able and indefatigable missionaries-Dr. Grant among them-lie interred in that land, from whence their spiritual father, and the father of many nations, Abraham, first journeyed. It is gratifying to find Mr. Layard doing justice to those admirable men. He says of

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THE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES. They were most zealous men. their plans succeeded, I have no doubt they would have conferred signal benefits upon the Chaldean Christians. I never heard their names mentioned by the Tyari, more particularly that of Dr. Grant, without expressions of profound respect, amounting almost to veneration. Mosul holds the remains of most of those who were engaged in the American missions."

misfortunes. Ten Tyari girls threw themselves from the bridge over the Zab, as they were taken sion or slavery. It was near Lizan, that occurred across by the Kurds, preferring death to converone of the most terrible incidents of the mas sacre; and an active mountaineer offering to lead me to the spot, I followed him up the mountain. Emerging from the gardens, we found ourselves at the foot of an almost perpendicular declivity of loose stones, terminated, about 1000 feet above us, by a wall of lofty rocks. Up this ascent we toiled for above an hour, sometimes clinging to small shrubs, whose roots scarcely reached the scanty soil below; at others, crawling on our hands and knees, crossing the gullies to secure a footing, or carried down by the stones which we put in motion as we advanced. We soon saw evidences of the slaughter. At first, a solitary skull rolling down with the rubbish; then heaps rotting garments. As we advanced, these reof bleached bones; farther up, fragments of mains became more frequent. Skeletons, almost entire, still hung to the dwarf shrubs. I was them. As we approached the wall of rock, the soon compelled to renounce an attempt to count declivity became covered with bones, mingled with the long plaited tresses of the women, shreds of discoloured linen, and well-worn shoes. born, to the toothless old man. There were skulls of all ages, from the child unWe could not avoid treading on the bones as we advanced, and rolling them with the loose stones into the valley when he observed me gazing with wonder on below. This is nothing!' exclaimed my guide, those miserable heaps. These are but the reof those who were thrown from above, or sought to escape the sword, by jumping from the rock; follow me!' He sprang upon a ledge that ran along the precipice which rose before us, and clambered along the face of the mountain overhanging the Zab, now scarcely visible, at our feet. I followed him, as well as I was able, for some distance; but when the ledge became scarcely broader than my hand, and frequently disappeared for three or four feet altogether, I could no longer advance. The Tyari, who had assist me, but in vain. I was still suffering easily surmounted these difficulties, returned to severely from the kick received in my leg, four days before, and was compelled to return, after catching a glimpse of an open recess, or platform,

We are glad to find, from the last Report before us (1847) of the American Board, that the Mission still flourishes. There are five missionaries,-one as physician, 1 printer, 7 female missionaries, and 12 native helpers,-total, 25. A great revival has taken place within the last three years among the Nestorians. Within one year, the brethren reckoned the genuine converts to be not fewer than 150! At present, 538 pupils attend the schools. Since the commencement of the Mission, 3,926,500 pages of tracts, hymn-mains books, &c., have been printed. In 1846, there issued from the press, 2,500 copies, and 1,114,000 pages. In the same year, the New Testament, with the ancient and modern Syriac, in parallel columns-a great work, which will secure, in some measure, the results of the Mission.* We are sure our readers will pardon this digression to modern, from ancient Assyria, especially as we mean to close our notice with a description, by Mr. Layard, of the scenes of one of those frightful massacres of the Nestorians in the Tyari district, in 1843, by Beder Khan Bey, a fanatic Koordish chief, who, in cold blood, put to death about 10,000 people; besides carrying off many girls and boys as slaves.

MASSACRE OF THE NESTORIANS. "The traces of the awful massacre are still visible. Everywhere, except in Zareetha, the churches were destroyed, and the priests put to death. The Chaldeans are naturally a religious people, and greatly attached to their clergy, and were more alive to these, than to any of their

• Report, p. 124.

covered with human remains. When the fugitives who had escaped from Ashutha, heard the news of the massacre, through the valley of Lizan, the inhabitants of the valley around collected such parts of their property as they could carry, and took refuge on the platform which I have just described, and on the rock above; hoping thus to escape the notice of the Kurds, or to be able to defend, against any numbers, a place almost inaccessible. Women and young chil dren, as well as men, encamped themselves in a spot which a mountain-goat could scarcely reach. Beder Khan Bey was not long in discovering their retreat; but being unable to force it, he surrounded the place with his men, and waited until they should be compelled to yield. The weather was hot and sultry; the Christians had brought but small supplies of water and provi

sions. After three days, the first began to fail | people, and consulted against Thy hidden them, and they offered to capitulate. The terms proposed by Beder Khan Bey, and ratified by an oath, were the surrender of their arms and pro. perty. The Kurds were then admitted to the platform. After they had taken their arms from their prisoners, they commenced an indiscriminate slaughter, until, weary of using their weapons, they hurled the few survivors from the rocks to the Zab below. Out of nearly 1000 souls who were said to have congregated there, only one escaped."

ones." Who did so? Several nations are mentioned, and it is added, “Ashur also is joined with them." What is the prophet's prayer? "Let them be confounded, and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish; that men may know that Thou, whose name is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth!" Has this prayer, uttered in sympathy with the righteous judgments of God, been answered? Let the mounds of Nineveh, and the desolation of Assyria reply! "Come, let us cast them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance," (Psalm lxxxiii.,) was the cry of Ashur against the Jews. But Israel's name" is still in "remembrance" over all the earth, and "the nation" is not cut off; but looks and longs for its speedy restoration. And what has become of Ashur? "The terrible of the nations have cut HIM off, and have left him: upon the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen; and all the people of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him!” (Ezek. xxxi. 12.) Well may we exclaim, "How wondrous, O Lord, are Thy judgments, and Thy ways past finding out!"


We must now bid farewell to Mr. Layard and his delightful volumes, which have afforded us so much enjoyment. But we cannot conclude this notice, without recalling to the memory of our readers, the threatenings of the Prophets against those cities which sought to possess power and glory without God. As we linger in imagination among their ruins-as we gaze upon "the images of the Chaldeans painted with vermillion"-as we study in our own British Museum, those wondrous monuments of a wicked, sensual, and idolatrous race-we reverently adore the righteousness and truth of God, who, by His servants, issued the sentence of condemnation against them, which has been so marvellously fulfilled; and we feel how enduring are the true and goodhow perishing the false and wicked! "Nineveh is laid waste! who will bemoan We must add one word of solemn her? She is empty, and void, and waste; warning to the house of Israel. Let them her nobles dwell in the dust: her people not boast, because God has overthrown are scattered on the mountains, and no Ashur, and preserved their nation by man gathereth them." What a sublime His outstretched arm and wondrous Propicture does Ezekiel draw (chap. xxxi.) vidence! If they believe not in Jesus, of the glory and degradation of Assyria!." the men of Nineveh" will one day arise A solemn lesson is also taught us by the ruins of Nineveh, to beware how we injure the people of God, or oppose His cause. In the 83d Psalm, Asaph says, "They have taken crafty counsel against Thy

from that desert plain, and witness against them, in the great and dreadful day of the Lord; "for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; but, behold, a greater than Jonah is here!"



[The Notices regarding Abstinence | the British League of Juvenile Abstainreached the Editor through Mr. Hope, the well-known indefatigable advocate of that cause. The Editor is not responsible for them. He admits them willingly into the pages of the Magazine, which is thereby circulated among 500 members of

THE British League of Juvenile Abstainers is an association of children, and of young men and young women, who abstain from using or giving to others intoxicating liquors, tobacco, and opium.

The members are not pledged-there is no pledge of any kind, formal or implied. Its object is to unite all abstaining children, and young men and young women, in an associated capacity, to promote abstinence from intoxicating liquor, tobacco, and opium.

It seeks to awaken among the young, a spirit of inquiry and improvement, and to aid in the pursuit of everything that is hallowed by the religion of the Cross. It aims at finding plans of usefulness, of a benevolent and religious nature, for the employment of its members; and it seeks to do all, in humble dependence on the blessing of God, and with singleness of purpose, to glorify Him in whatever is done.

Branches of the League have been formed at Edinburgh, Cupar, Dalkeith, Dunkeld, Haddington, Leadhills, Loanhead, Musselburgh, Portobello, Tranent, and Wanlockhead, where weekly meetings have been opened, and information on the subject of abstinence, is communicated in a simple and familiar style, suited to the capacities of the children and young people attending; and great interest is manifested by them in the objects of the


parties selected or invited to do so. At the conclusion of the reading, it is illustrated by the person in charge of the meeting; and an address is generally delivered afterwards by him, or some one appointed for the purpose. The meeting is closed with praise and prayer, and occupies about one hour and a-half in all.

Besides these meetings on the subject of abstinence, the following meetings, for communicating religious instruction, are held on the Sabbath day :Three Sabbath evening schools for child


Three Sabbath morning meetings for studying the Word of God and prayer, for young men.

One Sabbath evening meeting for studying the Word of God and prayer, for young women.

There is also a monthly meeting for prayer on the third Wednesday of each month. Thirteen agents are employed in conducting these meetings; and about two thousand seven hundred young persons attend them weekly. The amount of good done, cannot at present be estimated; but many pleasing instances have occurred, of which we have heard, and, doubtless, many more of which the conductors have

In Edinburgh, where the movement not heard, and may not hear. originated, there are

29 Meetings of Children every Week. of Young Men


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The office of the League is in Edinburgh, under the Music Hall, Rose Street, entering from the east door, where a supply of the Readings for Juvenile Abstinence Meetings is constantly kept for sale, costing 1s. per hundred; and where information, on the subject of the Juvenile Abstinence Meetings, may be obtained, by addressing a letter, post-paid, to the Secretary, Mr. Joseph D. Wormold.

Young people from the country, coming to reside in Edinburgh, will obtain, on calling at the office, a list of meetings, and be directed to the meeting they should attend.


REPENTANCE teaches us to abhor ourselves for sin; faith to go out of ourselves for righteousness.-Hannah More.

Afflictions and joy together. This is a secret and privilege peculiar to faith and the Gospel.-Bishop Thomas Wilson.

It is not merely by conversing on seri- | knowledge to His disciples as an end, but a mean. The end is, that all may be ous subjects, that you promote serious thoughts, nor by seeking directly to ob- made complete in unity. Now, unity is This love, is love in the tain influence, that you really influence love. others-it is by being good, that you do spirit, or a spiritual love; in other words, good-it is by kindness, and thoughtful- that which loves in us, is no part of our ness for other's feelings, by sufferings, or carnal being; but that new man, whose disappointments cheerfully endured, by object is the true, the just, the divine, the Hell-a perfect hell advantages of intellect, or fortune, humbly immortal. borne, by adherence to fixed principles of is in that empty heart which has been duty, by the princely heart of guileless violently severed from its affections, and innocence, whose very look is the best the very remembrance of them, without rebuke to vice.-A. P. Stanley. being united to God,-a heart which now only lives to feel that it lives not,-a heart which has need of love, as the lungs have need of air, and the body; and which finds no object to supply this want, neither the perishable beings of which it has lost the recollection, nor God, whom it cannot love.- Vinet.


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The Gospel uniformly gives supremacy to the life of the heart, or to love; it makes everything in man tend, or aspire towards love, as the end and reality of human life. Jesus Christ never proffered


"His compassions fail not. They are new every morning."-LAMENT. iii. 22, 23.

Hues of the rich unfolding morn,

That ere the glorious sun be born,
By some soft touch invisible,
Around his path are taught to swell.

Thou rustling breeze, so fresh and gay,
That dancest forth at opening day;
And brushing by with joyous wing,
Wakenest each little leaf to sing.

Ye fragrant clouds of dewy steam,
By which deep grove and tangled stream
Pay, for soft rains in season given,
Their tribute to the genial heaven.

Why waste your treasures of delight,
Upon our thankless, joyless sight;
Who day by day to sin awake,
Seldom of heaven and you partake?

Oh! timely happy, timely wise,
Hearts that with rising morn arise,
Eyes that the beam celestial view,
Which evermore makes all things new.

New, every morning, is the love,
Our wakening and uprising prove;
Through sleep and darkness safely brought,
Restored to life, and power, and thought.

New mercies each returning day,
Hover around us while we pray;
New perils past, new sins forgiven,
New thoughts of God, new hopes of heaven.

If on our daily course our mind,
Be set to hallow all we find ;
New treasures still, of countless price,
God will provide for sacrifice.

Old friends, old scenes, will lovelier be,
As more of heaven in each we see ;
Some softening gleam of love and prayer,
Shall dawn on every cross and care.

As for some dear familiar strain,
Untir'd we ask, and ask again;
Ever in its melodious store,
Finding a spell unheard before.

Such is the bliss of souls serene,
When they have sworn, and stedfast mean;
Counting the cost, in all to espy
Their God, in all themselves deny.

O could we learn that sacrifice,

What lights would all around us rise!

How would our hearts with wisdom talk,
Along Life's dullest, dreariest walk!
We need not bid, for cloister'd cell,
Our neighbour and our work farewell;
Nor strive to wind ourselves too high,
For sinful man beneath the sky.
The trivial round, the common task,
Would furnish all we ought to ask;
Room to deny ourselves; a road
To bring us daily nearer God.

Seek we no more, content with these;
Let present rapture, comfort, ease,
As heaven shall bid them, come and go,-
The secret, this, of rest below.
Only. O Lord, in thy dear love,
Fit us for perfect rest above,
And help us, this and every day,
To live more nearly as we pray.



No. II.

not the knowledge of God; I speak this to your shame." All this implies, that to know God, is indeed true religion. But the love of God and the knowledge of God, are one. Without love we do not, and cannot know Him. "He that loveth, knoweth God; he that loveth not, knoweth not God; for God is love." Love can alone comprehend love. Without love, we have no eye to "see God," or to know Him.

I HAVE already endeavoured to answer | fessing Christians, "Some of you have this question, by stating, as briefly as I could, what true religion was not, and what it was. I said, that it was essentially a right state of mind towards God; or, in other words, love to God. I have not yet spoken of the means by which we are brought into this right state of mind; but simply of the end, which all the means employed by God-including, as their centre, the wonders of redeeming love— are designed and fitted to accomplish. Nor shall I, at present, enter upon this part of the subject. I will rather try and shew you how every description of religion given in God's Word, involves in it the idea of love, or a right state of spirit towards God. Let us examine a few of those Scripture statements which are familiar to us, as expressing what we must be and do in order to please God; or, in other words, in order to possess true religion in the soul,

1. "We must be born again;" that is, a great change must take place in our spirits, through the agency of the Spirit of God,-a change so great, that it is likened to a birth of the soul. And what is this change? It is the passing out of that state of "enmity to God," which is the character of "the old man,"-" the flesh,"" the carnal heart,"-into that state of love to God, which is the character of "the new man,”—“the spiritual mind,"- "the child of God," who "cries Abha," that is," Father,"-the very language of love and confidence. "He that loveth, is born of God," (1 John iv. 7.)

2. True religion is also said to consist in "knowing God." "This is eternal life, that they might know Thee, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent;" and the absence of religion is said to be ignorance of God. Our Lord says to His Father, “O righteous Father, the world hath not known Thee!"-and to the Jews, "Ye neither know me nor my Father." The Apostle Paul condemns the heathen, because "they did not like to retain God in their knowledge ;" and he says to pro

No. III. Vol. I.-JUNE, 1849.

3. "True religion is the love of Christ." It is so. Jesus Christ is revealed to us as one whom we are to love and serve with all our hearts. We are to ask God's Spirit to strengthen us with all might in the inner man, that, through faith and love, we may be able to "know the love of Christ which passeth knowledge, and thus be filled with all the fulness of God." "If a man love me," says Christ, "my Father will love him." The Apostle prays for grace to all" who love the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity." Unspeakable blessings are "promised to them that love Him." Now, all this is right and true, because Jesus and His Father are one, equal in power and glory. They are not divided, either in their authority over us, or in their love to us; and we must not be divided in our love and obedience to them. As our knowledge of Jesus is one with our knowledge of God, (for to us is "given the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ Jesus; and "He who seeth me," said our Lord, sees my Father also;") so is our love to Jesus one with our love to God. In loving Jesus, we love "God manifest in the flesh."


4. "True religion is likeness to, and oneness with God." This, indeed, is the grand and glorious end set before us—to be like God, "perfect, as our Father in heaven is perfect,”— -" filled with all the fulness of God,"-" renewed after the image of God,"'-one with Him in mind and will, in character, even as the Son and Father are one. This is having "fellowship with the Father and Son;" but to


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