed in place voys, were with him when the proposals of the ladder by means of which it had been arrived. “In conference with him," formerly reached. In this forlorn loft he con

tinued for some days to write despatches and Walsingham wrote to Lord Burghley on

transact the business of the army from his sickAugust 27, “I might easily discern a bed. By a curious coincidence, on the same great conflict in himself between honor day when his disorder returned his old friend and necessity. Surely I never saw a gen and comrade Serbellone, the engineer, was tleman for personage, speech, wit, and prostrated by a similar ailment. The attacks

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of the disease were in both cases intermittent, | king. He informed him that he was confined and recurring as it happened at coincident in to his chamber with fever, and that he was as tervals of time. The engineer's fever appeared much reduced as if he had been ill a month. to be the more severe, and he was, besides, up." I assure your Majesty,” he said, "that the wards of seventy, and broken with campaigning work here is enough to destroy any constituand captivity. The doctors thought ill of the tion and any life.” He had often warned the old soldier's chances of recovery, but for the king that the French were busy in tampering young general they did not at first feel any ap- i with what remained of loyalty in the provprehension.

inces. The success of these secret practices During the intervals between his attacks was now apparent, and Anjou at the head of Don John continued his usual correspondence. an increasing force was fairly established in The letters written from Bouges give a very the country. The inhabitants were everywhere gloomy picture of his feelings and his life. In alarmed, and many disaffected. With his his mind diseased he suffered more than in small and dwindling force it was impossible his fevered frame. Hopes long deferred now for him to hazard any important attack on the seemed to his excited imagination utterly de enemy, and even remaining stationary he could stroyed. He felt himself forsaken and betrayed hardly hope long to keep open the cominuni. by the king whom he had so ardently and un cations by which alone money and supplies scrupulously served.

could reach him. The pest was consuming " His Majesty,” thus he wrote to his friend his army. He had twelve hundred men in Don Pedro de Mendoza, the Spanish agent at hospital, besides those who were laid up in Genoa, on September 16, "his Majesty is re- private houses; and he had neither means of solved upon nothing; at least I am kept in ig. meeting the emergency nor money to obtain norance of his intentions, Our life is doled them. The enemy, finding his operations in out to us here by moments. I cry aloud, but the field suspended, had cut off his waterway it profits me little Matters will soon be dis- by the Meuse to Liege, and had advanced to posed, through over-negligence, exactly as the Nivelle and Chimay, on the same stream. He devil would most wish them. It is plain we would give his blood rather than annoy the are left here to pine away to our last breath. king with such tidings, but he felt it to be his God direct us all as he may see fit; in bis duty to tell the plain truth. He suggested hands are all things.” On the same day be that special envoys should be sent to Paris to wrote also to his old naval companion, Gio- remonstrate against the proceedings of Anjou, vanni Andrea Doria, at Genoa. “I rejoice to and to the Pope to ask for the duke's excom. see by your letter,” he said, “that your life is munication. 1. Thus I remain,” he said, “perflowing on with such calmness while the world plexed and confused, desiring more than life around me is so tumultuously agitated. I con- some decision on your Majesty's part, for sider you most fortunate that you are passing which I have begged so many times." the remainder of your days for God and your- ders for the conduct of affairs,” that was his self; that you are not forced to put yourself first wish, and it wounded him to the soul to perpetually in the scales of the world's events, find them so long delayed. Was he to attack nor' to venture yourself daily in its hazardous the enemy in Burgundy, or on some other side; game.” Himself he described as surrounded or was he to remain where he was awaiting with countless enemies, who were now pressing orders? And he was deeply pained at being upon him within half a mile of the spot which disgraced and abandoned by the king, whoin he had selected for his final stand, and which he had served as a man and a brother with all he looked upon as his last refuge. Fighting a love and fidelity and heartiness. “ Our lives battle was for him out of question; he did not are at issue on this stake,” he said, “and all believe he could hold out for above three we desire is to lose them with honor," months; and he received no aid from the Gov- When Philip received that pathetic letter, ernment at home, who could not or would not he drew his pen beneath the words entreating see that in the loss of the present chance all for “orders for the conduct of affairs,” and would be lost. The Duke of Anjou was wrote on the margin, "The underlined quesstrengthening himself in Hainault, and in the tion I will not answer.” When he made this background was the French king professing cruel annotation it was already decreed that amity but preparing to invade Burgundy if for- he was to be troubled no more with such pas. tune favored his brother. “ Again and again sionate appeals. The hand which had penned have I besought his Majesty," he added, “to the passage was cold in death. (Vol. ii., p. send me his orders, which shall be executed if 330.) they do not come too late. They have cut off our hands; nothing now remains but to stretch From the commencement of his illness forth our heads also to the axe. I grieve to Don John despaired of his recovery. On trouble you with my sorrows, but I trust to your sympathy as a man and as a friend. '1 September 28 he received the holy com. hope that you will in your

munion, and transferred to the prince of prayers, for you can put your trust where in Parma bis civil and military authority. former days I could never put mine.”

Alexander was by his side, and performed Four days later, on September 20, he wrote to the last all the offices of friendship his last letter to the gloomy, obdurate, silent and affection. He confessed himself de.

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voutly, gave some parting directions to of the objects of his ambition, dissolved his confessor, and added, “And now, his forces. Ghent, the centre of the revfather, is it not just that I who have not a olutionary party, broke out in anarchy and hand's breadth of earth that I can call my violence. Catholic and Protestant reown in this world, should desire to be at newed their internecine feuds, and by large in heaven?”. After an interval of these religious dissensions the union of feverish delirium, on October 1 he was the Provinces and Estates was broken up, again calm and collected, and he heard never to be renewed. The Walloon provmass. His last conscious act was that of inces formed a separate treaty between adoration, but he continued murmuring themselves, and entered into negotiations the names of Jesus and Maria until about with Parma. Thenceforth it was with the one in the afternoon, when he expired, united provinces of Holland alone, ce"passing,” as his confessor said, "out of mented by the compact of Utrecht, which our hands like a bird of the sky, with was signed only three months after the almost imperceptible motion.” His re- death of Don John of Austria, that the mains were ultimately conveyed, though contest was carried on. That no doubt in a strange manner, to Spain, and interred was the foundation of the glorious Protesin a sepulchral chamber of the Escorial, tant commonwealth of the Netherlands, adjacent to the vault which contained the which for many a long year defended and bones of Charles V.

at last won its independence. But the Sir William Stirling Maxwell has not confederacy of the States which had opthought it necessary to review the charac. posed Don John was at an end, and the ter of the prince to whom he has devoted final separation of the Netherlands into this splendid monograph. The interest their Catholic and Protestant elements he felt in it himself is best shown by the was completed by the administration of industry and ability with which he has Alexander Farnese and the death of recorded. the events of his life. Don Orange. John of Austria was not a man of political genius or of rare intellectual power; he had not the imperial grasp of his father, or the subtlety of his brother, or the re

From Macmillan's Magazine. sources of his cousin and successor, Alexander Farnese. But he had in him, far more than these his kinsmen, some. thing of an heroic fire. His own inspira- The party at Birkenbraes was always tions were brave and manly; if he failed large. There were, in the first place, it was as the instrument and the victim of many people staying in the house, for Mr. a system of policy based on the right of Williamson was hospitable in the largest God's anointed kings to misgovern their sense of the word, and opened his liberal subjects.” He passed through life in a doors to everybody that pleased him, and treacherous and cruel age unstained by was ready to provide everything that perfidy or crime; and he retained to the might be wanted for the pleasure of his last unshaken fidelity to a sovereign little guests - carriages, horses, boats, even worthy of so brave and noble a kinsman. special trains on the railway, not to speak There are few princes or soldiers or cour of the steam-yacht that lay opposite the tiers of the sixteenth century of whom as house, and made constant trips up and much can be said.

down the loch. His liberality had some. The darkest hour precedes the dawn, times an air of ostentation, or rather of and the moment at which Don John of that pleasure which very rich persons Austria expired was that at which the often take in the careless exhibition of a cause of Spain appeared to be most hope. lavish expenditure, which dazzles and as. less. It might be a curious subject of tonishes those to whom close reckonings historical enquiry how it came to pass are necessary. He had a laugh, which, that the Prince of Parma succeeded in though perfectly good-natured, seemed to re-establishing the authority of Spain over have a certain derision in it of the prea considerable portion of the Low Coun. cautions which others took, as he gave tries, where his predecessor had egre. his orders. “Lord, man, take a special! giously failed. But within a few weeks of - what need to hurry? I will send and the death of Don John the horizon cleared, order it to be in waiting. I have my pri. and events occurred which materially vate carriage, ye see, on the railway weakened the enemies of the Spanish always at the use of my friends." And The Duke of Anjou, disappointed then he would laugh, as much as to say,







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