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mission to execute in Ireland ; and on his , sented from the Established Church, deterreturn a perfect reconciliation with his father mined him to return to England, in the hope took place, to the joy of all concerned, but that his personal influence with the king especially of his mother, who, throughout all might lead to at least a mitigation of the the differences with his father
, had remained sufferings of his oppressed countrymen and William's firm and affectionate friend. friends. If other motives, connected with
In the following year, William Penn was his own interest and character, contributed again arrested and committed to Newgate, to the adoption of such a resolution, we have for preaching, in contravention of the new the concurrent testimony of all his biograConventicle Act, then recently passed. The phers as to this being the chief inducement. circumstances attending the trial of Penn and Oldmixon expressly states that “ Mr. Penn William Mead are matters of history; they stayed in Pennsylvania two years, and would were acquitted of the charge brought against not then have removed to England, had not them, but were remanded to Newgate for the persecution raged against the dissenters so vionon-payment of fines illegally imposed, to lently, that he could not think of enjoying peace gether with the jury who had acquitted in America, while his brethren in England were them. Admiral Penn privately paid the so cruelly dealt with in Europe. He knew he money, and liberated both his son and William had an interest with the Court of England, and Mead.
was willing to employ it for the safety, ease, The admiral, considering that the treat and welfare of his friends.” Providing, therement his son met with in the Tower was little fore, for the government of the colony during short of oppression, now clave to him more his absence, we are told that he quitted than ever; and finding his own end approach- Philadelphia, ing, he had his son constantly with him, this free intercourse strengthening and confirming gret of the Dutch, Swedes, and Germans, whom
“ To the regret of the whole colony ; to the rethe admiral's good opinion of his son's quali- | he had admitted into full citizenship with the rest, ties and character. And, foreseeing the dan- and who had found in him an impartial governor gers and persecutions to which he would be and a kind friend; to the regret of the Indians, subject on account of his religious tenets, the who had been overcome by his love, care, and admiral on his death-bed earnestly com
concern for them; and to the regret of his own mended William to the care of the Duke of countrymen, who had partaken, more or less, of
that generosity, which was one of the most promiYork, requesting him to protect his son as
nent features in his character. And here, I
may far as he consistently could, and to ask the observe, with respect to his generosity, that the king to do the same, in case of future perse- whole colony had experienced it; for, it ought cution. The answer was gratifying, both never to be forgotten, that when the first Assembly Charles and the Duke promising their ser
offered him an impost on a variety of goods, both vices on fit occasions, which promise they imported and exported (which impost, in a course appear to have performed as far as lay in of years would have become a large revenue of it
self), he nobly refused it; thus showing that his Considerations of personal inconvenience own aggrandizement, but for the promotion of a
object in coming among them was not that of his seem never to have had any weight with Wm. public good.”—Clarkson, p. 155. Penn when the welfare of others was concerned, and especially when the great prin- William Penn landed in England early in ciple of liberty of conscience in matters of October; and from a letter, dated on the religion was at stake. To uphold this prin- 29th of that month, addressed to the wife of ciple seems to have been the ruling object of his old friend, George Fox, we find that he his life; as was particularly shown soon after had even then already been at court, where, he had founded the colony of Pennsylvania, he says, “ he had seen the king and the Duke and was residing at Philadelphia, actively of York. They and their nobles had been engaged in administering the affairs of the very kind to him, and he hoped the Lord government of the province. Even there, would make way for him in their hearts to the cry of the oppressed reached his ear serve his suffering people, as also his own infrom England. For whether it was thought terests as it related to his American conthat, in the absence of one who had ever been cerns.' their undaunted advocate at the court of The latter were soon brought to a final Charles II., dissenters might be persecuted issue, by the king's decision between Penn with impunity, it is certain that, in the year and Lord Baltimore, respecting some land on 1684, the accounts received by Penn of the the Chesapeake and Delaware, which had cruel measures enforced against all who dis- / been the subject of disagreement; with re
gard to the first question, the king gave a his secrets and counsels. He often honored him sort of promise that he would do something with his company in private, discoursing with him in behalf of those whose cause was pleaded of various affairs, and that, not for one, but many by Penn.
hours together, and delaying to hear the best of Shortly after this, died Charles II., and for an audience. One of these, being envious,
his peers, who, at the same time, were waiting his brother James succeeded to the throne. and impatient of delay, and taking it as an affront It will be remembered that Admiral Penn, to see the other more regarded than himself, adwhen on his death-bed, had commended his / ventured to take the freedom to tell his majesty son William to the care and guardianship of that when he met with Penn he thought little of James, when Duke of York; and, on the ac
his nobility. The king made no other reply, than cession of the latter to the crown, a more
that Penn always talked ingenuously, and he heard
him willingly. Penn, being so highly favored, regular acquaintance grew up between him acquired thereby a number of friends. Those, and William Penn, which soon ripened into also, who formerly knew him, when they had any intimacy. Entertaining the opinion that favor to ask at court, came to, courted, and enJames was favorable to liberty of conscience, treated Penn to promote their several requests. Penn conceived it to be his duty to cultivate Penn refused none of his friends any reasonable this intimacy, in order that he might be in a
office he could do for them, but was ready to serve position to further the interests of those who them all
, but more especially the Quakers, and
these wherever their religion was concerned. It were suffering on account of their religious is usually thought, when you do me one favor opinions; and that he might have the readier readily, you thereby encourage me to expect a access to James, he took up his abode at second. Thus they ran to Penn without interKensington, with his family.
mission, as their only pillar and support, who al.
ways caressed and received them cheerfully, and “It appears,” says Mr. Clarkson, “ that, while
effected their business by his influence and elohe resided there, he spent his time, and used his quence. Hence his house and gates were daily influence with the king, solely in doing good. All thronged by a numerous train of clients and suppolitics he avoided, never touching upon them un
pliants desiring him to present their addresses to less called upon; and then he never espoused a
his Majesty. There were sometimes there two party, but did his best to recommend moderation these affairs required money for writings, such as
hundred and more. When the carrying on of and to allay heats. If he ever advised the king, it was for his own real interest and the good of the drawing things out into form, and copyings, and nation at large. Generally speaking, however, made on such occasions, Penn so discreetly ma
for fees, and other charges, which are usually he confined himself to the object before mentioned; naged matters, that out of his own, which he had and, in endeavoring to promote this, he was alive to the situation, not only of those of his own reli- | in abundance, he liberally discharged many emergious society, but of those of other Christian de gent expenses.” nominations who were then languishing in the
This intimacy with the king, however, opegaols of the kingdom.”—p. 158.
rated greatly to Penn's disadvantage. The This is the testimony of one who is not a
people, considering James to be a Papist, member of the religious body to which Wil
were apprehensive that he would endeavor liam Penn belonged ; and it is singularly con establish Popery in its stead. And, know
to overthrow the Protestant religion and firmed by another historian, Gerard Croese, ing that Penn was so frequently at court, who had no more connection with the and so constantly engaged as the mediator Quakers than Mr. Clarkson. The evidence between the monarch and the people, many of two such independent witnesses may, suspected that the Quaker was a Papist in therefore, we should imagine, be looked upon disguise ; it was accordingly reported that he as unimpeachable. Gerard Croese is quoted had been bred at St. Omer's, and received by Mr. Macaulay whenever it suits his pur- priest's orders at Rome. The term Jesuit pose; we have therefore the less scruple in
was energetically revived, and he was genelaying before our readers a passage from that rally believed to be engaged in plotting with writer, in reference to the intimacy subsisting the king for the subversion of the established between James II. and William Penn, and religion. Even the amiable Tillotson, with the use made by the latter of his influence whom William Penn had been on terms of with the monarch.
friendship, could not avoid being infected
with the delusion ; and to him William Penn, “ William Penn,” he says, “ was greatly in fa- who, besides having a high personal regard vor with the king-the Quakers' sole patron at court—on whom the hateful eyes of his enemies for the Doctor, knew from the estimation in were intent. The king loved him as a singular which he was held by the nation generally, and entire friend, and imparted to him many of that any opinion he might entertain would
have great weight, addressed a letter request- | most serious of them refers. This is, indeed, ing a friendly explanation, and received an the only one that can be said materially to immediate reply; the question and response affect the character of Penu as an upright, do honor to both parties. Their intimacy, moral, and religious man; the minor charges, which had been interrupted by the suspicion, scattered through a hundred pages, showing was renewed ; and Tillotson, at Penn's re- that he preached at an execution; that he quest, furnished the latter with a second was employed by a Roman Catholic monarch; letter, in which he declared, “ with great that he said “Sir,” &c., &c., have just such joy,” that he was “fully satisfied there was no bearing on the sectarian controversies and just ground for the suspicion :” this letter opinions of the time as would allow partisans with Dr. Tillotson's permission, was shown on either side to exaggerate or palliate, praise wherever he had been quoted as either be- or condemn, according to the views which lieving or promoting the report of the Jesu- they themselves entertained. But the first itical propensities of William Penn.
real crime charged to the account of the Soon after this, William Penn published a great Quaker leader is one that no sectarian work which appears to have led to some im- views, however peculiar, can defend—no poportant results. It was his Persuasive to litical opinions, however extreme, can justify. Moderation,” and was addressed to the king The author evidently treats it as his pet acand his council. In this book he success-cusation; works it up with the greatest care fully combats the position, that a state can and gusto, and recurs to it again and again, be endangered by religious toleration ; ad- with the most self-satisfied complacency; as ducing numerous examples to the contrary much as to say—“There I had the Quaker from the history of many nations, ancient on the hip!" and modern. His arguments appear to have The history of Monmouth's rebellion in had considerable weight, for soon after the the reign of James II. is tolerably familiar publication of the book, the king issued a to all : it was a hopeless project, awkwardly proclamation for a general pardon to all who conducted and miserably ended : the ringwere imprisoned on account of their con- leaders were beheaded, the subordinates science; and this was accompanied by in- hanged, and all who had shown the least structions of the judges of assize, to liberate sympathy with the cause were condemned, all persons of this description. Not fewer the sentence of death being subsequently than twelve hundred Quakers alone, many of commuted to such a fine as could be wrung whom had been in confinement for years, from their terrified relatives. These fines were thus restored to their families and
were given to court favorites, or court authorfriends. There is no doubt that this result ities; the queen herself took in hand several was due as much to the personal solicitations of the culprits whose wealthy connections of Penn, as to the work we have mentioned ; were ascertained, and made a fine harvest of though the latter no doubt contributed to it their fears. The story of the Maids of Taunnot a little, by setting the subject in a proper ton is matter of history ; banners were emlight before the community at large. broidered, processions formed, and the un
William Penn being about to visit the con- lucky prince was welcomed with every mark tinental churches in order to diffuse the prin- of sympathy. Of course, the wrath of the ciples of his society, he received from the monarch was excited against all parties conking a commission to confer with the Prince cerned : some were burned, some died in of Orange at the Hague, “and endeavor to prison, but gain his consent to a general religious toleration in England, together with the removal of
“ Most of the young ladies who had walked in all tests." He had several interviews with the procession were still alive. Some of them the prince, but was opposed by Burnet,
were under ten years of age. All had acted un
der the orders of their schoolmistress, without whom he met there, and who, though favor, knowing that they were committing a crime. able to toleration, was opposed to the removal The Queen's maids of honor asked the royal perof tests. Penn would not relax in his views; mission to wring money out of the parents of the and the consequence was a coolness between poor children; and the permission was granted. him and Burnet, who afterwards spoke of An order was sent down to Taunton that all these him sneeringly in his “ History of His Own little girls should be seized and imprisoned. Sir Times.'
Francis Warre, of Hestercombe, the Tory memIt is now time to revert to Mr. Macaulay's the office of exacting the ransom.
ber for Bridgewater, was requested to undertake
He was charges, it being about this period that the charged to declare in strong language that the circumstances occurred to which the first and | maids of honor would not endure delay, that they were determined to prosecute to outlawry, unless name, and the fact of employment on a somea reasonable sum were forthcoming, and that by what similar service, and on the other side, a reasonable sum was meant seven thousand the unbending scrupulosity of the Quaker, pounds. Warre excused himself from taking any part in a transaction so scandalous. The maids would have pointed out George Penne, as of honor then requested William Penn to act for the likelier man of the two for such a serthem, and Penn accepted the commission.”
vice. Macaulay, vol. i.
2. By whom is the appeal to Mr. Penne “ The Maids of Honor requested William
made? Penn to act for them, and Penn accepted the Our readers will see, on perusing Sundercommission.” Mr. Macaulay might reason
land's letter attentively, that it admits of two ably expect that some of Penn's fellow-pro- constructions ; first, that Mr. Penne was fessors would demur to such an assertion as employed at the “ request” of the Maids this, and he has therefore cited all the proof of Honor, or secondly, at the “ request” of within his reach, and that is confined to a the Maids of Taunton ; in the latter case, solitary letter from the Earl of Sunderland, the Mr. Penne would be appealed to as a then Home Secretary, which is still preserved mediator, and the somewhat similar case in the State Paper Office, and of which the of Mr. Pinney again points to Mr. George following is a verbatim copy.
Penne. “Whitehall, Febry. 13th, 1685-6.
3. By whom was the iniquitous negotiation "MR. PENNE.—Her Majestie's Maids of Hon-actually conducted ? our having acquainted me, that they designe to History is very clear on this point ; Oldemploy you and Mr. Walden in making a composition with the Relations of the Maids of Taun witness, gives the following graphic account
mixon, a contemporary historian and an eyeton for the high Misdemeanor they have been of the affair : “ The Court was so unmerciguilty of, I do at their request hereby let you know that her Majesty has been pleased to give ful
, that they excepted the poor girls of their Fines to the said Maids of Honour, and Taunton, who gave Monmouth colors, out of therefore recommend it to Mr. Walden and you their pretended pardon, and every one of to make the most advantageous composition you them was forced to pay as much money as can in their behalfe.
would have been a good portion to each, for humble Servant,
particular pardons. This money, and a great
“ SUNDERLAND P." - Macaulay, vol i. p. 655.
deal more, was said to be for the maids of
honor, whose agent, Brell, the Popish lawyer, Now admitting the authenticity of Sun- had an under agent, one Crane, of Bridgederland's letter, and taking it for granted water, and 'tis supposed that both of them that Mr. Macaulay has quoted it VERBATIM, paid themselves very bountifully out of the there are three points worthy of especial money which was raised by this means, some notice:
instances of which are within my knowledge.” 1. To whom was the said lelter addressed? -Oldmixon, vol. i. p. 708.
At the period in question, there were two Mr. Macaulay quotes Oldmixon whenever gentlemen at court to whom such a docu- it serves his purpose ; he even quotes him on ment might have been addressed ; first, Wil. this very matter of the Monmouth rebellion ; liam, the son of Admiral Penn, a gentleman and yet this passage, which removes all doubts of high standing, great influence, and consi- as to the actual negotiator, is carefully kept derable wealth, whose probity and honor, up back, and we are gravely told that William to the publication of this history, have never Penn “accepted the commission."
Out been doubted; and of whose name, Mr. Ma- upon such perversion of history! caulay truly says England is proud ; and se- The next charge we shall notice is posicondly, Mr. George Penne, mentioned in tively and clearly disproved by the authoPepy's Diary, and who is known to have been rity to which Mr. Macaulay himself refers: instrumental at this very period in effecting this is, perhaps, more gross than the other. the release from slavery of a Mr. Azariah Kiffin, a Baptist, and a man of good standPinney, a gentleman of Bettiscombe, near ing in the city of London, was pressed by Crewkerne, in Somersetshire, whose sen- the king to accept the alderman's gown, and tence of death had been commuted to trans- this, doubtless, with a view of gratifying portation. To the historian solicitous only the body of dissenters; but Kiffin, two of for the discovery of truth, the spelling of the whose grandsons had previously fallen vic
6 I am,
tims to the “ bloody assizes,” wished to man whose aim was to mollify the exaspedecline the honor. Macaulay charges Penn rated monarch on the one side, and to inwith being employed by the king to per- duce the University to make some concessuade Kiffin into compliance, and he cites sions on the other. The circumstances conKiffin's “ Memoirs as evidence of the fact; nected with this affair, appear to be the fol. the passages are very brief, and we give | lowing :- In the April of 1687, we are told them both together
that “the king, influenced in part by his
representations, issued a declaration of liberty MACAULAY.
of conscience for England, and for suspend“Penn was employed in the work of seduction, ing the execution of all penal laws in matbut to no purpose," —Macaulay, ii. 230.
ters ecclesiastical.” By this declaration Protestant dissenters enjoyed their meetings
peaceably; the Quakers especially, who had “I used all the means I could to be excused, the most severely suffered from the penal both by some lords near the king, and also by Sir laws, were truly grateful for the relief thus Nicholas Butler and Mr. Penn."-- Kijin's Me. afforded them. They accordingly prepared moirs, p. 81.
an address to the king, expressive of their
gratitude for this seasonable relief; and This brief sentence is all that is pre- William Penn and others were, by the yearserved, and no writer but Kiffin (prior to Mr. ly meeting, appointed to present the address, Macaulay) makes any allusion to the sub- which was well received, and graciously ject. Here the exact converse of the truth responded to. The summer then coming on, is set forth as truth : Mr. Macaulay makes William Penn traveled into several of the the king employ Penn to seduce Kiffin ; Kif- English counties, and held many large meetfin states that he employed Penn to plead ings. While at Chester, the king also with the king. Then what does the phrase, arrived there, and went to the Quakers' “to no purpose," mean? The obvious mean- meeting-house to hear Penn preach; a ing would be, that Kiffin refused the honor mark of respect he showed him at two or in toto : but this was not so; for, although three other places, where they fell in with evidently reluctant, Kiffin accepted and wore each other in the course of their respective
, the alderman's gown.
tours. At Oxford they came in together ; Another, and much more labored accusa- and here, Mr. Clarkson observes, tion, is partly based on a letter, said, by some “William Penn had
“William Penn had an opportunity of of William Penn's enemies, to have been showing not only his courage but his written by him. This letter is still preserved consistency in those principles of religious in the archives of Magdalen College, Oxford ; | liberty which he had defended during his and Mr. Forster, with a perseverance worthy whole life.” The election of Dr. Hough the cause he is defending, has found that it to the presidency of Magdalen College, is strictly anonymous, and that it bears the Oxford, having been illegally declared null following memorandum on the back, “Mr. and void, the King recommended Parker, Penn disowned this.” This letter abounds Bishop of Oxford, to the presidentship: with those terms which the Friends have al- Parker having been an Independent, and ways held as merely complimentary, and being at this time suspected of Popish printherefore objectionable; such as, “Sir,” ciples, the fellows would not agree to the re
Majesty,” &c.: and this intrinsic proof of commendation; they even respectfully but its not being written by Penn, is, with a cu- firmly refused to comply with the king's exrious pertinacity in perversion, turned by press commands to elect the Bishop. WilMr. Macaulay to that gentleman's disad- liam Penn, when on horseback the next vantage :—" Titles and phrases, against morning, and about to quit Oxford, having which he had borne his testimony, dropped been made acquainted with what had ococcasionally from his lips and his pen. curred, rode up to the Magdalen College This anonymous letter is the only proof. and conversed with the fellows on the sub
The celebrated struggle between James ject. Before he took his departure he wrote and the University of Oxford is familiar to a letter, which he desired the fellows to premost of our readers: with this, Penn's sent to the king, wherein he expressed bis name is certainly connected, but bistory has disapprobation of his Majesty's conduct. Dr. regarded him as a moderator, or mediator | Sykes and Mr. Creech agree in speaking of between the University and the Crown; a this letter as intimating to the king the hard