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“Renewed his declaration for liberty of con- | that, in gratitude, he himself was the king's, and did science, with this addition, that he would adhere ever, as much as in him lay, influence him to his firmly to it, and that he would put none into pub- true interest.”—p. 204. lic employments but such as would concur with bim in maintaining it. He also promised that he would hold a parliament in the November follow- Although nothing appeared against Penn, ing. This was what William Penn desired. He he was obliged to give security to appear on wished the king to continue firm to his purpose; the first day of the next term, and was then but he knew that neither tests nor penalties could dismissed. On his appearance at the time be legally removed without the consent of parlia: appointed, in discharge of his bail, not one were to be consulted on the measure ; for he in- witness could be produced against him; and dulged a hope that the substance of the royal de nothing having been proved to his disadvanclaration would be confirmed by both houses, and tage, he was discharged in open court. thus pass into a law of the land.”—p. 191. What must have been his joy and his gra
titude on the passing of the great Toleration The immediate consequences of this re- Act, shortly after this, by king, lords, and newal of the declaration, and of the accom- commons, although it did not come up to the panying order of council, that it should be extent of his wishes ? Even Burnet, in his read in all the churches within the ecclesias- “ History of his Own Times,” though at the tical jurisdiction of the kingdom, are well | Hague he had treated William Penn coldly known; the committal of the seven bishops for advocating the very principles of the new to the Tower, their trial and acquittal being act, gives as reasons why it had passed, those matters of history. In about a fortnight very considerations which William Penn had afterwards, William of Orange landed in long before given as reasons why it ought to Torbay, and James the Second ceased to pass. This author says, that “wise and good reign. William Penn's feelings at this change men did very much applaud the quieting of of affairs may be more easily imagined than the nation by the toleration. It seemed to described. By the flight of James he had be suitable both to the spirit of the Christian lost one who,“ with all his political failings, religion and the interest of the nation. It was had been his firm friend ;” and not only so, thought very unreasonable, that, while we "but he lost (what most deeply affected him) were complaining of the cruelty of the Church the great patron, on whom he counted for of Rome, we should fall into such practices the support of that plan of religious tolera- among ourselves, and this while we were ention for which chiefly he had abandoned his gaged in a war, in the progress of which we infant settlement in America, at a time when should need the united strength of the whole his presence was of great importance to its nation. well-being." He dared not return to America, In 1690, Penn was again arrested, on the though there a peaceful asylum awaited him, charge of having traitorously corresponded lest his flight should lead to the conclusion with James II. He appealed to the king in that he was guilty of the crimes laid to his person. The king was moved by his open charge. He, therefore, in the consciousness and explicit defence to dismiss Penn; some of innocence, resolved on remaining in Eng- of the council, however, interfering, he was land, and to go at large as before, dangerous ordered to give bail to appear at the next as was such a proceeding to one who had no Trinity term. As on the former occasion, longer a protector at court.
when he appeared in court there was no eviAnd quickly did he experience the effect dence against him, and he was honorably of the recent political change, for on the 10th discharged. of December, while walking in Whitehall, he A third time was he arrested, on suspicion was summoned before the Lords of the Coun- of being engaged in a conspiracy at the time cil, and examined touching the charges of the apprehended French invasion; he was brought against him. In reply to some now obliged to lie in prison until the last day questions, he protested that
of Michaelmas term, when he was brought
before the Court of King's Bench, and again “ He had done nothing but what he could an- discharged. swer before God and all the princes in the world; After these repeated failures, it might have that he loved his country and the protestant reli: been thought that there would have been no gion above his life, and had never acted against further attempt to molest him ; but just as either; that all he had ever aimed at in his public he had attended the funeral of his beloved endeavors was no other than what the prince himself had declared for; that King James had friend, George Fox, the founder of the Soalways been his friend, and his father's friend ; and I ciety of Friends, and was about to embark for America, he had intimation that a fresh | his fellow-professors “looked coldly on him, imputation had been brought against him by and requited his services with obloquy. one William Fuller, who was afterwards de- | Are we to believe this one gratuitous asserclared by Parliament to be " a notorious im- i tion, or the concordant testimony of the postor, a cheat, and a false accuser," who had historians of the Quakers,-Sewel, Gough, * scandalized the magistrates and the govern- and Clarkson, all of whom agree in bearing ment, abused this House, and falsely accused the most direct testimony to the estimation several persons of honor and quality.” To in which Penn was held by the members of escape
consequence of this fresh impeach- his own sect? Are we to give up opinions ment, as he could not leave the kingdom with founded on such authorities as these, in favor honor, Penn resolved to remain in retirement of a flippant observation of one who can perin England, neither wantonly throwing him- vert truth as Mr. Macaulay has done? The self in the way of the government, nor en- very Society which Mr. Macaulay represents deavoring to fly from it; and about six weeks as “ requiting Penn's services with obloquy," afterwards, another proclamation was issued has spent thousands of pounds in printing for the apprehension of himself and of Dr. and distributing his works, and cherishes the Turner, Bishop of Ely, and of James Graham, record of his life as a piece of biography founded upon the accusation of the same worthy of all imitation. But Churchmen Fuller, that he and others had been con- entertain the same opinion of Penn. Let cerned in a conspiracy to invite over James Mr. Macaulay pervert facts as he may; let II. from France. He remained in retirement him word his detractions never so smoothly,– for about three years, neither molested by constable, magistrate, nor any other officer “ The voice of history cannot be thus silenced : of justice, though greatly annoyed by the she has already recorded her judgment, from which increase of popular clamor against him—the there is no appeal. This Quaker was a strong consequence of these unfounded accusations. and a brave and therefore a free man; he ruled In 1693, he was deprived of the government he made posterity his debtor, for that spirit which
himself, and fearing God, feared no other; and so of Pennsylvania by King William, whose ear
won freedom for himself he left to it as a legacy, had been poisoned against him. In the follow- and there is no fear that the debt due to him will ing year, however, the king honorably rein- be unpaid so long as the inheritance remains. stated him in his government, and he was The memory of good men is sacred ; we treasure received into bigher favor than ever by his it as we value our safety in the present, our hope own Society, many of whose members had for the future.”—Preface, lix. fallen away from him in consequence of the calumnies so industriously circulated, and
Induced, as we have been by the voice of which, for a time, circumstances prevented Penn a searching and uncompromising scru
the calumniator, to give the character of him from refuting. He was thus restored to his former position, and acquired, if possible, tiny, we rise from the task under the firm bigher honors from his previous sufferings conviction that he was one of the best and Five
wisest of men. years afterwards, after having spent his
We lose sight of the Quaker time usefully in England, he and his family in his higher character of Christian ; we forembarked for America. He arrived safely get the courtier in the majesty of the phiin Philadelphia in the November of 1699'; lanthropist
. It is a mistake to regard him as returned to England in December, 1701; sect and its peculiarities shall be forgotten,
a sectarian. We believe that long after his carried
up the accession of Queen Anne, in the following
the name of Penn will be held up as an examyear; and, after various changes and reverses ple to future ages, as a distinguished legislaof fortune, died, and was buried at Jordans tor, a great and powerful teacher, a sincere in Buckinghamshire, in the year 1718.
Christian, and a man of perfect and undeWe now revert to the only other of Mr. viating integrity. Macaulay's assertions respecting Penn that we shall notice, namely, the statement that
* Macaulay, vol. i., p. 506.
1. The Handbook of Travel-Talk ; A Collection of Dialogues and Vocabularies,
intended to serve as Interpreter to Travelers. By the Editor of the Handbooks
of Germany, France, and Switzerland. 12mo. 2nd Edition. 1850. 2. The Royal Phraseological English-French and French-English Dictionary.
By J. Ch. Tarver, French Master, Eton. 2 vols. 8vo. 1845-1850. Pp. 1670.
The motto of this useful manual of Travel- stantly requited by stroke of ataghan or Talk is Bacon's famous saying—“He that thrust of a lance—exactly as was found traveleth into a courtry before he hath some among the Red Men of the great Western entrance into the language, goeth to school prairies ; for it is an old observation that no and not to travel." We hope the editor purest-blooded aristocrat of the most refined means gradually to extend his work, and, court, not even Louis Quatorze in all his having profited by what he has done, shall glory, could be more perfectly well-bred be happy if in the following remarks he finds than a Huron chief. The immobility too of the anything either of encouragement or sugges- region is well reflected, for these little phrases tion.
will be found nearly identical over an imLavater has laid down that the character mense expanse and through a vast duration. of a man may be detected not less clearly— They are almost all based upon a religious nay, often much more so—in the most trifling feeling; and convey in the form of prayer a gestures, in the ordinary tone of his voice, in wish that the person may enjoy Peace, the the way he takes a pinch of snuff, or mends summum bonum, the prime want and wish in a pen, than in great actions, or when he is such countries and such conditions of life. under the influence of the stronger passions, A pastoral people is always warlike; and which indeed obliterate nice distinctions :- throughout the Bible this is the invariable
blessing which forms the staple of salutation. Love levels ranks ; lords down to cellars bears, Shalúm! We trace the ruling idea in the And bids the brawny porter walk up stairs. very name of Jeru-salem. We plainly see
that when their language was crystallizing If we allow that these little things may afford they must have been a people whose hand was the true index of individual character, it fol- against every man, and every man's hand lows that they must be the faithfullest signs against them; and the Bedouins of the present of national character also; and thence comes day have precisely the same character, emit that the best history of a people is to be bodied and eternized in the same salutation. found in its dictionary. Let us take a par- In some Hebrew modes of greeting we also ticular class of words and phrases—a very see strong traces of a gross, sensuous characordinary and limited one—and we are much ter: there is an under-tone that speaks of deceived if we shall not find a mass of cha- land dropping and running over with fatnessracteristic traits daguerreotyped, the more a gurgling of luscious rivers of milk and honey, strikingly because involuntarily, in the com- oil and butter, more than in ten German monest Forms of Salutation.
tables-d'hote. “ No marvel,” says Carlo Observe the tone that predominates in Buffone, “ that that saucy, stubborn generathose of the East : what an air they breathe tion were forbidden pork; for what would of primeval simplicity, what condensed docu- they have done, well pampered with fat grisments they are of the external nature and the kins, that durst murmur at their Maker out state of society. In them we clearly mark of garlick and onions ?” the ceremonious politeness of half-savage Islam probably made but a small change in peoples, among whom a word or look is in- | the habits of those tribes among which it was first introduced ; and consequently we touch of what Sir Thomas Browne calls “the shall find little in these phrases. The same deuteroscopie or second-sight of things," religious tone continues, modestly combined that these perpetual shadows, and the rest with an incipient tinge of fatalism. “May of the supellex of Oriental Novels—(alas, for your morning be good !" says the Arab; Hajji Baba !)—can be mere matter of acci
May God strengthen your morning!” “ Per- dent? Could a foggy, shivering Frieslander haps thou shalt be fortunate." “ God grant say, May your shadow never be less ? Obthee his favors !” “If God will, thou art serve also the immense part played in the well !” “ If God will”—here the fatalist Oriental world by the idea of Paternity—a does not even venture to put up a prayer, part which begins in the very infancy of but only asserts the fact. If God will, all mankind—which was carried by the Jews in the members of thy family enjoy good health.” particular to a great height, as each man Here we have the reclusion of women indi- Aattered himself that he might be the father, cated in an unmistakable manner.
or at least ancestor of the Messiah—and you The pride, gravity, and laconism of the will see, in the still hourly employment and Ottoman are no less faithfully depicted. His sacrosanct veneration of that idea, a relic of salutations generally include a sort of saving the first generations—a leaf from the groves clause, as, “ If God will,” or the like; but of Eden, a lock of wool from the sheep of they breathe strong proofs of confidence as Abel. There are even whole tribes and nato the success of the petition. The Turks tions who take their names of individuals are not a people
from this idea of paternity--a man not call
ing himself the son, but the father, of So-in Fortunæ qui casibus omnia ponunt, and-So. Consider, if this method were to Et nullo credunt mundum reclore moveri,
be generally adopted, what a change would Naturu volvente rices et lucis et anni ;
take place in the personal nomenclatures of and it must assuredly give no small dignity Morisons or Hudsons, Fitzherberts or Fitz
half the world: we should have no more to social intercourse when the most lofty and solemn truths are thus brought into contact
clarences--no more O'Connells or O'Brienswith the familiar speeches of common life. MacNabs or MacGregors—the Ivanovitches “ Be under the guard of God;” “My pray: rooted out from among the orthodox Slavo
and Gavriloffs and Jellachichs would be ers are for thee;" “ Forget me not in thy nic peoples; there would be no more Isprayers.” Their phrases, however, seem formal and colorless when compared to the landic Olafson's and Sigmundsens: nay, there torrent of hyperbolical compliment poured would have been no Atreides, no Peleides. forth as a matter of course by the fluent and In the desert, men of a. d. 1850 call themfacile Persian. The same difference may be selves, not the son of their father, but the
One class of the popudiscerned as between the Englishman and father of their son. the Frenchman. The only trace of tender lation among us, it must be confessed, might or poetical feeling we have noted in a tole- l be far from displeased were this mode to be rably copious list of Turkish complimentary introduced: it would singularly gratify young greetings, is the following: " Thy visits are couples in the flush and glory of their first.
But as rare as fine days,”—which, moreover, evi
• Thou hast exalted my head !"dently dates from a period long prior to do in Cheapside. In Egypt they have a
May thy horn be lifted up!"-would never their descent upon the serene shores of Roumelia. “ Peace be
form of salutation which stamps and fixes a thee !" upon
says the Persian—not with thee, as among us in feverish climate to the life : How goes the the olden time, but upon thee, as though it perspiration? Do you sweat copiously ?” were to drop visibly,
and this, as father Rabelais says, pour cause,
seeing that in those regions, if you do not like the gentle dew from heaven,
continue in the diaphoretic mood, meltingly Upon the place beneath.
alive to the torrid fervency of the sun, you
run a great risk of melting away altogether, "How is the state of thine honor ?" "Is of exhaling—of dying, in short, in “a burnthy exalted high condition good ?” “Glory ing quotidian tertian. “May your shadow to God by thy benevolence !" "I make never be less !” beside being a most picturprayers for thy greatness !” “May thy esque expression, stereotyped in human shadow not be removed from our head !” speech-human speech, that only firm, solid,
May thy shadow never be less !". Is it unfluctuating thing (except a Whig ministry, possible to be conceived by one who has any | perhaps)—is also a neat formula for the re
spect Orientals entertain for fat. Not only , what a poem in two syllables !)—who indoes it typify, as in some indestructible vented the word swag ; the sailor (“ in many Babylonian frieze, a burning climate, where a tempest had his berd he shake") who first violent light and strong shadow are before talked of his ship's fore-foot, or qualified the the eyes of man from the cradle to the grave vessel as she ; the first boxer who in a com
-- climate where the fan and the parasol monplace head beheld a nob—the head being have become emblems and insignia of sove- viewed simply as the subject of knocks, fibbreign rank, like our sceptre (originally the ing, and evil-entreatment, and thus by a staff--the accompaniment of old age, and stretch of transcendental metaphysic abstrachence of wisdom and authority)--but it tion reduced to its lowest terms, detached marks the honor and glory attached to obe from all associations but those of fistycuffs sity in a climate where none but the rich --or, even more wondrously perhaps, a conk ; and great can reach (by having plenty to eat the first bibliomaniac who spoke of " tall and little to do) the envied pinnacle of copies," of "foxing” and “croping;" this twenty stone. Thus we are told of the Hin- man, of whatever breed or degree, was a doos in Major Williamson's Oriental Sports poet. Let no dainty objector whisper that (chap. xv.), that the possessor of a jolter- such words are common, vulgar, familiar, head “is a happy individual, who passes and cannot be poetical. Daisies are common; his life surrounded by the warmest demon- the sea is common; men, women, and childstrations of respect and veneration.” But ren are exceedingly common, at least in some why quote for readers all fresh from Morier, parts of the world, and yet we believe they Fraser, Lane, Kinglake, Layard, and the are allowed by the best judges to be not “Milordos Inglesis” of yesterday? How only poetical, but the very stuff and matter deliciously sumptuous is the greeting of the of all poetry. They are what the Lord Chinese—“ Have you eaten your rice? Is Chamberlain Polonius wished his son to-be, your stomach in good order ?” What peo
Familiar, but by no means vulgar ; ple could generate such a phrase but timid, frowsy, formular inhabitants of the Central indeed their very commonness prevents them Flowery Land ? Could it have taken root from ever being vulgar : for what is vulin Aberdeen or Kentucky?
garity but the effort to be something not But all these pbrases must have been pri. common ? vate property before they became common; The Greek salutation seems to have been they must have happily conveyed a reality subject to few changes; but this circumstance, before they grew to be merely conventional which may at first sight appear against us, forms of speech. In other words, they were seeing that the Greeks were so capricious a invented by a man of genius in every case, generation, so mobile, imaginative, and comand bear the impress of genius—i.e., of a posed of such a number of tribes, will on exconcentration of the thoughts and sentiments amination furnish an additional buttress. of the age into a focus of vivid brilliancy. The Hellenic race, not withstanding the mulA proverb has been happily defined by a titude of internal nuances, was essentially “one living statesman, “ the wit of one man, the and indivisible.” A strongly graven line wisdom of many:
All the picturesque bounded them from the Bapbapoi on every metaphor, the bold and striking condensation, side ;—they were as completely one people the lightning-like pointedness of that exquisite through a common patriotic pride and a form of language which we call Slang, has highly developed civilization, as the Jews no other origin but this : nay, all that is were by an elaborate scheme of social disworthy to be called language (which some. tinctions and the intensity of religious pride times makes up but a moderate part of the and scorn. Hence it was quite natural that dictionary) has no other source or mod 118 they should all agree in using one and the existendi. Look at the slang of any trade or same form for the expression of those general profession, and we shall see that every word sentiments which constitute the groundwork of it is literally a “word that burns"—the of intercourse. And what a word of greeting indestructible vesture of a thought. The was it that they selected, or rather, that grew high-toby-man or cracksman—(Čracksman! up among them like a tree-Xasps = rejoice,
be glad! What a people that must have * So Mr. G. C. Lewis tells us in his book “On the been! Yes, from the cradle to the grave, Influence of Authority;"—We name our author, and in the agora or in the vineyard, in the torchhe should have named his statesman—but we hope there will be no offence in adding that we believe he lighted thalamus or on the battle-field, every means Lord John Russell.
moment of the Greek's existence was filled