of light, bright and transparent as pearl and sometimes as diamond (or the element carbon).

Ibid. nn. 1115, 1116.

4277. [Dan. ii. 33.] Soda should, with propriety, be treated as an elementary principle. — The vapor of red hot hydrate of soda, passed over iron turnings in a gun-barrel heated to whiteness, is decomposed into water and soda, and the former again into oxygen, which vuites to the iron, and hydrogen which escapes, whilst the suda unites to the iron or its oxide, forming a white metallic compound. Clay is a mixture of two or more earths with iron.

Dalton's Chem. Philos. purt ii. pp. 494, 503, 527.

in a shower of stones one day when he was hunting; they were like pumice stones in their appearance, and so ligbt, that some which were as big as ball a bushel did not weigh half a pound, and might have fallen upon any person's head without hurting it. This fact bas, I believe, escaped the notice of writers who have investigated this singular subject. It is well authcuticated. The king sent some of them by his physician to Joan de Mena, and the physician relates the circunstance in his letters. It is, perhaps, the most important fact of the kind, as, from the levity of the stones, it is plain that they must have been formed in the atmosphere.

Athenæum, No. 4. p. 360. These, in reference to the harder atmospheric stones that occasionally fall, are like flakes of snow compared with hail :: both originate from the same causes and materials, but they are differently inodified, probably, in the medium through which they descend.

Men of great chemical knowledge, are inclined to suppose that not only the substances analogous to the Alkalies are of a metallic nature, but that sulphur, phosphorus, and carbone, are also metallic compounds not saturated with oxygen, and that even hydrogen and azote are metallic substances in a gaseous state.

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 73.


It is probable, that the magnetic sphere (the iron) arising from our earth, is the elater of the aqueous vapor, the abyss iu and above the clayey particles, the dust of the earth floating on our atmospheric air.

4279. [- 35.) The vegetation of stones has been admitted by many, and some bave contended that minerals, as well as animals and vegetables, spring from seed, the greatest rock being nothing but the expansion of the parts of a minule grain of sand.

WATSON's Chem. Ess. vol. v. p. 165. In stones and metals we may behold sundry shapes and veids, such as the shoots, as it were of branches and roots, spread far and wide, which they have in their mines and quarries ; from whence a frievoly aliment gently filtrates, first through more lax, afterwards gradually through more narrow ones, to refine and make pure the nutriment; and finally, an exhalation passes through thin and hidden pores.

See 1 Peter ii. 4. TOLAND's Pantheisticon, p. 29.

4283. [Dan. ii. 39, 40.] The idea of the four ages of the world originated among the Indians. Originally, these four ages were merely the four seasonis ; aud as each season was ander the supposed infinence of a planet, it bore the name of the metal appropriated to that planet: thus spring was the age of the sun, or of gold; summer the age of the moon, or of silver; autumn the age of Venus, or of copper; and winter the age of Mars, or of iron. Afterwards, when astronomers invented the great year of 25 and 36 thousand common years, which had for its object the bringing back all the stars to one point of departure and general conjunction, the ambiguity of the terms introduced a similar ambiguity of ideas ; and the myriads of celestial sigus and periods of duration which were thus measur

sured, were easily converted into so many revolutions of the sun.

The periods assigned for renewing the face of nature, were at first the period of the year, and afterwards periods of 60, of 600, of 25,000, of 36,000, of 432,000 years. See No. 1313.



As growing trees and trees hewed down differ, so do stones in quarries, and stoves hewed out of them : Those are alive, and these are dead; those in their native beds are full of sap, these torn asunder are destitute of moisture, and at length are reduced to dust.

Ibid. p. 32.

4281. (

-38.] This prince (Nebuchadnezzar) was not only the first emperor at Babylon; but also the man in whom the Assyrian or Babylonian greatness arrived at its ulmost height.

Uniter. Hisl. vol. iv. p. 304.

4284. [Dan. iii. 4, 5.) At the coronation of Solyman, king of Persia, says CHARDIN, p. 51, the general of the musqueteers, having whispered some few minutes in the king's ear, among several other things of less importance, gave out, that both the loud and soft music should play in the two balconies on the top of the great building, which stands at one

4282. [39, 40.) Juan II. of Castille, was caught

end of the palace royal. No nation was dispensed with, whether Persians, Indians, Turks, Muscovites, Europeans, or others. And this same confusion of instruments, which sounded more like the noise of war thian music, lasted troenty days together, without intermission or the interruption of night: which number of days was observed to answer the number of the young monarch's years, who was then twenty years of age.

lay, is still adhering to it, and found to be what the Greeks called asphallos, and the Latins bitumen; brought, says HERODOTOS (Lib. i. p. 84. Edit. L. C. Valek) by the river Is into the Euvhrates, and thence conveyed in lumps to the walls of Babylon. — These things considered, we cannot but conclude, that the Babylonians could, in a very short time and at a moderate expense, erect such immense structures, as the walls which surrounded their city, the vast edifice of the temple of Belus, the palace, the hanging gardens, and other magnificent works; which, adorired or built by Nebuchaduezzar, so filled his heart with pride.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. pp. 55 - 60.

4285. (Dan. iii. 12.) Daniel was not accused as well as his friends; because, probably, his enemies might think it dangerous to begin with so great a favourite, choosing to pave the way to his destruction by that of his three friends. These however being miraculously delivered, Daniel escaped of course.

See Univer. Hist. col. iv. p. 316.

4290. (Dan. iv. 30, 31.)

Vain glory, like a circle in the water,
Never ceases to enlarge within us,
Till hy broad spreading it disperse to nought.

SHAKESPEARE. Here was one of the awful reactions of a righteous Providence.


4286. [

21. Hosen] The Eastern people, in geleral, appear not to have used stockings.

See Frag. to Calmet, Third Hundred,

p. 99. - HARMER.

4287. [- 26.] To consume a body by fire, passing air is necessary to receive and carry off the separated particles of such body : Hence, charcoal in a well luted crucible, though long kept in a strong fire, comes out unconsumed. See No. 1009. Dr. FRANKLIN's Philosophical and

Miscellaneous Papers, p. 74.

4291. [-33.] In the icicles of wine, collateral shoots stand at equal height, and at acute angles with their main and longer shoots, like feathers. — Hence, as fowls have no organs for evacuation of urine, the urinous parts of their blood are evacuated by the habit of skin, where they produce and nourish feathers.

Phil Trans. of R. S. vol. ii. p. 56. The upper part of the Ostrich's head and neck are covered with a very fine clear white hair, that shines like the bristles of a hog; and in soine places there are small tufts of it, consisting of about twelve hairs, which grow from a single shaft about the thickness of a pin.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth,

vol. v. p. 51.

4288. [-27.] It is singular that direct experiment has already brought animalcula into view which resist the heat of ebullition. — It may remain to expose the germs of these animalcula, or rather the substances where they lodge, to fire. — M. Robinet thinks that fire is only an aggregate of animalcula ! Others have supposed it the natural element of a race of animalcula.

DALYELL's Spallanzani, vol. i. p. 210.


The received opinion is, that Nebuchadnezzar fell into a black melancholy, and, under this impression of mind, fancied himself an ox: as in a lycanthropy a man persuades himself he is a wolt, a dog, a cat; a change which exists no where but in the distempered brain, nor to be discovered but by his motion, and behaviour.

CALMET, Dict. Art. Nebuchad. iij.

4289. [Dan. iv. 30.] A brick sent from the ruins of Babylon to the Antiquarian Society, in the year 1800, is of square figure, each side measuring about 132 inches, is three inches thick, and weighs thirty-eight pounds and eleven ounces avoirdupoise. It is of a stone color, has not been burnt, but only hardened by the heat of the sun. It is in high preservation, and part of the cement, against which it

4293. [Dan. v. 1. Belshazzar] Nabonadius, a descendant from Nebuchadnezzar and the last king of Babylon, was

unquestiouably the prince here called Belshazzar; 2 Chron. Xxxvi. 20.

See Univer. Hist. col. iv. p. 401.

See also HERODOTUS, Clio, cxci.

4294. [Dan. v. 6. The joints] The beaded lacings ; See 2 Kings i. 8.

4299. [Dan. vi. 8.) According to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not; - because it was written, See Esih. x. 2.

Olher nations, besides the Jews, had not at that period any written laws. Even the polished Athenians were regulated by nothing more slable than antient customs, outil the year B. C. 623; when Draco, the Archon, undertook to compose for them a code of laws, so sanguinary, that every oftence was indiscriminately punished with death. This induced Demades, an Athenian orator, to say, They were written not with ink, but with blood. – Even at this day, among the natives of Sierra Leone, the laws are traditional, and are merely the local customs of the country.


4295. - 25.] It is supposed the writing was in what we now call the Samaritan character, which being unknown to the Chaldeans, they could not read it.

Prid. Connex. vol. i. part i. p. 122.


4296. [

-30, 31.]
Wine urg'd to lawless last the Centaurs' train :
Thro’ wine they quarreld, and thro’ wine were slain.

Dryden's Virg. Georg. ii. l. 637. In the Jewish greater chronicle Seder Olam Rabbah, the Medo-Persian empire, from the building of the temple in the second year of Darius Hystaspes, flourished only 34 years.

Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 88.

4300. [ 8.] In absolute Monarchies there are no remedies against the worst disorders of human wature. rule of men's actions is inconstant, dubious and altogether unknown, since the Prince, without being accountable to any, cau abolish to-morrow what he has established to-day ;he may not only change his own decrees, but also dispeuse with the very laws of God and oppose the clearest dictates of nature.

Toland's Anglia Libera, p. 6.

4301. (10.) The people of Bagdad pray with their faces towards the west, and in Damascus the sonih is their Keblalı, or point of direction.



Nabonadius, Nebuchadnezzar's son's son (Jer. xxvii. 7), is believed to have been the Belsbazzar of Scripture ; and Cyaxares, the Darius the Mede.

Thus the Assyrian monarchy, whether the first at Nineveh, or the second at Babylon, never obtained dominion over the nations for any considerable time : it conteuded for, rather than enjoyed empire in any settled form. Darius cannot properly be said to have storined the city or won it by conquest, as that was done by Cyrus in the absence of Darius. Yet, as Cyrus was Darius's general conquering with his inaster's joint forces of Medes and Persians, in that sense Darius the Median took the kingdom.

Ibid. vol. iv. pp. 350, 405, 351, 403.

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Darius took the kingdom in consequence of Cyrus's cutting off that branch of the Euphrates, which passed through the midst of the city. - He could then march his army by the channel of the river, to an easy victory in the night over the drunken and slumbering Babylonians. - In Ptolemy's map Babylon is seated on the Naharmalcha ; au artificial stream brought out of the Euphrates. This cut was probably filled up at the head by the Median conqueror. The water would necessarily resume its foriner course, and not drown the adjacent country. (See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 323.) – In this view of the operation, the whole affair becomes intelligible and consistent.

4303. [-22.] The lion has been often seen to despise contemptible enemies, and to pardon their insults when it was in his power to punish them. He has been seen 10 spare the lives of such as were thrown to be devoured by him, to live peaceably with them, to afford them a part of his subsistence, and sometimes to want food himself rather than deprive them of that life which his generosity had spared.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c.

vol. iii. p. 218,

4304. [Dan. vii. 7.) Some sheep in Persia, have six or seven horns standing straight out of their forehead ; so that when their rams engage, there is usually much blood spilled in the battle.

Horns being considered by the Antients as emblems and symbols of power and majesty, Alexander is always described by the Grecian historians, as having a horn on his forehead, or rather a particular lock of hair, resernbliny one ; and it is also observed ou the coins and medals of that prince, which are still to be seen in the cabinets of the curious.

PINKERTON, part. ix. pp. 184, 272.

produced by them appear to approach 10, or recede from, each other, being at the greatest distance, when the wedges are close to the object-glass, but united, when the prisms are removed, in a parallel position, to the focus of the eyeglass.

Phil. Trans. vol. xiv. p. 257.


Alexander The Great is represented on his medals with a crest of goats' horns. The goat, iudeed was the symbol of the kingdom of Macedon. The original of that symbol may be found in Justin.

Langhorne's PLUTARCH, note on vol.iii.

4309. [Dan. vii. 2.) Shushan is doubtless the city Susa in Susiana, situated on the river Eulæus stiled by the prophet Ulai.

It now lies in ruins and is known, as TAVERNIER in forms us, by the name of Scheuster or Suster.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 471, 474.

p. 12.

4306. [

9. The thrones were cast down] Remiv (Hebr.), were exalted, raised, or set up.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 162. These thrones were three spiritual spheres above and around our earth ; on each of which the Image of God was distinctly exhibited, as Adam on the highest ; as the Antient of days, on the middlemost; and as Jehovah, on the lowest. — The fourth sphere, expanded under the other three,

- the new heaven which John saw, the place prepared in the air, where we must all stand before the judgment seat of Christ, — was not yet forined : it could not exist, till during the incarnation, the Glory which came forth from the Father into the Person of Jesus Christ, was raised or returned through the medium of his body, to cover the earth as the waters cover the sea.

4310. [-5,] An antient bronze figure of a goat with one horn, which was the old symbol of Macedon, was duy up in Asia Minor, and was brought, together with other antiquities, into this country by a poor Turk. As it has a square hole underneath its body, it is very probable that it night have been affixed to the top of a nilitary standard, in the saine manner as the Roman eagle. This supposition is somewhat supported by what is related of Caranus (JUSTIN, Lib. vii. cap. i) that he ordered goals to be carried before (as the standards of) his army. (Archæologia, vol. xiv. pp.

19.) – Accordingly the king of Persia, when at the head of his army, wore a ram's head made of gold and set with precious stones, instead of a diadem.

Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. xix. cap. i. The type of Persia being a ram, AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS informs us, that the king of Persia, when at the head of his army, wore a ram’s head made of gold, and set with precious stones, instead of a diadein.

lib. xix. cap. 1.

4307. [.

- 12.] In the antient dialect of Astronomy the earth was said to enter successively into the ram, the bull, the goat, and thus to pass from one animal into another till she had gone through all the signs of the zodiac. Now as deceased souls remain for some time on the spiritual spheres of the earth thus traversing the constellatious, they were said in a language that has been completely misunderstood, to transmigrate into animals, particularly into such as predominated respectively at the times of their decease. See No. 1755, 1756. See Abbe Pluche’s Hist. of the

Heav. vol. i. p. 242.


The Persian goats are highly valuable for the fine wool they yield, of which great quantities are annually exported.

PINKERTON, vol. ix. p. 184.

4308. [- 13.) When two achromatic prisms or wedges are applied between the object-glass and eye-glass of an achromatic telescope, by moving the prisms nearer to, or farther from, the object-glass, the two images of an object

4312. [Dan. ix. 24, 25.] These weeks are to be noderstood not of days, but years ; so that 70 by 7 are 490 years, which are to end with the destruction of the Holy City, that is, in the seventieth year of the Incarnation. Now the first commandment for rebuilding Jerusalem was given by Cyrus, the third by Artaxerxes; but the second and most


express was issued by Darius Nothus in the second year of his reign, provedl by Scaliger to be in the four hundred and twentieth year before Christ. Consequently this whole interval of 420 B. C. added to A. D. 70, when Jerusalem was utterly destroyed, constitutes expressly 490 years.

See Dr. GREGORY, de Æris et

Epochis, p. 156.

4313. [Dan. s. 1, 2, &c.] This fasting and prayer seem to have been caused by Cyrus's order to suppress the rebuilding of the Temple, issued in the 3d year of his reign, on the 3d day of the first month.

See Usner, sub. A. 11. 3470.

Verse 5. And the king of the south] Ptolemy the son of Lagus, the first who reigned in Egypt after Alexander.

Shall be strong] He had dominion over Egypt, Libya, Cyrene, Arabia, Palestine, and Celo-Syria ; over most of the maritime provinces of Asia Minor; over Cyprus, and other isles in the Ægean Sea ; and over the cities Cyciou and Co. rinth in Greece.

And he shall be strong above him] That is, Seleucus Nicator, the king of the north (verse 6), should be more powerful than Ptolemy, the king of the south. Accordingly, this Seleucus Nicator bad under him all the countries of the East, from mount Taurus to the river Indus; several provinces in Asia Minor, lying between Taurus and the Ægean Sea ; and, before his death, the kingdoms of Thrace and Macedon,

Verse 6.] Theyt the two kings -- shall join themselves together by a treaty of peace, effected when - The king's daughter of the south] Bernice

Shall come to the king of the north] Antiochus Theus, king of Syria; and make an agreement be married to hiin, as she actually was.

– N. B. With respect to Judea, Syria lies to the north, and Egypt to the south.

But neither shall be Antiochus Theus

Bernice - stand, or continue in power; on the coutrary, they both, with him that begat and strengthened her Ptolemy her father, shall be giden up or destroyed, together with those that brought her out of Egypt.

4314. (13.) Michael signifies one like to God, the express Image of the Father's person ; the Similitude of Jehovah, Num. xi. 8.

nor she


In the Talmud, this Michael the Archangel is said to be “so near the King of heaven as to be admitted to sit down by him.” See Ezek. i. 26 – 28.

4316. [20.] Javan, the fourth son of Japheth, is here used for Greece : he is said to have come into Greece after the confusion of Babel, and to have settled in Attica, whence the Attics were named Jaones and Jones.

Univer. Hist. dol. vii. p. 56.

4318. (Dan. xi. 10.) But his - the king of Syria's sons --Seleucus Ceraupus and Antiochus, afterwards surnamed the Great shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces : and one Antiochus the Great shall certainly come against Ptolemy Philopater king of Egypt — and overflow - dispossessing him of Colo-Syria - and pass through-defeating Ptolemy's generals in the passes near Berytus then shall he return having conquered part of Phenice

and be stirred up - advancing even to his fortresses - on the frontiers of Egypt.

4317. [Dan. xi. 2. Greece] The original is Javan, the fourth son of Japheth. See Ch. x. 20.

See, on these predictions (or rather, historic facts), Unider. Hist. vol. viii. pp. 466, &c. and pp. 546, &c. pp. 679, &c.

Three kings in Persia] Cyrus, then on the throne; Cambyses his son; and Darius the son of Hytaspes.

And the fourth] Xerxes, who invaded Greece with a formidable army.

Verses 3, 4. And a mighty king, &c.] Alexander the Great, whose vast empire at his death was separated into four great kingdoins, and into many petty states, such as Cappadocia, Armenia, Bithynia, &c.

4319.-11. And the king of the south, &c.] Ptolemy Philopater, an indolent effeminate prince, whose generals however, at Rapbia, gained a signal victory over Antiochus the king of the north, who lost a great multitude - upwards of ten thousand foot, and three hundred horse, besides four thousand taken prisoners.

Verse 13. The king of the north shall return] Antiochus, fourteen years after this defeat, raised a mighty army in the provinces he had conquered beyond the Euphrates, and returned against Egypt during the minority of Ptolemy Epiphanes, defeated Scopas near Paneas, and regained the whole

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