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Libellus, ac nunc primum impressus de præcellentiâ Potestatis Imperatoriæ, &c. 1502. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)
ANTHIPPUS. Of this comic writer nothing is known, except a long fragment quoted by Athenæus, ix. p. 404.
ANTHOINE, (Nicolas,) a fanatic, who was burnt at Geneva in 1632. Educated in the faith of the Roman Catholic church, he afterwards embraced Calvinism, and ended in professing Judaism. However, for a time he concealed his apostasy, and officiated as protestant minister at Divonne, in Gex, until suspicion was aroused by his constant neglect of the New Testament. The fear of being denounced drove him completely mad; and in this state he broke away, and arrived at Geneva, where notwithstanding the representations of his friends, he was sentenced to death. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.) See life of PAUL FERRI.
ANTHOINE, (Antoine Ignace, baron de St. Joseph,) an eminent merchant of Marseilles, was born in 1749. For some time he was at the head of a commercial house in Constantinople; and during the years 1781-2-3, was engaged in arranging the terms of commercial intercourse between France and Russia, in which his views were readily taken up and appreciated by the courts of Versailles and St. Petersburg. He founded an establishment at Cherson, and contributed mainly to the present facilities enjoyed by France in her commercial relations with the countries on the Black Sea. In 1781 he was rewarded by Louis XVI. with letters of nobility. He filled some offices connected with public trade under the directory; and after the eighteenth Brumaire, was admitted into the legion of honour. He was mayor of Marseilles from 1805 to 1813, and effected great improvements in that town. He died in 1826. An Essai Historique sur le Commerce et la Navigation de la Mer Noire, reprinted in 1820, is by him. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)
ANTHONY, (St.) one of the most celebrated personages of the Eastern and Romish calendars; was born at Heraclea, in Upper Egypt, in a. D. 251. His parents were noble and rich; and while young he was left, with his sister, possessed of their whole property. According to his biographer, he had shown little inclination to letters; but he had been early imbued with the piety which characterised his parents, and his zeal increased with his age; so that when still little more than a youth, on hearing the exhortation of Christ to the young man to
sell his property and distribute it to the poor, read in the church, he returned home and imitated it literally, reserving only a small portion of his riches for the support of his sister. Monks were at this time few and scattered. But in a solitary spot in the neighbourhood of Heraclea, an old man led the life of an anchorite, and Anthony resolved to imitate him. He accordingly sought a convenient place in the neighbourhood of his native town, where he adopted an austere course of discipline, and devoted his time to prayer and the study of the Scripture. After residing at this place some time, he left it to seek a still more lonely asylum among the dead in the catacombs. At the age of thirty-five, he quitted the tombs, and retired still further into the desert, where he took up his residence among the ruins of a deserted castle on a mountain. Here he remained during twenty years; and the fame of his sanctity drew around him crowds of devotees, whom he collected together into monasteries. When the persecution under Maximinus raged in Egypt, Anthony quitted the desert to encourage the martyrs by his presence and exhortations. When he returned, he left his former abode, which had become populous, to seek solitude, and advancing still further into the desert, settled on another mountain; but wherever he went, he was followed by crowds of people, until the whole desert was covered with monasteries; and at the death of the saint, the number of monks who had adopted his rule of life, are said to have amounted to fifteen thousand. During his life St. Anthony directed all these foundations, and visited them frequently, either in person or by his letters. In 355, he was persuaded a second time to quit the desert, and repair to Alexandria, by the prayers of St. Athanasius, in order to clear himself from the imputation which the Arians had cast upon him of being of their creed. He lived to the great age of one hundred and five years, and died A. D. 356, on his return from this visit. His festival is celebrated on the 17th of January.
St. Anthony is regarded as the patriarch of the monks. He is known popularly for the numerous contests which he is said to have sustained against the evil one, many of them more fantastic than terrible, and all too trivial to be repeated; but they have frequently furnished matter to the imagination of the artist. His body was transferred from its first resting
place to Alexandria in 561, and from thence to Constantinople about a century later. At the end of the tenth century it was again removed, and was deposited in a Benedictine priory near Vienne, in France. The life of St. Anthony was written by his friend Athanasius, and was translated into Latin by Evagrius. Both the original and the translation are given in the Benedictine edition of Athanasius, tom. i. p. 793. The Latin of Evagrius, with a collection of collateral documents, and accounts of the different translations of the body of the saint, will be found in the Acta Sanct. of the Bollandists, Mens. Jan. vol. ii. p. 121, &c. Many of St. Anthony's letters, addressed to the different monasteries of the Thebaid, and written in Coptic, are preserved. Some were translated into Greek and Latin, and a few have been printed in the Bibliotheca Patrum. Seven only of those printed by Abraham Echellensis in 1641, are said to be genuine. Two of the originals, in the language of the Thebaid, were inserted by Mingarelli in his Ægyptiorum Codicum Reliquiæ, in 1785.
ANTHONY, (Derick,) whom Walpole, in the Anecdotes of Painting, ed. 1782, vol. i. p. 205, calls Anthony Deric, was the chief graver of the mint and seals to King Edward the Sixth, and the queens Mary and Elizabeth. His father, William Anthony, was a native of Cologne, and may also have had an office in the Mint, as this his son was born at St. Catherine's, by the Tower. His appointment, by letters patent, to his office, is noticed by Walpole. See for the other particulars here given, Harl. MS. 5810, f. 17, b.
ANTHONY, (Dr. Francis,) a famous empiric and chemist, born 1550, was the son of an eminent goldsmith in London. He took the degree of M.A. in the university of Cambridge, and afterwards applied himself with great industry to the theory and practice of chemistry. He went to London, and in 1598 published his first treatise on a medicine drawn from gold. Not having obtained a license to practise medicine from the College of Physicians, he was summoned by them, and fined, and on refusing to pay his fine, was committed to prison, from which, however, he was discharged in 1602. Neverthe less he continued his practice with great reputation; but was attacked by Dr. Gwenne, and other antagonists, whom he answered by publishing a defence of himself and his Aurum Potabile, in 1610.
ANTIBOUL, (Charles Louis,) a French lawyer, and member of the Gironde party, was deputy to the national convention for the department of the Var. He was executed in 1793. (Biog. Univ.)
ANTIC. See Bosc.
ANTICLIDES, of ATHENS, was the author of the Noσro, a prose work, founded upon an older poetical one, but with this difference, that while the lastmentioned related to the events which befel the Grecian chiefs on their return from Troy, the work of Anticlides had reference to the fortunes of other leaders of other expeditions: amongst which those of the generals that served under Alexander held a prominent place. The work must have been a voluminous one, for the sixteenth book is quoted by Athenæus, xi. p. 466. He compiled likewise an archæological glossary for the purpose of explaining words connected with particular customs, and half forgotten traditions. To this author, and not to Anticles, Plutarch probably alludes in ii. p. 1136.
ANTICO, (Lorenzo,) in Latin, Antiquus. An Italian grammarian of the beginning of the seventeenth century, who taught grammar at Padua. His works are, De Eloquentiâ compendiarii libri tres. Venice, 1594. De Institutione Grammatica Commentarii tres. Padua, 1601. (Biog. Univ.)
ANTIDAMAS, of HERACLEA, is known only from a reference in Fulgentius, who says that he wrote a history of Alexander, and some treatises on morals.
ANTIDOTUS, a Greek painter, pupil of Euphranor, lived in the 104th Olympiad, 361 years B. c. He was more
remarkable for the laborious finishing of
ANTIGENES, one of Alexander's generals. He was put to death by Antigonus, about 315 B. C. (Q. Curt. v. c. 14.) ANTIGENES. One of this name is found amongst the historians of Alexander, mentioned by Plutarch; and another is the grammarian quoted in Apollon. Lex. Homer, where, however, Villoison has edited Apxnyevns, because he says in Prolegom. p. 20, that the latter name is found in Eustathius.
ANTIGONUS, one of Alexander's most celebrated generals. In the division of the provinces, after the king's death, he received Pamphylia, Lycia, and Phrygia; but he afterwards increased his power, and during his life was master of all Asia Minor, as far as Syria. After the naval battle near the island of Cyprus, in which Demetrius, his son, defeated Ptolemy's fleet, Antigonus assumed the title of king. His power was now so great that Ptolemy, Seleucus, Cassander, and Lysimachus, united to destroy him, and he died of wounds received in battle 301 B. c. in his eightieth year.
ANTIGONUS, (commonly called Carystius, to distinguish him from others of the same name,) was born at Carystus in Euboea, and is supposed to have flourished during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about B. c. 250, Ol. 132, 3. Vossius, de (See H. Dodwell, Dissert. de Etate Peripli Hannonis, § 21. Histor. Græc. lib. i. cap. 12.) Nothing is known of his life, except that he 1. Ιστοριων Παραδόξων Συναwrote ywyn, Historiarum Mirabilium Collectio. 2. Biot; or, Lives of the Philosophers, often quoted by Athenæus and Diogenes Laertius. 3. Пept Zwwv, De Animalibus, (Hesych. in Io.) 4. Пept Aeĝews, De Dictione. (Athenæus, Deipnos. lib. iii, p. 88; lib. vii. pp. 297, 303.) Epic Poem, called Avrinarрos, of which Of these, the two lines are quoted by Athenæus, Deipnos. lib. iii. p. 82. first only is still extant, and consists of one hundred and eighty-nine chapters, of which a great part is taken from the work, De Mirabilibus Auscultationibus, attributed to Aristotle, and also from that by Callimachus (of which only a few fragments remain) entitled, Oavμatwv τwv εις άπασαν την Γην κατα Τόπους οντων Συναγωγή, Miraculorum quæ sunt in singulis totius Orbis Terrarum Locis Collectio. As might be expected from the title, the work contains a great many fables and absurdities, together with much that is curious and worth reading. He tells us that bees are generated by the putrid carcase of an ox, wasps by a horse, scorpions by a crocodile (cap. 23), and snakes by the spinal marrow of a man (cap. 96); that horses have a bony heart (cap. 75); that all animals, except man, when bitten by a mad dog, become mad themselves (cap. 102); that the chamelion assumes the colour of the ground, tree, leaves, &c., on which it happens to be walking (cap. 30); that the crocodile is the only animal that
ANTIGENIDAS, a musician of Thebes, the pupil of Philoxenus, and the master of Ismenias, whom he taught to despise the applause of the populace, as Either he learn from Cicero, Brut. 11. or another Theban musician of the same name was the master of Alcibiades. ANTIGNAC, (Antoine,) a French song writer of some reputation, born 1772, died 1823. He left-Chansons et Poësies Diverses. Paris, 1809. L'Epicurien Français, ou les Dîners du Caveau Moderne. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)
ANTIGONUS, (Gonatas,) son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, was king of Macedon. In 272 B. C. he was expelled from his kingdom by Pyrrhus; but on his death, Antigonus regained it, and died, after reigning thirty-four years, B. c. 243, leaving his son Demetrius to succeed him.
ANTIGONUS, (surnamed Dôson,) be-
ANTIGONUS, son of Aristobulus,
ANTIGONUS, (Sochæus,) a Jew, born
moves its upper jaw (cap. 70); that eu-
Of the other writers who bore the same name Fabricius has given the list following. 1. The Cumæan, a writer on agriculture, mentioned by Varro, Pliny, and Columella.-2. The painter, and a writer on painting.-3. The carver and statuary. -4. The mathematician, known by the Scholiast on the Tetrabilon of Ptolemy.5. The historian of Italy, to whom Dionysius and Festus allude.-6. The physician, whose recipe for a head-ache, and an ointment for the eye, have been preserved by Galen and Marcellus the empiric; and he is perhaps the individual mentioned in the preface to the lexicon of Erotian, and by the Scholiast on Nicander.
ANTILLON, (Isidore,) a Spanish patriot, who, previous to the invasion by the French in 1808, was professor of astronomy, geography, and history, at the Royal College for the young nobility at Madrid. He was active in the cause of his country during the whole period of the peninsular wars, and was co-editor of various journals, the object of which was to sustain the spirit of the Spanish people. After the restoration of Ferdinand to his throne, the liberal principles advocated by Antillon made him obnoxious to the government, and he was on the point of being brought to trial, when he died, in 1820. He was the author of various maps, and treatises on geography and science, as well as politics. (Suppl. Biog. Univ.)
ANTIMACHUS, the son of Hyparchus, was born about Ol. 83, at Colophon, or Clarus, although the latter is supposed to owe its origin to the confusion of Clarus and Clarius, in Cicero, Brut. 51. He was one of the authors that ennobled his birth-place, and whose history was written by their countryman Nicander, as we learn from the Schol. on Theriac, 3.
He was the pupil of Paryasis, the author of the epic poem on Hercules, and of Stesimbrotus. Hermesianax, preserved in Athenæus, it From the elegy of appears that he fell in love with Lyde, and wrote an elegy on her early death. which probably served as a model for Of his interminable epic, the Thebais, the Dionysiacs of Nonnus, twenty-four books were taken up in describing the events which took place previous to the arrival of the seven chiefs at Thebes; at least if any reliance can be placed on Porphyrion's Commentary on Horace, A. P. 146. He wrote likewise an Encomium on Lysander, according to Plutarch, because the prize of a gold crown was i. p. 443, which, however, he destroyed awarded to his competitor, Nicostratus of Heraclea. To the same Antimachus have been attributed by some, though denied by Wolf and others, an edition of Homer, and a few of his various readings have been preserved to this day, in the Venetian Scholia, published by Villoison. The fragments of the Thebais and Lyde were first collected by Schellenberg, a pupil of Wolf, whose work has been reprinted by Giles, Lond. 1838, together with the Notes of Bishop Blomfield, which appeared in the Classical Journal, and a few additional fragments recently discovered by Bekker and Cramer in vawhole number amount to only one hunrious MS. grammatical treatises. The dred and thirty, but they afford sufficient evidence to verify the judgment of Quintilian, who placed Antimachus only in the second class of epic poets.
who, says Plutarch in Romul. 1. p. 49, 2. Antimachus of Teos was an epic poet, Xyl., was thought to have witnessed the eclipse of the sun that took place in Ol. 6, 3. One of his verses was imitated, according to Clemens Alex. Strom. vi. p. 622, by Augias, an obscure comic writer of Athens. It was to this effect-" Presents will cozen hearts and hands."
of the most celebrated Greek professors ANTIMACO, (Marco Antonio,) one of Italy during the sixteenth century, was in Greece for five years, until he could born at Mantua, about 1473. He resided write and speak the language as easily as Latin or Italian. In 1532 he became professor at Ferrara, where he died in 1552. He translated Gemistus Plethon, and part of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Bâle, 1540. Several epigrams by him, in Greek and Latin, are in a collection of letters addressed to Vettori, and pub
lished by Bandini, at Pavia, in 1758. (Ti- the execution of this design. Annibal raboschi.)
arrived at the court of Antiochus, and advised him to attack the Romans in Italy; he, however, carried the war into Greece; but finally was obliged to make peace, on the terms of surrendering the whole of Asia on one side of the Taurus, and paying a large yearly tribute. He was killed, B. c. 187, in an attempt to plunder the temple of Belas, in Lusiana. (Strab. 16. Liv. 34. Appian.)
ANTIN, (d'.) See GONDRIN. ANTINE, (d'.) See D'ANTINE. ANTINORI, (Ludovico Antonio,) a learned Italian antiquary, born about 1720 at Aquila, in the Abruzzi; was archbishop of Lanciano. Several memoirs by him were published by Muratori in his Thesaurus. He had collected extensive materials for the history of the Abruzzi, but was prevented from publishing any of them by his death in 1780. Four volumes, however, of a work intended to extend to fifteen, appeared at Naples in 1781-2-3-4, under the titleRaccoltà di Memorie istoriche delle tre Provincie degli Abruzzi. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)
ANTIOCHUS, son of Phintas, king of the Messenians, who died B. c. 744, and was succeeded by his son Euphaes.
ANTIOCHUS, the name of various Syrian kings, whose history is connected with that of Greece and Rome:
Antiochus I. (surnamed Soter,) was son of Seleucus I. He fell in love with Stratonice, his step-mother, who was resigned to him by his father. In 275 B. c. he conquered the Gauls, who were ravaging Asia, in a great battle; and in B. c. 262, was killed near Ephesus. (Val. Max. Polyb. Appian.)
Antiochus II. surnamed Theos by the Milesians, for ridding them of their tyrant Timarchus, was son and successor to Antiochus I. He married Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy, and was poisoned by Laodice his former wife, whom he had repudiated, B.c. 246. (Appian.)
Antiochus, (surnamed Hierax,) son of Antiochus II. and Laodice; was made king of Cilicia by Ptolemy Euergetes, in opposition to Seleucus Callinices his brother. War was carried on for a long time between the brothers, and ended in the entire defeat of Antiochus. He died B. c. 227.
Antiochus III. (surnamed the Great,) was brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, on whose death he was proclaimed king of Syria by the army. He was defeated by Ptolemy Philopater, at Rhaphia. He had afterward a long series of successes, made war against Persia, took Sardis, and restored the kingdom of Syria to its ancient splendour of dominion. On the death of Ptolemy, Antiochus united with Philip, king of Macedon, to deprive his infant son Ptolemy Epiphanes of his kingdom; but the Romans, to whom he had been confided by his father, prevented
Antiochus IV., son of Antiochus the Great, was brought up at Rome as a hostage. He was surnamed Epiphanes, and afterwards, for his extravagances, Epimanes. He reigned eleven years, and practised such cruelties in Judæa as caused the revolt of the Maccabees. He died in a fit of madness, B. c. 164, in returning from an attempt to plunder the temple of Elymaïs, in Media, which contained vast treasures. The Persians ascribed his death to this impious act-the Jews, to his profanation of the temple at Jerusalem. (Polyb. Justin. xxxiv. c. 3.)
Antiochus V. (surnained Eupator,) son of Antiochus IV.; became king in B. c. 164, and was killed three years afterwards, at the age of twelve, by his uncle Demetrius. (Justin. xxiv. Joseph. xii.)
Antiochus VI. (surnamed Dionysius,) son of Alexander Balas; was placed on the throne by Tryphon, in place of Demetrius Philadelphus, about B. c. 144, and after a reign of two years, was put to death by him.
Antiochus VII. (surnamed Euergetes, or Sidetes,) son of Demetrius Soter, was proclaimed king B. c. 140, and expelled the usurper Tryphon. He reduced the Jews to subjection, and afterwards made war against Phraates, king of Parthia, in which he was defeated. He was killed in the temple of Elymaïs, B. c. 127.
Antiochus VIII. (surnamed Grypus,) son of Demetrius Nicanor and Cleopatra. His brother Seleucus was destroyed by her, and he would have shared the same fate, had he not discovered his mother's design, and compelled her to drink the poison prepared for himself. He was assassinated B. c. 97.
Antiochus IX. (surnamed Cyzecenus,) was son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra. His brother Grypus disputed the kingdom with him, and they divided it between them-the one taking Syria and the other Colo-Syria. Nevertheless civil war continuing to rage, he was defeated in a great battle by Seleucus VI. on which he killed himself, B. c. 95.