jalgment will be held, and the eternal king. ix. 3, 4). In the vicinity of this grotto are dom established, of which they are to be the remains of a convent. chiefs. A very large portion of the vicinity T hese vestiges of ancient times show how is occupied with gardens, which present the deep was the impression which the facts of utmost luxuriance and beauty of oriental the gospel made on the minds of the early vegetation Picturesque as the city appears Christians, and so serve to reproduce its when viewed from without, — with its leaden form, and give life to its shadow, as they ap. domes. marble minarets, and gilded cres- pear before our eyes, rendered dull by the cents, the interior is by no means pleas- lapse of ages : and although cases there proing to the eve. Very many of the houses bably are in which these traditions no longer are built of mud, and, externally, present a report the truth, or report more than the picture of filth and wretchedness. Some of truch, yet, in general, they could not have tbein, however, which belong to the rich arisen from nothing, nor have fixed themArmenian merchants, are furnished with selves on fancies or fictions; and have, great magnificence, forming a strong con- in our opi

la chance of being trast with the neglected state of their outward correct, as the opinions of modern scepticism. appearance. The mosques and other public At least, they form a part of the poetic elebuildings of the city, are, in most cases, very ment of sacred antiquities, which no wisefine and imposing.

judging man would willingly part with, or Damascus is essentially a commercial town. let die.' Lamartine gives the population at 300,000, DAMNATION — from the Latin damnum, of whom 30,000 are Christians. M'Culloch injury, connected in derivation and mean. estimates it from 120,000 to 150,000, of whom ing with the words damage and doon -- sig. 12,000 may be Christians, and as many Jews. nifies properly the act of condemning, or the Notwithstanding the number of Christians state of being condemned, that is, adjudged who inhabit this city, it was, till very lately, to a certain loss, injury, or punishment, as necessary for Europeans to assume the entire being found guilty. Hence the word sets Turkish costume, in order to protect them- forth the act of a judge in declaring a prisoner selves from the fanaticism of the population guilty, and assigning the punishment he is of Damascus and the surrounding country. to undergo; and, derivatively, may mean Now, however, the state of feeling is much either the punishment itself, or the state of improved, though it would not be prudent privation and pain which punishment superfor Europeans to exhibit themselves in hats induces. From human, the word passed to and coats to the fanatics who accompany the divine things; in which its import is simigreat caravan to Mecca.

lar to that already indicated. Before we go The fanaticism for which Damascus was on to review the passages in which the word notorious mude it a suitable place for the occurs, it is proper to remark that'damnaprosecution which Saul intended to carry on tion' originally signified what is now meant there (Acts ix.). From the raging of the by condemnation, as appears from the statespirit which he intended to evoke, Saul him- ment above given. This being the case, self, when he had joined the sect every the term itself does not define who is the where spoken against,' had no small diffi- judge, who the criminal, or what the punishculty to escape (2 Cor. xi. 32). The place ment; which things remain to be learned retains reminiscences of that great man from the Sacred Scriptures. We make this Among its buildings is 'the convent of Paul's remark because, by degrees, and the force of conversion, and Paul's gate.' In the vici- use, a specific meaning has been attached to nity is an old tower with a window, said to "damnation,' as denoting the endless pains be that from which his friends let the apostle of hell. clown in the hour of peril (Acts ix. 25. Damnation' stands as the English of three 2 Cor. xi. 33). There is also to be seen in Greek words : - I. Of apoleia, which signia street which is still called straight' or fies loss, or perdition. It is rendered waste' narrow, the house of Judas, in which 'Saul in Matt. xxvi. 8, and Mark xiv. 4; where of Tarsus' is believed to bave dwelt (Acts strictly it signifies nothing more than misix. 11). Not for distant, the traveller is application. In Matt. vii. 13, it is construed by pointed to the house of Ananias : before this destruction, and is spoken of those who enter is a well, from which the water is alleged to the wide gate and the brond way. In John have been drawn, that was used in the bap. xvii. 12, it is applied to Judas, who is termed tism of Paul. On the road from Damascus the son of perdition,' In 2 Pet. ii. 3, we find to Jerusalem, about four hours from the the word "damnation' itself. The nature, city, there lies a grotto, which is so low as degree, and duration of the evil which the scarcely to allow a person to stand erect. term implies, are not determined by these In this Panl is held to have hid himself when passages. Hence we are not at liberty to he fled from Damascus. This, also, tradi- assume, that it means either annihilation or tion makes to be the spot where the apostle, eternal torments. The first it does not on his journey towards the city, was struck necessarily import, since it may signify mere to the ground, and converted to Christ (Acts waste or misapplication; and the assumy. tion bat any being ever ceases to exist, is on the east, and Judah with Philistia on the contradicted by the whole analogy of nature, south. Their territory, however, was not in which all things change, but nothing strictly defined. The cities which fell to the perisbes. The second may be a Scriptural share of Dan lay for the most part in the land doctrine, but is not of necessity implied in a of the Philistines, and we do not know to term which can be used of the ointment what extent they succeeded in gaining pospoured on Jesus' head. II. Damnation' is session of these hostile places (Josh. xix. the rendering of krima (Latin crimen, Eng 40–48. Judg. xviii. 1). Joppa (Japho), lish crime), which denotes a judicial declara Timnath, and Ajalon, were its chief towns. tion or sentence ; and hence is used of the The tribe, at one time, numbered 62,700,

judgment' of God in this world (John ix. at another 64,400, men above twenty years of 39), and of judgment to come' in the next age,' able to go forth to war' (Numb. i. 38, (Acts xxiv. 25). It also denotes the conse- 39; xxvi. 43). quence of a judicial sentence or punish- DAN- a town in Naphtali, called also ment, as in Luke xxiii. 40, where, being Laish and Leshem, and forming the northern represented by the word "condemnation,' it boundary of the land of Israel. The name is employed of the crucifixion of one of the was changed from Leshem to Dan, on occamalefactors executed together with our Lord. sion of a conquest of the land, made by a That the word krima does not itself carry the colony of Danites, discontented with the idea of everlasting torment, appears from limits assigned them by authority (Josh. the fact, that in Heb. vi. 2, the epithet eter- xix. 47; comp. Judg. xviii. 27). The place, nal' is prefixed to it.

however, is denominated Dan as early as The third word krisis (our crisis) is nearly Gen. xiv. 14; which favours the idea, that allied, both in form and meaning, to the Genesis was revised at a period when Dan last, denoting strictly the act of separating, had become the sole customary name for selecting, trying, judging, and condemning, Laish (see also Deut. xxxiv. 1). and generally the whole process and each Dan, as the northern limit of Palestine, important part of a judicial procedure. bad Beersheba for its southern opposite; Krisis is translated by • damnation' in Mark whence the phrase, from Dan to Beersheba" iii. 29, where it is preceded by eternal;' (Judg. xx. 1. 1 Sam. iii. 20). It was, at an and by condemnation' in John v. 24; being, early period, a seat of image-worship (Judg. however, most frequently represented by xviii. 4, seq. 1 Kings xii. 28-30).

judgment' (Matt. v. 21; x. 15). Some. Dan, which some have identified with times by judgment,' the connection shows Paneas (Cæsarea Philippi), is by Robinson we are to understand a judicial inquiry be placed at Tell el-Kady, which lies about three fore an earthly tribunal (Matt. v. 22); at miles froin Paneas, in a course a little south others, an opinion or judgment of the mind of west, over, for the most part, a plain (John v.30). From these less important ap- densely covered with oak and other trees, plications, the word rises to signify justice it, and a thick undergrowth of various kinds of self(Isa. v.7); sense of justice (Matt. xxiji. 23. bushes. The Tell, or hill, is elevated about Lake xi. 42); trial under divine Providence forty or fifty feet; its figure is oval. One (John xii. 31); a period of general adjudicn- part of it is covered with oak-trees, and antian (Matt. x. 15. Heb. ix. 27. 2 Pet. ii.9); other with thick brushwood and briars. It is dirine punishment on the guilty (Rev. xiv.7); an extinct crater, about half a mile in circumand specifically (Matt. xxiii. 33) the punish. ference. On the south-western side, the ment of hell, or gehenna

wall of this crater has been partly carried The judgment' spoken of in Matt. v. 21, away by the action of a fountain which gushes 22, refers, in contradistinction from the San- out all at once, a beautiful river of delicious hedrim, to the inferior tribunal, consisting water. The fountain first appears in the of the judges or magistrates of each indi. centre of the crater. The great body of water, vidual city, who had cognizance of lesser however, glides underneath the lava-boulders, transgressions or misdemeanors, and were and rushes out at the bottom of the Tell on empowered to inflict minor punishments the west. But a considerable stream rises (Deut. xvi. 18. 2 Chron. xix. 5; comp. to the surface within the crater, and, conJoseph. “Antiq. iv. 8, 14. Jew. War,' ii. ducted over its south-western margin, drives 20. 5).

two flour mills which are overshadowed by A specific meaning attaches to the word magnificent oaks, and almost buried be judgment,' in Matt. xii. 20,- 'Till (while) neath luxuriant vegetation. The two streams he send forth judgment unto victory. In unite below the mills, forming a river forty the original, 'the' is prefixed to judgment,' or fifty feet wide, which rushes very rapidly and the meaning seems to be the cause, down into the marsh of Huleh. Thomson or his cause,' that is, the gospel: comp. Isa. saw a multitude of turtles sunning bemxlii. 1, 2. — See ANATHEMA.

selves on the rocks around. DAN (H. a judge), one of the twelve tribes Tell el-Kady, or Dan, was the chief place of Israel, who had their abode on the sea of a region of country, which is accurately coast, with Ephraim on the north, Benjamin described by the spies in Judg. xvii. 8-10.


DANCING was in every period a loved gaiety of a simple agricultaral and unsopbisenjoyment among the Hebrews (Exod. xv. ticated people. But contact with heathenisin 20. Ecclesiastes üi. 4. Jer. xxxi. 13), which brought heathen vices with heathen recreathe young had a share in (Job xxi. 11); tions and refinements, when the resources maidens practised (Judg. xxi. 21. Matt. of the pantomimic art were brought in to xiv. 6); and even children imitated in their minister to a palled and vitiated appetite for play (Matt. xi. 17). The case of Herodias's pleasure. Interpreters have found in Matt. daughter shows, that the pas seul, in which xiv. 6, a reference to an unworthy scene of there is only one dancer, was known among this nature, in which the excitement of the the Jews. Not only private festivities (Luke dance, joined with the intoxication of wine xv. 25), and the gathering of the vintage and passion, caused the destruction of John (Judg. ix. 27), but public rejoicings, as cele- the Baptist. brations of victory (Exod. xv. 20. 1 Sam. Olin thus describes a dance which he witxviii. 6), trinmpbal processions (1 Sam. xxi. nessed in Egypt:11), and religious solemnities (Judg. xxi. “We stopped for the night on the western 19), were occasionally accompanied and en- bank of the river, opposite to a large village livened by dancing. We find dances men at the distance of about half a mile from the tioned as taking place arouud idolatrous bank. The delicious softness of the atmoimages and altars (Exod. xxxii. 19. I Kings sphere, and t xviii. 20). David celebrated the bringing us to walk in the grove of palm-trees that up of the ark into the sanctuary with dances, lies between the village and the landins-place.

lies between the in which he himself took part (2 Sam. vi. 5, Our attentiou was soon attracted by the sound 14); and after the captivity, as we learn of music and loud peals of merriment. We from the Rabbins, the Israelites celebrated directed our walk towards the village, and the feast of tabernacles with a torch-dance, approached a large group of people just outin the outer court of the temple. When side o

te. There we females danced alone (Judg. xi. 34), or in dred persons, consisting of men, women, and

dred pers choirs (Exod. xv. 20. 1 Sam. xviii. 6), they children, most of whoin squatted upon the

children, m usually beat tambourins or timbrels (Jer. ground after the peculiar manner of the counxxxi. 4). Song was often connected with try. A few of the men were standing, and these dances (1 Sam. xviii. 7; xxi. Il), all were deeply engaged in looking upon a which were accompanied by stringed as

ged as dance

dance performed by two young females in well as other instruments (2 Sam. vi. 5). the midst of the crowd, where an are Seven words have been pointed out as denot- kept vacant for the purpose. The dress of ing the different kinds of dancing prevalent the dancers was loose and flowing, of very of old among the Hebrews; and what is called light materials, open at the bosom, and so a country dance (contre-planse) is thought adjusted as to exhibit the form and person to be indicated in ) Sam. xviii. 7. That it is fully as possible. Their head-dress, which was accounted unbecoming for men, or for was ornameuted with shining trinkets, and persons of rank, to dance, cannot be con- not unbecoming, hung down behind to the eluded froin 2 Sam. vi. 16. In this case, waist. They wore a broad girdle, which was dancing in general is not reproved, but dan wound many times around the body. and ciug alone, or in front of a procession; and covered it from the bosom to the hips. The iu verse 20, the point of blame is made to ankles and arms were adorned with bracelets, consist in David's being.nucovered,' that is, with which they kept time to the thrilling divested of his robes of state (see CLOTHES). music made by two rude instruments; the The nature of the old Hebrew dancing is not one a sort of earthen drum, in form not unwell known ; but female-dancing was most like a funnel, having a head of goat-skin; probably not essentially different from that the other a wind instrument, two or three which now prevails in Eastern countries; feet long, composed of two reeds of unequal and, agreeably to the character of Orien- length, - one perforated with holes for the tals, would be full of life and expression, but fingers,- and bound together, so as to enable by no means obscene. Whether public the performer to blow in both at the same dancing-women existed among the Israelites time. The dance is unlike any thing seen is uncertain. The East, in the present day, in other countries. It begins with slow and abounds in them; but they are generally per- measured steps, accompanied by the sound sons of doubtful reputatiou, or known cour- of some brass trinkets or cymbals, whieh tezans. That, in the latter days,' Jewish the performers hold in their hands, and families, especially those of princely rank, shake briskly above and around their heads; adopted Grecian dances, is not improbable; at the same time throwing their bodies forwhich Cicero (*Pro Murena,'6 ) has described ward and backward, and to the right and as being in his time among the Romans the left, with great violence. This seems but the last resort of inebriated conviviality, and a introduction to the dance, in which the feet disgrace to & Roman of high rank. The and legs remain immoveable; the hands are truth seems to be, that dancing among the raised on high, or fall in unison with the Hebrews originally partook of the innocent voluptuous sentiments designed to be ex.

pressed and excited. The chief part of the put an end to the performance; and the performance consists in a succession of atti- parties approached, and asked us for bucktudes, contortions, and gestures, performed sheesh. We learned, on inquiry, that a perby the muscles of the thighs, abdomen, and son had recently died in the house before loins. The performers possess a perfect which this singular funeral ceremony was command over every fibre of the body; and performed by the female relatives. We prothose parts of the human frame which are ceeded towards the temple, and soon heard naturally quite incapable of voluntary motion behind us a renewal of this melancholy have acquired a pliability and power that dirge' (i. 214). seem hardly less than supernatural. They DANIEL ( judge (is) God, A.M.4942; were highly excited, I might say almost fran. A.C.606; V. 606), a Hebrew prophet in the tic, under the influence of the music, and of Chaldee-Persian period, of the tribe of Judah, their own exhausting efforts. The spectators and the race of David; who, in accordance partook of the same intoxicating influence. with the prophecy in Isa. xxxix. 7, was in the They encouraged the dancers with occasional third year of the reign of Jehoiakim, king of cheering, and swelled the hoarse music to a Judah (Dan. i. seg, ; comp. Jer, XXV. XXXVI.), deafening note, by now and then pouring transported, while yet young, to Babylon, by upon its thrilling, rapid tide, a brief loud Nebuchadnezzar, after the conquest of Jeru. chorus. The dancers occasionally stopped salem. to get breath, but, by repeating their evolu. In company with three companions of his tions, speedily rose again to the state of own nation, he underwent an educational phrensied excitement, which, for the mo- discipline of three years' duration, after, in ment, seemned to have subsided. It was a accordance with an Eastern custom (Gep wild and very striking scene. I was not xli. 45. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 4. Esther ii. 4), he sorry to have stumbled upon it, though it had received the name of Belteshazzar, left a painful impression upon my feelings. Bet's treasure-keeper (Dan, i. 7). The aim The motions and attitudes of the dancers seems to have been to convert Daniel to the were indecent and offensive in a high degree; religion of the Chaldæans; for which purpose and we were fain to turn our backs upon an he was provided with food, the eating of exhibition which, from its singularity and which would have been a breach of the law Dovelty, we had witnessed with a lively in. of his fathers. He, in consequence, obtained, terest' (i. 132, seq.).

by a trial, which proved that simple fare The same writer gives an account of a was conducive to health, permission to adfuneral dance :

here to his national diet. This act of selfOu entering the village, our attention denial and religious principle was, as such was attracted by a group of twenty or thirty acts always are, rewarded of God with gifts females, uttering doleful cries, and per of his Holy Spirit, so that the young man forming a sort of dance to a shrill and dis made marked progress in wisdom and spiriagreeable music. Three of them were seated tual knowledge ; and the king found in him a on the ground; one beating a large drum counsellor far superior to the national magi. with the open hand, a second making a An occasion soon put Daniel's skill to the noise on a sort of shield covered with the test. Nebuchadnezzar, failing to obtain the untanned skin of a sheep or goat, while & interpretation of a dream from the magi, in third discoursed music with & rudely-con- whose class Daniel seems to have been forstructed instrument. The strains were plain- mally recognised, was on the point of extertive and melancholy. The rest danced in a minating them in the true spirit of Eastern long vaulting step, following each other in despotism, when the prophet offered his a circle around the musicians. They were assistance; and, having received enlightendressed in loose tattered robes, in the usual ment in & vision, expounded the dream, in style of the female peasantry. They threw the name of the God of heaven that retheir hands and arms around and aloft in vealeth secrets. The result was, that the the wildest manner, and brandished long, monarch confessed, - 'Of a truth your God slender spears, all accompanying the music is a God of gods, and a Lord of kings;' with loud and piteous cries. The number while he made Daniel a great man, and of performers increased during our stay, and gave him many great gifts, and made him a few women and girls seated themselves on ruler over the whole province of Babylon, the ground as spectators, though no men and chief of the governors over all the wise approached or gave any heed to the perform. men of Babylon;' so that he sat in the ance. We halted at & sbort distance to gate of the king,' or became prime vizier observe this singular exhibition, which seem- (ii.). His elevation seems to have aroused ed at first to increase their excitement, and into action the dormant jealousy of the Chalthe velocity of their wild gyrations. In a dæan priesthood, who impelled the king to short time, however, one of the dancers take a step, in requiring from his subjects sprung forward, and snatched the instruments the worship of an image of gold, which could of music from the hands of the women not fail to compromise all faithful Jews, and scuted within the circle, which in an instant might, at least in its consequences, reach the obnoxio:19 llebrew minister. The plan was commands, and even as an insult to him. defeated by the fidelity of three servants of self, was driven, in his rage, to inflict on the the most high God,' whose moral courage prophet, without mitigation, the penalty nud miraculous preservation confirmed the threatened against disobedience. Asiatic nionarch in his predilection towards the He- monarchs were wont to have large parks brew race (ii.). After the deliverance of stocked with wild animals, which served at Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, the king once for the perilous amusement of the sove. had another dream which troubled Daniel as reign, and the punishment of his offending well as himself, but the interpretation of subjects. Into such an enclosure was Daniel which, given by the sage, accompanied with cast. But the God whom he served so seasonable advice, found complete fulfilment; faithfully, preserved him uuharmed. The after the penalty involved in which, Nebu. sight of this wonderful rescue drew from chadnezzar declared, -'I praise, and extol, Darius & confession of the sovereignty of and honour the King of heaven, all whose the God of Daniel, who now prospered in works are truth, and his ways judgment; his reign, and in that of his successor Cyrus and those that walk in pride, he is able to (vi.). That prince may have been influ. abase' (iv.). The acknowledgment may enced by the advice of the faithful Hebrew, have been sincere, but wrought no vital in the act of liberality be performed, when change in the monarch's heart.

he gave the Jews permission to return to The book which bears Daniel's name, or their native land. what may be fragments of the original work, This is the last historical notice we have does not bring the prophet on the stage dur- of Daniel; for the rest of the book is made ing the followers of Nebuchadnezzar, till up of accounts of visions and prophecies of the last day of the reign of Belshazzar, various dates, during his long, varied, inte when, while carousing with his court, and resting, and very important life. desecrating the sacred utensils of the Hebrew Daniel appears as a man eminently dissanctuary, that despot saw a handwriting on tinguished for prudence, wisdom, and piety the wall, which, as decyphered by Daniel, His fame was great. At an early period, he announced his immediate downfall. Ap- is classed with the sages and righteous men, parently the prophet, in the midst of those Noah and Job (Ezek. xiv. 14); and his name sudden and sometimes unaccountable re. became proverbial for superior knowledge verses to which Oriental countries are spe. (Ezek. xxviii. 3). He was recognised as a cially liable, had fallen into neglect, if not prophet in the days and by the lips of Jesus disgrace; but he knew from the prophecies Christ (Matt. xxiv. 15). of Isaiah what was at hand, and already In Daniel we see the Hebrew qualities of the name of Cyrus filled Asia with its renown. mind brought out in a superior manner, and Hence he appeared before the terrified and it cannot be denied that they present points half-inebriated prince with a confidence of great excellence. In his piety, he may be and dignity befitting his position; and, taken as a representative of his race: their making mention of the loss of reason that hardness of heart and indocility he did not had been inflicted on the conqueror of Jeru- share ; yet had he enough of firmness and salem for his sins and folly, he announced persistence to withstand the most powerful the ruin of Belshazzar, and the coming do blandishments, as well as the most unsparminion of the Persians. The bearing aud ing opposition. Placed in circumstances the message of the prophet impressed the where all that Oriental pomp and opulence king so profoundly, that, perhaps in some could give, and all that a gorgeous system of vain hope of escape by his means, he luvished religious falsities could achieve for the perhonours on bis Hebrew slave (v.).

version of his heart, he was found faithful to Under Darius, for whom Cyrus had cap. the depressed religion of his fathers, and the tured Babylon, Daniel was the first of three cause of an afflicted people; and so gained presidents, in whose hands was the entire a high rank among the true servants of God, government of that mighly empire. So and became distinguished for that holiness exalted a station could not fail to excite which made the descendants of Abraham a envy, and envy would find hope of revenge, peculiar people, and characterises the poraespecially in the imperfectly established re- lity of the Bible. lations of a new dynasty. The magian caste Duriug the captivity, Daniel held the imemployed their great influence with Darius, portant, yet perilous office of the representato procure a decree, forbidding worship to be tive of his people, at the Chaldæan court. offered within thirty days to any being save For any thing but this, was he destined by the monarch himself. Daniel knew the evil those who undertook the charge of his eduintent of these men, and resolved, as becaine cation. His own force of character and one with his convictions and in his office, prevailing piety placed him at once hagham to make his prayers in such a manner that office near the monarch, and made luw the they might be known of all. The conse- centre of his nation's hope and strength. quence was, that Darius, taking Daniel's con- Wisely and faithfully did he acquit aimself duct as a wilful ud open breach of his of the duties which hence arosc. Ganius, as

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