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“ Josephus, when deserted by his a grace or prayer for Christians at the soldiers through the intrigues of John end of the fifth book of the Apostolical of Gischala, wbile governor of Galilee, Constitutions, which seems to have showed his sense of the disgrace they been intended both for before and after had put upon him as their general, in meat. the following striking manner : " He “ Having said this much as to the Jeaped out of bis house to them, while probable manner in which the ancient they were going to set it on fire, with Jews might have lived, I shall add from his clothes rent, and ashes spriokled ou Buxtorff' that of the modern Jews, ia his head, with his hands tied behind those countries especially where they bim, and his sword hanging at his are most populous. They are very parneck.” At this humbling sight, they ticular, he informs us, not only in the pitied his situation, repented of their selection of the articles of food, but in fault, and returned to their duty. This the manner of preparing them. As to suspending the sword from the neck is the selection of food, those beasts only several times inentioned in Sir Joha are eaten which have the hoof divided, Malcolm's History of Persia, as the and chew the cud, as oxen and sheep; mark either of degradation or deep sup- fishes that have fins and scales, &c. plication ; and the same thing may be They do not eat the fat of the inwards said of those who, with sackcloth on and'kidneys ; bave a book with directheir loins, and ropes on their necks, tions for killing; and the butcher who supplicated the conquerors
mercy." can fulfil them gets a certificate from a In deseribing the entertainments of Rabbi as to his qualification for the buthe Jews, we fiod this notice.
siness, which commonly procures him “ The most ancient example that is, much employment. The certificate is perhaps, to be met with of a grace, or as follows: "To day (in such a month sbort prayer before meat, is at a feast and year) I saw and examined the exwhich Ptolomy Philadelphus gave to cellent and remarkable N, the son of N, the seventy-two interpreters; and it is and found him skilled in the art of killthus mentioned by Josephus: “ When ing, both by word and hand, therefore they were thus sat down, he (viz. Ni- I permit bim to kill and examine catcanor, who had been appointed by tle; and whatsoever he hath killed and Ptolomy) bade Dorotheus attend to all examined, may be freely eaten, on this those that were come to him from Ju- condition, that for a year to come be dea, after the manner they used to be shall once every week peruse diligently ministered unto in their own country. the directions for killing and examinFor which cause he sent away their ing ; the second year once a month: sacred heralds, and those that slew the and during the rest of his life once evsacrifices, and the rest that used to say ery three months only. Attested by grace ; but called to one of those that Rábbi M.” In examining the faults were come to him, whose name was of cattle, particular attention is paid to Eleazar, who was a priest, and desired the lungs; and if the butcher is found him to say grace, who then stood in negligent, he is admonished the first the midst of them, and prayed, • That time, and his certificate taken from him all prosperity might attend the king, the second: With respect to their manand those that were his subjects. Here- ner of preparing their victuals, their cuupon an acclamation was made by the linary utensils are either bought new, or whole company, and when that was if of metal or stone, at second hand, over they began to sup.” The next ex- they undergo the purification of fire and ample we have is the practice of the water. They have two kiods of vessels Essenes both before and after meat in for the kitchen and table, the one for Josephus' Jewish War. The next is flesh, and the other for preparations of that of our Saviour, in Mark viii. 6. milk. The vessels for milk have three Joha vi. 11, 23, and St. Paul, Acts distinct marks, because Moses had thrice xxvii. 35; and the next is the form of said, “ Thou shalt pot seethe a kid in 3E
ATHENELU VOL. 7.
his mother's milk.” Sometimes, how- ered well, for fear of poisonous animals. ever, they write the words, Heleb, milk, As to their preparation of bread, we and Besher, flesh, to show the distinc- may remark, that as it is said in Nom. tion. They have also two knives to xv. 20, “ Ye shall offer up a cake of the each, the one for Besh, and the other first of your dough for a heave offerfor cheese and fish : if they use the one ing." Therefore at every baking they instead of the other by mistake, it un- separate a portion called Helè, whict, dergoes a strict purification. Prepara- as they cannot now offer to the Lord, tions of flesh, and preparations of milk, they throw into the fire. The size of are not cooked togetber on the same a grain of barley is sufficient; but the fire, nor brought to table at the same wise men had fixed on the 40th part time, and they have distinct table cloths for private families, and the 48th for for each. He who eats of flesh, or of bakers. These last, however, are conbroth made of flesh, ought not to eat sidered only to have been binding cheese for an hour after, and those who while the temple stood, and the priestaffect piety abstain for six hours ; but hood required maintenance, for a small if he eat cheese first, he may eat flesh portion now is reckoned sufficient, and immediately after. Iffat fall into a dish they even find no difficulty in some of milk, it becomes unclean ; but flesh countries of eating bread that hath been may be never so fat and yet eaten. The baked by Christians. lodeed, when eggs of clean birds only are eaten. Flesh we inquire into the customs of modern and fish are not brought to table at the Jews, we find them much affected by same time they even wash the mouth local circumstances; for the Jews in between them, or eat fruit, or a crust of Germany have usages different from bread. No milk that has been drawn by those in Britain, and the same may be a Christian, or cheese or butter that has said of other places. been made by one, is permitted ; and they refrain from drinking from a cov
From the Imperial Magazine.
THE WONDERFUL FORMATION OF MAN.
Concluded from p. 501,
HAVING formed such a being, being in such a situation. He would
we should begin to wish that we be in the same unhappy state as poor had provided for its continuance ; for Polydorus, whose sufferings we have we shall perceive that its operations are all of us shuddered at. attended with a waste of its component We must have something different parts. How then shall we provide for from these. We will place a bag its continuance ?
(which we will form cbiefly of celluShall we make it attract particles of lar substance, with some muscular fithe same nature with itself, as minerals bres and some nerves) in the inside are supposed to increase ?
of the body, which shall have the This could not be done, unless the power of reducing various substances body were one mass of the same na- sent into it, into a Auid of the same nature throughout : and such a body ture, which shall be fit, with some little would be totally unfit for motion or further preparation, for the support sensation.
of the body. We will call this bag, Shall we let it suck its nourishment the stomach. by tubes fixed into the earth, as vege
We will provide this bag with some tables do?
Such a structure will dot tubular appendages of the same mateallow the animal to seek pleasure and rials with itself, which we will call jo10 avoid pain ; and it would be the testines. From these intestines dumheight of cruelty to place a sensible berless little vessels shall arise, which
shall suck up the nourishing fluid : but We have then but one set of vessels wbere shall they carry it?
going from the beart, the arteries, and Why, we will have near the middle iwo going towards it, the veins, and the of the body a roundish hollow muscle : absorbents, among which latter the lacwe will call it the heart. It shall have teals are reckoned. But we need not pipes passing from it, which shall di- have separate entrances in the heart for vide into smaller ones, and go to every the veios and absorbents; the absorpart of the body. The little vessels bents shall pour their liquid into a vein rising from the intestines, which we near the heart. will call lacteals, shall bring the nutri We have now then brought our tive matter, and pour it into the heart. blood to the heart from every part of The heart sball contract, and send it the body, wbere it has received a fresh through the pipes, to every part of the supply from the stomach ; but the old
But before this can take place, blood is altered in some of its properties, some previous process is required. and is utterly unfit for the purposes of The blood received from the stomach life, until it has undergone the action of must first pass through the luogs, for the air. purposes which will be soon explained. How shall we contrive ibis, we But let us go on as we were going, and find that our single heart is insufficient. our ideas will speedily become cor- We must have as it were two hearts :rect.
one shall receive the blood in the state Some of the matter sent by the heart just mentioned, and send it into an apthrough the pipes, shall remain in every paratus where the air may effect the nepart of the body, and take on itself the cessary change in it-the lungs. The nature and disposition of the part to other heart shall receive the prepared which it is applied.
blood from the lungs, and send it for But as we have not used the whole the purpose of nourishment to every of what came from the heart, we part of the body. must provide means of returning it; The first heart, we have said, shall and this we will do by another set of receive the blood from every part of pipes which we will call veins, and the body with the fluid of the absorbwhich sball arise from every part of ents, and send it into an apparatus for the body, shall unite into one or two giving it air. This apparatus shall be large ones, and carry back the blood to called the lungs. They shall be bellows, the heart.
and shall be formed of a pumber of vesNow, parts of our body are constant. icles, membranous bladders, which shall ly becoming effete and useless where admit the air, and on which the bloodthey are, but if we can carry them into yessels shall be spread, so that the air our circulating fluid, and modify them shall come in contact, or nearly so, with a little, they will perhaps again serve the sides of the vessels ; which will be some purpose ; and moreover, we will found sufficient to produce the necessahave an apparatus for carrying such as ry change in it, are absolutely useles3 out of the cir When this change has been effected, culation, and out of the body alto- veins shall receive the now perfect blood gether.
from all the small arteries of the lungs,and To bring these parts into the cireu- carry it to the second heart, which conlation, we must have another set of tracting shall send it anew to every vessels distinct from the veins, which part of the body. we will call absorbents. They shall take This is one circulation. This is the up particles of the body, and carry discovery of the immortal Harvey : them towards the heart. They shall after pbilosophers for many ages had be of the same nature with the lacteal been contented with absurd theories of vessels, which rise from the intestines, the motion of the blood, supposing it and indeed shall be joined with them, like the flux and reflux of the tide, and as they go towards the heart.
so forth. Though we have formed two
hearts to simplify the circulation, yet sels, great part of the stomach and inwe will join them together, as their mo- testines, and of almost every soft part tions may go on at the same time : we of the body, is formed. will call the whole, the heart of the an The muscles are not very sensible. imal ; and the two hearts, the two sides But the body is surrounded by a very of the heart.
sensible membrane, the skio ; exceedLet us impress it on our memories, ingly full of nerves, sent from it to the that one side of the beart receives brain ; which give notice to the mind, the prepared blood from the luogs, when any thing destructive to the body and sends it to nourish the body; and approaches. the other side receives the blood from Fat also is placed by way of cushion, all parts of the body, and sends it to where motion is great; and is used to the lungs to be again prepared. fill up interstices, and make the sur
Such are the general and easy no. face of the body smooth and beautitions which a person who would gain ful. a knowledge of Physiology and Ana The support of the body is effected tomy should first fix in his mind. by a bag, the stomach, forming several
A frame of bone, to give figure, sorts of food into a outritious fluid. strength, and points of attachment, This fluid is taken up by absorbing and action for the moving powers, vessels, opening into the appendages hollow, and full of oil, where such a of the stomach, the intestines. These structure is admissible ; its parts move- absorbents meet those coming from eveable by means of joints, which are two ry other part of the body, and all ends of bone tipped by cartilage, joined joining together, pour their fluid into by ligament, and besmeared with sy- the blood, as it is returning to the novia, which synovia is secreted, and heart. prevented from escaping by a nem The heart sends it through arteries branous bag fixed around the ends of to the lungs, where it is submitted to the bones. To move these bones, ihe action of the air. Veins return it ropes called tendons are attached to from the lungs to the other side of the them; and to these ropes muscular fi- heart, which sends it through arteries bres are fixed, which shortening them- to every part of the body : from every selves, draw the most moveable towards part of the body veins receive it, the least moveable piece of the frame; and carry it back towards the heart, the muscular fibres subservient to the being joined in their way by the supply will by means of nerves passing from from the intestinal absorbents, togeththe brain to them.
er with the fluid of the other absorbTo unite the muscular fibres to each ents of the body. The heart sends it other, cellular substance is made use of, again to the lungs to be again perof which also membranes, blood-ves- fected.
From the Literary Gazette.
I AM so partial to Scotland that I al dom and fresh air in the land of cakes bute in its praise with great pleasure. A couple of letters on the subject hav- Letters from Mr. Peter Prig, traveling accidentally fallen into my hands, I ler to the house of Clumph and accordingly lay them before my read
Compuny, to his friend in London. ers, that they may sympathize in the “ Dear John,- What an advantage delights of a cockney, escaping from the travelling gives a man over the rest of noise and dust of Cheapside, to free, his neighbours ! A fellow wbo stands
like a fixture behind his compter, bas my will, and I have no will of my own Do chance of enlarging his mind, whilst near such a sweet creature as you." the traveller who shakes off the Lon. “ Tut," cried Jeannie, “ I canna be don dust from bis trowsers, divests bim- fashed wi' you ; you speak over high self of prejudice and the vernacular English for me, but
mistress will be tongue together, and becomes not a cit- at you in a moment.” Wbat this meant izen of London, but a citizen of the I knew not, but I was resigned. Her world ; he is easily naturalized (not mistress came in-as lady-like a woa neutralized as Mrs. Clumph would call man as ever I saw, and treated me with it) any where, because he is himself a the most courtly respect and attention ; child of nature, and takes bis mother I was half reconciled to Scotland alfor bis guide. I was never so much ready. convinced of this, as after sojourning a " At this moment a barbarous fellow while in the Caledonian metropolis, entered with “ come awa' Jassie ; fire that Emporium of Science, the great my chops weel, and be dune as quick Dorthern mart, as we say. How you as possible, where awa's the guid untravelled Cocknies do mistake the wife ?” What gibberish! “I hope,' Scot! You think Sandy a heavy, un thought I to myself, “ that they wont couth, uncultivated sly creature : be is attempt to fire my chops ; but I'm deDothing of all this. Well then you termined, for the fun of the thing, to consider the Aberdonian to be a sharp, have a complete Scottish dinner. I tricky, slippery, selfish fellow : this is therefore ordered a sheep's head and a equally false. He may have a bit of baggis, with the view of seeing as much these ingredients in his composition ; of the country manners as I could, and but he is just as honest as ourselves- I left the third dish to the landlady's much pleasanter and easier to deal with, good taste, calling for whiskey by way but that's not to my purpose,—siok the of beverage. Now, John, the sheep's shop!
head was singed, and bad whole turnips first arriving on the Scot- around it; so that it looked like a blacktish borders, I was brimful of prejudice, amoor's head garnished with snow balls; and was prepared to quiz Sandy, as 'twas the most disgusting thing I ever much as I could ; and to mark the de- saw. At this moment my epicureancided inferiority betwixt him, and our- ism got the better of my politeness and selves. How my heart and my reason knowledge of the world, and I cried, smite me for such an unworthy thought!" with an oath,“ take away that monster kindness and hospitality have taken of a thing!” “Oh! said a pert bussey, their revenge of me, in this point. The with coal black eyes, and auburn hair
, first savage sound which assailed my (a very pretty girl too) “you dinna ears, was," come, Ben.” For this fa- like sheep's heed, absins you'll hae miliarity I took the liberty of observing, enough that at hame !" Devilish that I did not stand nick names, that I sharp, thought Iwas neither Ben nor Dick, and that I “She now brought me some decentthought the address more free than ish barleybroth, and a boiled fowl, welcome. The chambermaid stared ; which was tol lol, but overdone ; some she was a pretty girl; and blushing very fine fish, and a bottle of as good modestly and enchantingly, she replied, port as any in the Lord Mayor's cellar. “I bope, Sir, no offence; will you step This made me a little easy; and the acin to the fire ?" No, my dear;" re. tive bucksome style of the lass quite plied I, “ for if I did, I should burn struck my fancy. I bad, however, only myself; and as it is, I am between seen her face. Looking down I betwo fires, a noble one of Scotch coal, held her naked feet, which quite turned and your bright eyes, which is the most my stomach ; but I was determined to ardent of the two." “ What's your be condescending, and to make myselt wull," replied Jeannie (such was her agreeable to the natives ; so smiling, name.) “Why, love, I have not made Bonny lassie,” said 1, (for I am en
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