camped on the adjacent fields took the alarm, and, were hung with tapestry, and the floors inlaid learning the fatal tidings, were seen flying in every with tiles of the same precious metal. There direction before their pursuers, who in the heat of must be some foundation for all this. At all triumph showed no touch of mercy. At length events, il was safe to accede to the Inca's proposinight, more pitiful than man, threw her friendly tion; since, by so doing, he could collect at once mantle over the fugitives, and the scattered troops all the gold at his disposal, and thus prevent its of Pizarro rallied once more at the sound of the being purloined or secreted by the natives. He trumpet in the bloody square of Caxamalca.'-vol. therefore acquiesced in Atahuallpa's offer; and i., pp. 376–385.

drawing a reil line along the wall at the height

which the Inca had indicated, be caused the terms The price offered by the Peruvian king of the proposal to be duly recordech by the notary. for his ransom was an error as fatal as his The apartment was about seventeen feet broad, trust in the honor and truth of the Span- by twenty-two feet long, and the line round the iard. As if avarice knew satiety -as if walls was nine feet from the floor. This space any draught, however copious, could slake was to be filled with gold; but it was understood the thirst for gold! To the Indian, no doubt, that the gold was not to be melted down into inwho prized gold and silver but as splendid gots, but to retain the original form of the articles

into which it was manufactured, that the Inca ornaments, as gorgeous and dazzling appen- might have the benefit of the space which they dages of his royal state-of whom it could occupied. He further agreed 10 till an adjoining not be said, effodiuntur opes irritamenta room, of smaller dimensions, twice full with sil. malorum'—the deep passion of the Europe- ver, in like manner ; and he demanded two months an for that which was to him power, luxu- 10 accomplish all this.'-vol. i., p. 393–395. ry, even religion, by which he might pam- The Inca kept his word to an extent per his body with every indulgence, and which even Spanish rapacity could hardly purchase the redemption of his soul, was, anticipate. It does not appear whether the no doubt, utterly inconceivable. The lnca test of piling the treasure brought in, so as thought that he was making a wise sacrifice to ascertain whether it filled the stipulated of some of his pomp ; and that the strangers, space in the chamber, actually took place. so gratified in this unaccountable desire for Much of it, Mr. Prescott says, was sent in that which his mines might restore in no thin plates, which had been stripped from long time, would depart and leave the realm the walls of the temples, and therefore did in peace ; at all events, that they would not occupy much rooin, and this turned to respect a solenın covenant; that he should the disadvantage of the Inca. But Mr. regain that freedom which he had so rashly Prescott calculates the total amount of the imperilled, be able to place himself at the gold when melted into bars of an uniform head of his subjects, and so prevent the dan- standard (the recasting consumed a full gerous designs (the only designs of which month), as equivalent, allowing for the greathe had a distinct comprehension) of his na- er value of money in the sixteenth century, tive rival, the next legitimate heir in suc- to three millions and a half sterling; the cession after Huascar. Mr. Prescott thus quantity of silver was estimated at 51,000,relates the dazzling proposition which he 610 marks. made to Pizarro :

A curious tradition of the country is re“ In the hope, therefore, to effect his purpose by lated in a recent volume of Travels in Peru. appealing to the avarice of bis keepers, he one day It is there said, that the bullion, when piled wd Pizarro, that if he would set bim free, he on the floor of the cell, did not reach above would engage to cover the floor of the apartment halfway to the given mark :on which they stood with gold.

Those present listened with an incredulous smile; and, as the “ The Inca then dispatched messengers to Cuzco Inca received no answer, he said, with some em to obtain from the royal treasury the gold required phasis, that he would not merely cover the floor, to make up the deficiency; and, accordingly, eleven but would fill the room with gold as high as he thousand llamas were dispatched from Cuzco to could reach ;' and, standing on tiptoe, he stretched Caxamarca, each laden with one hundred pounds out his hand against the wall. All stared with of gold. But, ere the treasure reached its destina. amazement; while thy regarded it as the insane tion, Atahuallpa was hanged, by the advice of boast of a man too eager to procure bis liberty 10 Don Diego de Almangra and the Dominican monk weigh the meaning of his words. Yet Pizarro Vicente de Valverde. The terror-stirring news was sorely perplexed. As he had advanced into flew like wild-fire through the land, and speedily the country, much that he had seen, and all that reached the convoy of Indians, who were driving he had heard, had confirmed the dazzling reports their richly laden llamas over the level heights into first received of the riches of Peru. Atahuallpa Centra: Peru. On the spot where the intelligence aimself had given him the most glowing picture of Atahuallpa’s death was communicated to them of the wealth of the capital, where the roofs of the dismayed Indians concealed their treasure, and the temples were plated with gold, while the walls i then dispersed.

“Whether the number of the llamas was really (pendent sovereign :-the usurpation of the so considerable as it is stated to have been, may crown, and the death of his brother Huasfairly be doubted; but that a vast quantity of gold was on its way to Caxamarca, and was concealed, car ;. squandering the public revenues on is a well authenticated fact. That the Indians his kindred and minions, instead of humbly should never have made any aitempt 10 recover accounting for the whole to the Spaniards; this treasure is quite consisteni with their character. idolatry, and polygamy, which implied It is not improbable that even now some particular adultery-and in which the Spaniards individuals among them may know the place of themselves had permitted him to indulge, concealment; but a certain feeling of awe, trans- by not debarring him from the enjoyment mitted through several centuries from father to of his harem. son, has, in their minds, associated the hidden treasure with the blood of their last king, and this

The death to which Atahuallpa was confeeling doubtless prompts them to keep the secret demned was intended, no doubt, to proclaim inviolate.

the real crime for which he was to be sup# “ From traditionary accounts, which bear the posed to suffer ; he was to be burnt alive, appearance of probability, it would appear that as an obstinate infidel-as refusing to believe the gold was buried somewhere in the Altos of in the religion of Him whose commandments Mito, near the valley of Jauja. Searches have of humility, of self-denial, of gentleness, frequently been made in that viciniiy, but no clue of holiness, were preached with such wonto the biding place has yet been discovered.”Tschudi, pp. 325, 326.

derful consistency in the lives of Pizarro and his crew.

It was only because, in his Dr. Tschudi, or bis translator, has trans- wild agony of terror at such a death, he muted the famous name of Almagro into gave a desperate assent to the truth of the Almangra ; and he has at once vulgarized Gospel, that the more merciful “ garrote” and impaired the awful atrocity of Ata-|(the Spanish mode of strangling criminals) huallpa's execution by the familiar phrase was substituted for the pile, which was alwith which he despatches the monarch. ready blazing to burn him alive : and the Atahuallpa, when the utmost amount of priest who ministered, and the soldiers who treasure had been wrung from his prodigal stood around, and Pizarro, who is said to fears, and more prodigal faith in the honor have wept iron tears at the scene, no doubt of the Spaniards, had become a burden, were gravely persuaded that poor Atahuallpa an embarrassment, a danger to the con- was thereby released (notwithstanding his querors. Never was a case in which neces- usurpations, the cruelties in war, and sity, the tyrant's plea, was more unblush- sensualities in peace, on which he had been ingly alleged to justify a monstrous crime. arraigned, and with which his memory is It was a singular illustration of the absolute loaded by some of the Spanish writers) unity and completeness of the Peruvian from the eternal fires of hell, of which the polity, that the possession of the Inca's pyre on which he was to suffer was the foreperson had altogether paralysed, and held taste and guarantee ; that, if not received as it were in unmovable consternation, his into heaven, he was admitted into a milder whole realm. Without a sign from the and a terminable purgatory: and all of king no one dared to rise even for the them, probably, drew great comfort from rescue of the king: the armies had no this act of evangelic charity! general, the people had no head; no orders The awful Nemesis of Atahuallpa may being issued, Peruvian loyalty dared not seem to hover, throughout their later hisdisplay itself without orders. But for tory, over the whole house of Pizarro. This the Spaniards it was equally impracticable tragedy, with all its eventful vicissitudes, to release the king or to retain him longer forms the subject of Mr. Prescott's second in bondage. His death was therefore re- volume. But we are not disposed to antisolved; but it was not by the summary cipate further our reader's instruction and process which Dr. Tschudi seems to indicate. entertainment When he has closed the first There was the solemn mockery of a trial, volume, he will not need our recommendain which the one charge, on which there tion to hold on his course through the might have been some suspicion of guilt, second. the attempt or the design to excite insur- Before we closed Mr. Prescott's History rection against the Spaniards, was aggra- we received the volume of Travels in Peru vated by such articles as the following, on by the distinguished German naturalist which the Spaniards, with the sanction of Dr. Tschudi, translated, with creditable their Christian teacher, Father Valverde, ease and fluency, by “ Thomasina Ross." did not scruple to arraign a great inde-1 It is an agreeable work, in which the pecu-,


liar pursuits of the naturalist (of which the noon also disappears. The great humidity gives scientific results have been published by rise to many diseases, particularly fevers, and the Dr. Tschudi in a larger and more expensive alternations from heat to damp cause dysentery. On form) are so told as to interest the common

an average, the victims to this disease are very

It is endemic, and becomes, at appareader, and are very amusingly mingled up rently regular but distant periods, epidemic

. The with personal adventures, and with accounts intermittent fevers or agues, called tercianus, are of the country, of the population, of Lima throughout the whole of Peru very dangerous, the capital, and of some of the mining both during their course and in their consequences. districts. It is not only in itself a lively It may be regarded as certain that iwo-thirds of the and entertaining Book of Travels, but people of Lima are suffering at all times from terfurnishes a curious commentary on the

cianos, or from the consequences of the disease. History of Mr. Prescott, as enabling us their arrival in Lima, but some years afterwards.

It usually attacks foreigners, not immediately on to contrast the melancholy results of Span- In general, the tribute of acclimation is not so soon ish conquest, still worse of Spanish mis- paid by emigrants in Lima as in other tropical regovernment, and, at present, of foolish and gions.”—Tschudi, pp. 159, 160. contemptible wars between the different provinces of the old Peruvian empire, with

We know not how far the more inland the former and barbarous condition of the situation of Cuzco may render it less liable country.

to suffer from earthquakes, or how far the Lima, under the Spaniards, became the wisdom and experience of the Peruvians capital, instead of

warned them to keep their great cities at a

distance from the more perilous sea-shore, "Cuzco, in Peru, the richer seat but Lima might almost seem built over Of Atabalipa.”

some centre of the earth's internal strife :We must refer to Mr. Prescott for the de

Along the whole coast of Peru,” writes Dr. scription of the great city of the Incas. Tschudi," the atmosphere is almost uniformly in That of Pizarro's city we take from his a state of repose. It is not illuminated by the book:

lightning's flash, or disturbed by the roar of the

thunder: : no deluges of rain, no fierce hurricanes “ The central situation of the spot recommended destroy the fruits of the fields, and with them the it as a suitable residence for the Peruvian viceroy, hopes of the husbandman. withoc lic might hold easy communication with

“ But the mildness of the elements above ground the different parts of the country, and keep vigilant is frightfully counterbalanced by their subterranean watch over his Indian Vaconlo. The climate was fury. Lima is frequently visited by earthquakes, delightful, and, though only twelve degrees south and several times the city has been reduced to a of the line, was so far tempered by the cool mass of ruins, At an average, forty-five shocks breezes that generally blow from the Pacific, or may be counted on in the yoar. Most of them from the opposite quarter down the frozen sides of occur in the latter part of October, in November, the Cordilleras, that the heat was less than in cor- December, January, May, and June. Experience responding latitudes on the continent. It never gives reason 10 expect the visitation of two desorained on the coast ; but this dryness was correct-lating earthquakes in a century. The period be. ed by a vaporous cloud, which, through the sum tween the two is from forty to sixty years. The mer months, hung like a curtain over the valley, most considerable catastrophes experienced in sheltering it from the rays of a tropical sun, and Lima since Europeans have visited the west coast imperceptibly distilling a refreshing moisture, that of South America, happened in the years 1586, clothed the fields in the brightest verdure.”-Ib., 1630, 1687, 1713, 1746, 1806. There is reason vol. ii., p. 21.

to fear that in the course of a few years this city

may be the prey of another such visitation,”-16., Dr. Tschudi's personal observation must (pp. 162, 163. be compared with this glowing picture :

Dr. Tschudi describes strikingly the effect “ The climate of Lima is agreeable, but not very of the earthquake upon the native and upon healthy. During six months, from April to Octo- the stranger :ber, a heavy, damp, but not cold mist overhangs the city. The summer is always hot, but not op- “ No familiarity with the phenomenon can blunt pressive. The transition from one season to an- this feeling. The inhabitant of Lima, who from other is gradual, and almost imperceptible. In childhood has frequently witnessed these convulOctober and November the misty canopy begins to sions of nature, is roused from his sleep by the rise ; it becomes thinner, and yields to the pene- shock, and rushes from his apartment with the cry trating rays of the sun. in April the horizon of · Misericordia ? The foreigner from the north begins to resume the misty veil : the mornings are of Europe, who knows nothing of earthquakes but cool and overcast, but the middle of the day is by description, waits with impatience to feel the clear. In a few weeks after, the brightness of movement of the earth, and longs to hear with his own ears the subterraneous sounds which he has / extending from the 3d to the 22d degree of hitherto considered fabulous. With levity, he South latitude, is but 1,400,000”—at least treats the apprehension of a coming convulsion, one-fourth less than that of London and its and laughs at the fears of the natives; but as soon

suburbs. as his wish is gratified, he is terror-stricken, and is involuntarily prompted to seek safety in flight.”

The character of the population is as ex-16., p. 170.

traordinary as its still diminishing paucity

-for in Lima the inhabitants, which in The population of the country offers the 1810 amounted to 87,900, in 1842 had most unfavorable point of comparison. sunk to 53,000—and parts of the city are Notwithstanding the fulness and accuracy quite deserted. Of course the capital is with which the Peruvian government is not to be taken as a fair example of the said to have kept its registers, we are not amount of varieties in the breed of human aware that there is any authentic statement beings—nor we trust of the morality, conof the population in the whole dominions of sidering that the number of children born the Incas; but all the accounts lead us to out of wedlock considerably surpasses those suppose that the numbers were very great born in legitimate union. But the German in proportion to the habitable part of the Doctor list of crosses in Lima is a territory. Dr. Tschudi asserts that “ the curiosity. whole present population of the country



CHILDREN. White Father and Negro Mother

Mulatto. White Father and Indian Mother

Mestizo. Indian Father and Negro Mother

Chino. White Father and Mulatta Mother

Cuarteron. White Father and Mestiza Mother

Creole (only distinguished from the

White by a pale-brownish complexion). White Father and China Mother

Chino-Blanco White Father and Cuarterona Mother

Quintero. White Father and Quintera Mother

White. Negro Father and Indian Mother

Zambo. Negro Father and Mulatta Mother

Zambo-Negro. Negro Father and Mestiza Mother

Mulatto-Oscuro. Negro Father and China Mother

Zambo-Chino. Negro Father and Zamba Mother

Zambo. Negro (perfectly black). Negro Father and Cuarterona or Quintera Mother

Mulatto (rather dark). Indian Father and Mulatta Mother

Chino-Oscuro. Indian Father and Meslíza Mother

Mestizo-Claro (frequently very beau

tiful). Indian Father and China Mother

Chino-Cholo. Indian Father and Zamba Mother

Indian Father and China-Chola Mother

Indian (with rather short frizzy hair).
Indian Father and Cuarterona or Quintera Mother Mestizo (rather brown).
Mulatto Father and Zamba Mother

Zambo (à miserable race).
Mulatto Father and Mestiza Mother

Chino (of rather clear complexion). Mulatto Father and China Mother

Chino (rather dark). -Ib., p. 114.

Dr. Tschudi's moral.conclusions are as Yet nature seems to be almost as bounmelancholy as his statistics :

tiful as in the better days of this favored " To define their characteristics correctly would land, and only wants the regular tribute of be impossible, for their minds partake of the mix. human industry. The production of the ture of their blood. As a general rule, it may sugar-cane in Peru Proper seems to have fairly be said that they unite in themselves all the been substituted for that of maize, which faults, without any of the virtues, of their pro- is supplied in exchange by Chili. Dr. genitors. As men they are greatly inferior to the Tschudi marks the curious circumstance pure races, and as members of society they are that, “ since the earthquake of 1687, the the worst class of citizens. I wish my observa


of maize on the Peruvian coast have tions to be understood only in a general sense. I have met with some honorable exceptions ;

been inconsiderable.” But his account of though, unfortunately, they were mere solitary the other products, especially of the fruits, luminaries, whose transient light has been speedily tends to make less improbable the records obscured by the surrounding darkness.”—Ib., pp. of the industrial paradise found, and alas ! 91, 92.

blighted, by Spanish rule.


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The Indians, in the interior, still brood and reached his employers too late to conover their wrongs with deep and indelible duct them to the spot, which remains unanimosity. Centuries of oppression have known to the present day. The Indian thinned their numbers, but not altogether and all his family disappeared. In another crushed the memory of better times. The case, à gambling monk (a Franciscan, laws which were issued from Europe under vowed to poverty!) was led by an Indian the influence of men like Gasca, who es- friend blindfolded to a place, where, “ the tablished the Spanish rule, and by the bandage being removed from his eyes, he better clergy, were always eluded by the discovered that he was in a small and someexecutive in Peru. The repartimientos, the what shallow shaft, and was surrounded by compulsory purchases of European goods masses of silver ;'--he was allowed to take by the natives, though intended to relieve as much as he could carry; but, bethinking them from the frauds and extortions of the himself no doubt of our old friend in the Spanish merchants, proved cruelly oppres- nursery tale, as he went along he dropped sive, forcing the poor Indians to bestow the beads of his rosary (a pious use !) to their small means on that of which they guide him back to the dear masses. But had no need, or on which they looked with even a Franciscan is no match in craft for aversion. But far worse were the Mitas an Indian. In a couple of hours his Indian and the Pongos—the Mitas enforced labor friend knocked at his door with a handful in the mines, the Pongos a kind of domestic of beads: “Father, you have dropped your servitude. Nine millions of lives are com- rosary on the way, and I have picked it monly said to have been sacrificed to the up. cruel, wasteful, and unmitigated toils ex- The Peruvians are a gloomy people: this torted from the Indians in the mines ofis manifested in their songs, their dances, Peru. Dr. Tschudi thinks this estimate their dress, and their whole domestic econotoo high. But if the tradition linger in my; it is the gloom of three centuries of their minds, of the mild and considerate oppression—and there is danger, if we are treatment even of the miners under their to believe Dr. Tschudi, in their gloom. native kings, no wonder that the unquench- During the whole of the Spanish rule insurable animosity should rankle in the depths rections were frequent. At the close of the of their hearts. The Peruvian miners last century, 1780-1, a rebellion broke out, jnflict one, and that a remarkable revenge which was formidable for a time—its leader upon their oppressors. They possess, or Tupac Amaru, who seems to have been geencourage in pardonable malice the sup- nerally recognised as a lineal descendant of position of their possessing, old tradition- the last Inca. It was overcome by treachary knowledge of treasures, which they ery, and suppressed with remorseless baroccasionally betray, only to tempt avarice, barity. and then bury again in more profound The Indians joined in the Colonial resecresy.

volt against Spain, but the result of that “ Notwithstanding the enormous amount of movement produced no independence to wealth which the mines of Peru have already them they have now drawn off within yielded, and still continue to yield, only a very themselves, and await their time. small portion of the silver veins have been worked.

“Since the War of Independence the Indians It is a well-known fact, that the Indians are aware have made immense progress. During the civil of the existence of many rich mines, the situation war, which was kept up uninterruptedly for the of which they will never disclose to the whites, space of twenty years, they were taught military nor to the detested mestizos. Heretofore mining manæuvres and the use of fire-arms. After every has been to them all toil and little profit, and it lost battle the retreating Indians carried with them has bound them in chains from which they will in their flight their muskets, which they still keep not easily emancipate themselves. For centuries carefully concealed. They are also acquainted past, the knowledge of some of the richest silver, with the manufacture of gunpowder, of which in mines has been with inviolable secresy transmitted all their festivals they use great quantities for from father lo son. All endeavors to prevail on Squibs and rockets. The materials for the prepathem to divulge these secrets have hitherto been ration of gunpowder are found in abundance in fruitless."-16., p. 345.

the valleys of the Sierra.”—1b., p. 478. Dr. Tschudi here relates two anecdotesone of a mine betrayed by a Peruvian girl

Even the change of faith has in no way to a youth with whom she was in love. He blended them with the foreign population was discovered in the act of breaking into which possesses the land of their fathers. the mine by the old Indian father, poisoned, “ The Christian religion has been spread among

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