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were immediately dispatched to the character as a traveller and geographispot described ; with orders to bring cal discoverer) was a man of exact and back Mr. Browne's remains, and to scrupulous veracity. make a strict search for the murderers. "He had no brilliancy or quickness On their return, they reported to the of parts ; but he was a great lover of government that they had failed in both labour, and cultivated his favourite these objects; but that they had fully studies with intense and unremitting asascertained the fact of Mr. Browne's siduity. He was a man of erudition, death, and had found some portions of and may be ranked among the learned his clothes, which, having been made at Orientalists of modern times. But Constantinople, were very distinguish- that which principally distinguished able from those worn in Persia. They him, and in which be was certaioly unadded, that they bad been unable to rivalled, was a familiar and intimate discover any traces or remains of the acquaintance with the manners and body, which was believed to have been customs of Eastern nations, and the abandoned to beasts of prey. Not- minute details of their domestic life, withstanding this report, the search for extending even to their prayers and his remains appears to have been af- ablutions. It was this knowledge, terwards continued ; and some bones, the result of loog and patient observasaid to be those of Mr. Browne, were tion, which enabled him to personate brought to Tábrîz; which, having the Oriental character with an exactbeen deposited in a cedar chest, were ness and propriety which has rarely, interred, with due respect, in the perhaps, been equalled." neighbourhood of the town. The spot “ The leading principle of his charwas happily chosen near the grave of acter was a lofty ambition, a desire of Thevenot, the celebrated French trav- signalizing himself by some memorable eller, who died in this part of Persia achievement. On opening bis will, about a century and half before.” which was made a few days before he
"So perished a very enterprizing left England, a paper in his hand-writand altogether extraordinary man, at a ing was found enclosed, containing a period when much was to be expected remarkable passage from one of Pinfrom his labours, and when we may dar's odes, highly expressive of that say the eyes of the three quarters of the generous ambition and contempt of ancient world were fixed upon his ad- danger and death, which are the true venturous career.
inspiring principles of great enterprizes. “In his person he was thin, and Probably his most intimate friends bad rather above the middle size, of a dark not been fully aware, before the appearcomplexion, and a grave and pensive ance of this paper, of the real force of cast of countenance. His manners to- bis character, and of those powerful wards strangers were reserved, cold, and deep feelings, which the habitual and oriental; but he could occasional- reserve and coldness of his manners efly relax from this gravity, and his so- fectually concealed from observation." ciety and conversation had great The passage is in the first of the charms for the few friends with whom Olympic Songs, verse 129, and is thus he would thus unbend himself.
translated by West“ His moral character was deserving
“ In the paths of dangerous fame of every praise. He was friendly and
Trembling cowards never tread; sincere, distinguished for the steadiness Yet since all of mortal frame of his attachments, and capable of acts Must be numbered with the dead, of great kindness. Though far from
Who in dark inglorious shade
Would his useless life consume, being affluent, he was liberal and gen
And with deedless years decay'd erous in no common degree.
Sink unhonour'd to the tomb? perfectly disinterested, and had high I that shameful lor disdain, principles of honour; and (what is
I this doubtful list will prove." very important, with reference to his
The following miscellaneous extracts
are taken from Mr. Browne's MS. re- crowned cap of white felt. A vest, mains : on his journey across Asia usually wbite, is thrown over the shirt; Minor he thus describes a very remark- the Agas superadd one of cloth ; and able people :
in general, and in proportion to their “In my visits to the Turkman tents, rank and wealth, they approximate to I remarked a strong contrast between the dress of the capital. “But the comtheir habits and those of the Bedouin mon people wear a short jacket of vaArabs. With the latter, the rights of rious colours. A cincture is indispenhospitality are inviolable; and while sably required, in which are fixed an the host possesses a cake of bread, he enormous yatagan, and a pistol. Many feels it a duty to furnish half of it to his of them wear half boots, red or yellow, guest; the Turkman offers nothing laced to the leg: the dress of the wospontaneously, and if he furnish a little men is a coloured vest, and a piece of milk or butter, it is at an exorbitant price, white cotton cloth on the bead, coverWith him it is a matter of calculation, ing part of the face. They are mascuwhether the compendious profit of a line and active, performing all the barsingle act of plunder, or the more igno- der kinds of labour required by the ble system of receiving presents from family. Their features are good, but the caravans for their secure passage, not pleasing. The men are generally be most advantageous. The Arab muscular, and well-proportioned ; tali, values bimself on the hasb we nasb, straight, and active. Their teeth are that is, his ancient pedigree; the Turk- white and regular; their eyes are often man, on his personal prowess. With extremely piercing; and there is an air the former, civility requires that saluta- of uncommon boldness in their countetions be protracted satiety; the lat- nances and mode of address. Their ter scaraely replies to a Salam aleikum. complexions are clear, but sun-burnt.
“The muleteers, who had preferred In a word, they have every thing that this devious path to the bigh road, to denotes exhaustless health and vigour avoid the dellis, were now alarmed at of body. A general resemblance is the frequent visits of the Turkmans. visible between them and the populace They described me to them as an offi- of Constantinople ; but the latter apcer of Chappan Oglou's retinue, em- pear effeminate by the comparison. ployed to communicate with the Eog- Every action and every motion of the lish fleet on the coast; an explanation Turkmans is marked by dignity and which appeared to satisfy them; and grace. Their language is clear and fortunately I was able to support that sonorous, but less soft ihan that of the character. It is to be observed that capital ; expressing, as may be conChappan Oglou has a large military ceived, no abstract ideas, for wbich the force at his disposal, and administers Turkish is indebted to the Arabic justice with a rod of iron. His ven alone ; but fitted to paint the stronger geance pursues, on eagle-wing, the passions, and to express, in the most slightest transgression against bis au- forcible and laconic terms, the mandates thority. Our precautious at night were of authority. Their riches consist of redoubled ; and I divided the time into cattle, horses, arms, and various habilitwo watches, which I ordered my ser- ments. How lamentable to think, that vant to share with me; but the dispo- with persons so interesting, and a charsition to sleep having speedily got the acter so energetic, they unite such conbetter of his vigilance, a pipe, although firmed babits of idleness, violence, and carefully placed under the carpet on treachery! From the rising of the sun which I myself slept, was stolen unper- till bis disappearance, the males are ceived before morning.
employed only in smoking, conversing, “ The dress of the Turkmans consists inspecting their cattle, or visiting their of a large striped and fringed turban, acquaintance. They watch at night fastened in a manner peculiar to them- for the purpose of plunder, which selves ; or sometimes of a simple high among them is honourable, in propor2W
ATHENEUM VOL. 7.
tion to the ingenuity of the contrivance, TURKISII MARRIAGES. or the audacity of the execution. Their The following is a more detailed acfamilies are generally small, and there count of a Turkish marriage than we seems reason to believe that their num- remember to have read eslewhere. bers are not increasing.'
“ It is well known that the usages of
the country do not admit of the iotendThe picture of the present state of ed bride being seen by the husband beAntioch has excited peculiar interest in fore marriage. The woman may, howour minds, from so recently contempla- ever, more easily satisfy her curiosity ting its ancient glory and calamitous regarding the person of the man; struggles in Mills History of the Cru- though even that is not always possisades,
ble. This state of restraint gives rise “ Early on the following morning we to several practices, tending to facilitate proceeded to Antioch, once the opu- mutual approximation. Among them lent, the luxurious, the refined mistress are to be enumerated the existence of of Syria ; now presenting no monument professed match makers, who make the of ancient grandeur, except the skele- occupation profitable to themselves, in ton of its ample walls. The plain over a manner not difficult to be understood. which the road leads to Antioch, is The excellent qualities of the future covered with myrtles, and other flower- bride and bridegroom are repeated to ing and odoriferous shrubs. The the persons concerned, of course with khans, or caravanserais, at Antioch, are great exaggeration. Accordingly, if not sumptuous buildings, but they are the parties be credulous or inexperiencsecure, and adapted to the use of the ed, a connection takes place, which, in merchants. The three best are Khan many cases, is terminated by divorce in el Nakir, Khan el Beiz, and Khan el a few days afterwards. Gidid. I had an interview with the “ Some account of the forms which Mitsellim, who has been long fixed are observed, with little variation, in here. He received me with great po- matrimonial contracts, may not be liteness. His administration was said wholly uninteresting.
Each of the to be distinguished by justice and sever- parties chooses a wakil, or procurator, ity. He was very temperate ; and his and two witnesses, who are to agree pleasures were understood to be strictly before the Imâm, or priest, on the sum confined to his harem. He had never to be given by the man, towards furindulged in the use of opium or nishing at least one room of the house strong liquors.
with cushions, carpets, and other nec“ The Christians of the Greek ritual, essary articles ; and likewise on the now established in Antioch, are about Nikah, wbich is not paid immediately, a hundred and fifty families; the Ar- but is demandable by the woman in menians, twenty families; and there case of a divorce. The paper, setting are about forty Jewish. The number forth the particulars of this agreement, is of Mohammedans is not so easily as drawn up and signed by the witnesses ; certained. The troops of every de- hence the married woman is called scription now in the service of the Mit- kitabié, wife by writing. The Imâm sellim, do not exceed four thousand, receives a proper present ; often a benand are probably not more than three ish, or outer vesture: the other parties thousand five hundred; these are known are gratified by presents of smaller valunder the general name of Tuffenkjié, ue. From this time to the day of or “ bearers of fire arms.
s." There are marriage, a fête is celebrated ; and the ordinarily four or five hundred Yenkech- house of the bridegroom is kept open eris (or Janissaries,) who are at pres- to every person of ihe mabhâl, or parent most of them in Egypt with the ish ; and even strangers are allowed to Vizir.
enter. Sometimes dishonest persons “ The staple commodity of Antioch gain admission, and carry off such is well known to be silk."
portable articles as are exposed to their
depredations; they have been known THROWING THE HANDKERCHIEF. to slip off the ainber mouth pieces of “ The custom of throwing the handthe pipes, and escape with them. kerchief is frequently in the popular
“ The common expenses of a mar- mouth, and supposed to be reported riage, in Constantinople, costs a man, from undisputed fact. I have never on a moderate estimate, a full year of been able to ascertain that such a prachis income, and sometimes more. Thus, tice was in use in the Harems of the to a person of middle rank, they will Great, or among any other class of amount to 2000 or 2500 piastres. women at Constantinople, or in any of
“When the day of marriage arrives, the towns of the East. In the West of the bridegroom is conducted to the Turkey, indeed, a custom prevails, apartment of the bride, by the Imâm, which, transmitted by report through and the rest of the company ; the Imâm the medium of the Germans or Veneplaces his back against the door, and tians, may possibly have given rise to commences a kind of prayer, to which, the prevalent opinion on the subject. when terminated, the company present “In a part of Bosnia, young girls of reply, Amen; after which they all re- the Mohammedan faith are permitted to tire to their own houses.
walk about in the day-time, with their “The bridegroom knocks at the door faces uncovered. Any man of the three times, wbich is then opened by place, who is inclined to matrimony, if the Yeni chatûn, or bride maid, who he bappens to be pleased with any of replies to the “Salam aleikum' of the these girls, whom he sees in passing, bridegroom, conducts him to the bride, throws an embroidered handkerchief and puts her right hand in bis. She on her head or neck. If he have then quits the room to bring in the not a handkerchief, any other part of suffra, or eating table, which is placed bis dress answers the same purpose. near at hand; furnished commonly The girl then retires to her home, rewith a roasted fowl and some other gards herself as betrothed, and appears trifles.
no more in public. I learned from a “While she is absent, the husband Bosniak of veracity, that ihis is an usual tries to uncover bis wife's face, which preliminary to marriage, in the place is overspread with a long veil; to the where he was born." removal of which the established rules of decorum require that she should of Mr. Browne negatives the belief that fer some resistance. He presents to her temporary marriages are permitted by some ornament, generally of jewellery, the Mohammedan laws. The annexed which she accepts after proper besita- particulars are curioustion; and at length consents to abandon
POISON FINDER. her veil. They sit down at table, and “There is a kind of fine porcelain, the husband divides the fowl with his or China-ware, much esteemed in the bands, offering a portion to the woman, East, from the prevalent credulity which she receives. Much time is not which is common there respecting its consumed in eating, and the suffra bc- supposed properties. It is distinguishing removed, they wash. The Yeni ed by the name of Mir tabân, and is chatûn then brings the bed, which she said to indicate poison, if any exist spreads on the floor. She takes out in the food. From this prejudice, a the bride to her mother and the women, plate or other vessel, composed of this who are in the next room, where she is inaterial, is sometimes sold for three or undressed ; after which the Yeni cha- four hundred piastres. The absurdity tên brings her back to her husband, of the idea is evident; but it might be places her right hand in his, and leaves curious to know how it originated. them together.
Our last examples relate to the de“ The last ceremony is that of the cline of the Othman Empire, a view bride being conducted in form to the of which the author takes, and instanbath, This takes place at the expira. ces among others the following price.. tion of six or seven days.
Among the various causes which ant being rated in proportion to the have contributed to the ruin of the Turk- gross produce of the lands he cultiish provinces, the arbitrary and indepen. vates, cannot possibly do more than dent jurisdictions conceded under the glean a scanty subsistence, which may names of Mocatta and Iltizem hold a be obtained by slight exertions and the cospicuous place : to understand their most wretched system of husbandry ; nature the following remarks may be and thus, whilst there is, on the one necessary.
hand, a strong positive motive to op“ The revenues of a certain district, press, the stimulus to production, on perhaps ten or twelve villages, are to be the part of the land holders, is the most disposed of. The person who wishes feeble and negative that can be imagto farm them, after ascertaining their ined. The practical effects of this value with all practicable accuracy, system are seen in the depopulation of goes to a minister, and offers what he the country, and the increase of rob thinks
proper for the term of one, two, bers and rebels, the great body of three, or four years. As the govern. whom, it is known, are composed of ment is always indigent, the offer of peasantry and other subjects of the ready money is generally accepted ; Porte, who have been thus stripped of and nothing more is required to enable their possessions. the farmer to exercise unlimited author. Among the little and ineffectual ity over the district in question, and to expedients adopted in a falling empire, augment bis revenue by every means the depreciation of the current coinage of fraud, violence, and extortion. Thus, is generally one. This has been rapwhat was originally supposed to pro- idly progressive during the two last duce fifteen purses, he perhaps makes reigns in the Ottoman empire. It is to yield forty. The peasantry is there- superfluous to add, that none of the by ruined: but this does not embarrass currency goes out of the territory : its the Mocatteji or Miltezim, who is con- value is very various, even within the cerned only with what the district will limits of it.” yield during the term for which he The oppressive mode of farming and holds it. A more absurd system for collectiog the revenues adds to the the administration of provinces cannot above evils ; and our readers will be possibly be imagined: it is adapted on- astonished to learn, that with all this ly to the possessions of a horde of ra- dreadful system for draining the last pacious banditti, who expected to be para from so great a population of expelled in a year or two from the some of the finest regions on the earth, provinces they had overrun.
the entire revenue of the Porte is not “The farmer must oppress in order estimated at more than 90 millions of to reimburse himself for his enormous piastres, or six millions sterling ! expenses; or he must fail. The
FEMALE LITERATURE OF THE PRESENT AGE.*
From the New Monthly Magazine, AUTHOR OF GLENARVON. occasionally affords of the mysteries of T WHERE is not, we think, the least the soul-its cast is inanifestly feminine.
danger of mistake in attributing The quick sensibility of pain and sorthe novel of Glenarvon to a female pen. row—the patient endurance of sufferFearful as, at times, is the power which ings—the nice apprehension and intuiit displays,—bold and decisive as are tive discernment of manners and of mothe conceptions with which it teems, tives, which so peculiarly belong to the and terrific as are the glimpses which it fairer sex—are all developed in iis
* See page 256.