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The number of Horses, Asses and Mules, Neat Cattle, Sheep and Swine, at returned by circular of assktant marshals of Census, 1860.
FACTS FOR FARMERS.
[The following facts for Farmers were compiled from European exchanges, and as they present a vast amount cf ascertained results in a small compass, it was deemed not inappropriate to present them in this condensed form.
Covered and Uncovered Dung.—Dr. Anderson thus describes the result of a series of experiments carried out by Lord Kinnaird, to determine the relative values of dung made undercover and in open courts: "A field was manured partly with covered and partly with uncovered dung, and the produce of potatoes determined; the whole then sown with wheat, and dressed in spring with 3 cwt. of Peruvian guano. The results are (omitting small fractions):
Uncovered Dung. Covered Dung.
Potatoes 7 tons 12 cwt. 11 tons 15 cwt.
Wheat grain 42 bushels. 54 bushels.
"straw 156 stones. S15 stones.
In estimating the value of farm yard manure, it is a genera] habit to assume that a certain fraction of the cattle food remains in it, and that the cost of part of this food is withdrawn from the expense of feeding the cattle, and taken as representing the cost of reproducing the manure. Dr. Anderson, on this point, gives the following: "I must confess I have always been of opinion that there is no way in wbich a farmer is more likely to deceive himself, the proportion of the food which is thus to be referred to the manure-heap being mere guess-work, unsubstantiated by experiment, and generally overrated; as, for instance, when we hear of one-third of the price of oil-cake being debited to the manure. It would be much wiser to ascertain the expenses of feeding, irrespective of the manure-heap, and then, of course, if there is a profit upon it, the manure is got without cost, and nothing but the expense of application is to be estimated; if, on the other hand, there is a loss, that loss is the cost of the production of the manure; and it must be the object of the farmer to see that it does not exceed the price at which farm-yard or artificial manures can be purchased."*
Artificial Manures.—A knowledge of the effects obtainable by these manures
• Highland Society's Transactions.