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rience, and almost all difficulty of responsiveness vanis.. He discovers himself expressionally.
The Tone Drills enable the teacher to give each pupil of a class individual drill and individual criticism at every session. Many of the Drills take no longer than twenty to thirty seconds for oral expression, and yet each Drill offers a field, complete in itself, for criticism upon the expression of the feeling, and also, if desired, for criticisms of articulation, use of voice, attitude, facial expression, gesture, emphasis and pause. It is surprising how much can be driven home by a capable teacher with these half minute drills.
The Tone Drills impress upon the pupil the infinite variety in expression. By the constant transition of feeling demanded by the various Tones, the pupil sees the utter falseness of monotony, and becomes a severe critic of himself. A student cannot pass from Amazement to Anger, from Anger to Awe, from Awe to Annoyance without vividly appreciating the variety of utterance.
The Tone Drills furnish an excellent drill for the voice. In a ten to fifteen-minute practice of the Drills the voice can be given definite and valuable exercise. If vocal attack is needed, the pupils can be given drills under the feelings that demand attack such as Command, Authority, Assertion, Denial, and the like; if volume of voice is needed, the pupil may be given drills calling for emotions of breadth such as those under Sublimity, Defiance, and so on; if musical quality, drills under Solemnity, Sadness, and similar feelings; if brightness, drills under Gayety, Mirth, and the like, and so on through every phase of voice culture. (See suggestions at end of Tone Drills.)
The Tone Drills win the instant interest of the pupil. Coming vividly into his life, associated with real experience, he feels the zest of true states, and has the enjoyment of creative work. Instead of wishing the teacher would pass
him by he is eager to be called upon. There is aroused the desire to do.
The Tone Drills realize the best psychology in respect to instruction. The principles set forth by Herbert Spencer and insisted upon by William James in their respective works on psychology and education are realized in these Tone Drills. The process of reaching the complex through the simple, development by the law of comparison and inference, the law of the association of ideas and the law of habit, all are recognized in the Tone Drills.
The Tone Drills economize time by permitting chorus drills in class without ill effects. Each example, not exceeding a minute, and dealing with one phase of feeling, enables the pupil to give his own rendering, and the chorus effect is unity with variety. One pupil is more intense than another, one's solemnity differs a little from another's, because of different personality, yet each has felt the specific feeling desired and each has made his own expressional effort.
The Tone Drills reveal the expressional faults of the pupil not only to the teacher but to the pupil himself. Criticism, therefore, comes with the force of confirmation, and is double in its power.
The Tone Drills help to secure the true expression of feeling in both speech and literature. Practice upon the expression of the feelings as they are found in our every day life gives the student, in time, a sure grasp of emotional states, he can distinguish the false from the true, and, also, he can determine accurately the degree of feeling.
The Tone Drills help to train the imagination. They impel the student not only to recall past experiences, but to reconstruct and combine them. The student is impelled to see "the lovely roses," "the magnificent sunset," to hear "the beautiful music" with its "purity" and "sweetness." He finds himself picturing "mountains behind mountains.” Now
he is defying soldiers, now at a convention, now comparing costumes or constructing a street episode. In the Classical examples he is building in his mind "the cloud capped towers, the gorgeous palaces," or sympathizing with the faithful Adam in "As You Like It," or he is on the field of battle with Richard III. Constantly there is a brief but pointed call for the exercise of the imagination, both representative and constructive.
The Tone Drills rid the pupil of self consciousness. The Drills come so vividly into his experience, bring him into states in which he has been so essentially objective that he forgets self in the desire to tell. This realizes one of the most important requisites in the pedagogics of expression.
The Tone Drills develop a love for the best literature and develop it in a natural way. Distaste frequently arises from the perception of difficulty; when a thing looks hard to attain we shun it, but when it is seen that there is comparatively little obstruction, that a slight exercise of the reason and the imagination will lead the student into the expressional joys of the great writers and poets-will make them see what they saw, feel what they felt-then there arises in the student a genuine appreciation of the best literature. The Tone Drills accomplish this desirable end by showing the student that the complex is nothing but the simple refined or combined, that underneath the strange phraseology lie experiences and ideas that much resemble his own, and experiences and ideas that give pleasure.
The Tone Drills develop an appreciation of the technique of expression. They attain this end by ridding expression of all stiffness, formality and complexity. The pupil finds the avenues of expression replete with pleasing experiences, and not, as he thought, a long lane with almost insurmountable obstacles.
The Tone Drills aid in the development of the power of
written expression. A ready responsiveness to the ideas of the printed page means an increased artistic sensitiveness. The Tone Drills have associated conception with expression, and the effect of this is not only to create a desire to set down our ideas in writing but to increase the power to express an idea freely and faithfully. Feeling is the basis of style.
The Tone Drills help to develop personal power. They engender that animation and enthusiasm that attracts and wins. People are drawn to us and influenced by life, energy, the manifestation of vitality, and these are materially quickened and strengthened by the practice of the Tone Drills.
The Tone Drills impel the pupil to a more thorough and accurate analysis of literature. Constantly realizing by actual practice on the Drills, that underneath all phraseology lies not only thought but also feeling, the pupil finds himself seeking the complete emotional conception of all he seeks to interpret or to read. He is alert for all those delicate shades and distinctions of tone which reveal the picture or situation in its completeness and tell us of the artist. He knows, through the Tone Drills, that not only every phrase but every word in literature has its true tone, and he will not be satisfied until he has seen and felt the full significance of all.
The Tone Drills achieve the coördination of the entire expressional organism. Coming into the experience of the pupil vividly and arousing objective desire, the pupil finds himself putting the whole man into the expression. The eye, the face, the body, the tone, the attitude all work together, and the result is a coördinate interpretation.
It will be seen from the foregoing details how wide is the scope of usefulness of the Tone Drills, and the author can only reiterate that he has found them the most valuable of all methods for the development of the fundamentals of expressional power.
THE TONE DRILLS.
1. In all Spoken Language there are not only Thoughts but Feelings. In "John, go right home this moment," there is the thought that John is to go right home, and there is the feeling with which it is said. We can say "the soldier smote the man," so as to show pity for the smitten, or anger at the smiter, or indifference; can, in fact, always say the same words always telling the same thought (that the soldier smote the man), but showing a different feeling.
2. The Great Failure in Reading and Speaking is the Inability to Rightly Render the Feeling.-For one who fails to effectively express thought there are a thousand who fail to effectively express feeling. It is the common remark of the artistic reader that he has never fully satisfied himself in the portrayal of the emotions that his selections demand.
3. Feeling is the Soul of Utterance.-Without the true rendering of feeling there will be monotony. Feeling gives life, energy, variety, interest.
4. The Symbol that Conveys Feeling to the Listener is Tone.-Listening outside a room we hear voices and though we can not distinguish the words, we are very positive in regard to the feeling of the speakers. We say one is angry, another is laughing, and so on. As by our premises we do not hear the words, but catch only vocal sounds, we can make our conclusions only from these sounds. The something in these sounds which proclaims the feeling we call tone.
5. The Best Way to Develop the Power to Portray Feeling (Oral Responsiveness) is to Practice the Rendering of Familiar Phrases, Sentences, and Selections that at once Appeal to the Students' Experience, thus Presenting the Feeling or Tone very Vividly to Him.-Common sense will readily admit that the more simply, the more clearly, the