11. The passive voice of a verb is formed by using a part of the verb to be and the past participle of the verb. Thus we sayACTIVE. PASSIVE. ACTIVE.

PASSIVE. I beat. I am beaten. I have beaten. I have been beaten.

(i) Some intransitive verbs form their perfect tenses by means of the verb to be and their past participle, as “I am come ;' * He is gone.” But the meaning here is quite different. There is no mark of anything done to the subject of the verb.

(ii) Shakespeare has the phrases : is run; is arrived ; are marched forth; is entered into; is stolen away.

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12. The Mood of a verb is the manner in which the statement made by the verb is presented to the mind. Is a statement made directly? Is a command given ? Is a statement subjoined to another ? All these are different moods or modes. There are four moods : the Indicative; the Imperative; the Subjunctive; and the Infinitive.

(i) Indicative comes from the Lat. indicāre, to point out.

(ii) Imperative comes from the Lat. imperāre, to command. Hence also emperor, empress, etc. (through French).

(iii) Subjunctive comes from Lat. subjungěre, to join on to.

(iv) Infinitive comes from Lat. infinītus, unlimited; because the verb in this mood is not limited by person, number, etc.

13. The Indicative Mood makes a direct assertion, or puts a question in a direct manner. Thus we say : “ John is ill ;” “Is John ill ?

14. The Imperative Mood is the mood of command, request, or entreaty. Thus we say : “Go!” “Give me the book, please ; " Do come back!”

(i) The Imperative Mood is the pure root of the verb without any inflexion.

(ii) It has in reality only one person—the second. 15. The Subjunctive Mood is that form of the verb which is used in a sentence that is subjoined to a principal

sentence,—and which does not express a fact directly, but only the relation of a fact to the mind of the speaker. Most often it expresses both doubt and futurity. Thus we say: (i) “O that he were here !” (ii) “Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty.” (iii) “Whoever he be, he cannot be a good man.”

(i) In the first sentence, the person is not here.
(ii) In the second, the person spoken to has not come to poverty ; but

he may

After may,

(iii) In the third, we do not know who the person really is.

(iv) The Subjunctive Mood is rapidly dying out of use in modern English.

16. The Infinitive Mood is that form of the verb which has no reference to any agent, and is therefore unlimited by person, by number, or by time. It is the verb itself, pure and simple.

(i) The preposition to is not an essential part nor a necessary sign of • the infinitive. The oldest sign of it was the ending in an. can, shall, will, must, bid, dare, do, let, make, hear, see, feel, need, the simple infinitive, without to, is still used.

(ii) The Infinitive is really a noun, and it may be (a) either in the nominative or (6) in the obj. case. Thus we have: (a) “ To err is human ; to forgive, divine ;' and (6) “I wish to go.”

(iii) In O.E. it was declined like any other noun; and the dative case ended in anne. Then to was placed before this dative, to indicate purpose. Thus we find, “The sower went out to sow," when, in 0.E. to sow was to sawenne. This, which is now called the gerundial infinitive, has become very common in English. Thus we have, “I came to see

A house to let." "To hear him (= on hearing him) talk, you would think he was worth millions."

(iv) We must be careful to distinguish between (a) the pure Infinitive and (6) the gerundial Infinitive. Thus we say,

(a) I want to see him. (6) I went to see him. The latter is the
gerundial infinitive—that is, the old dative.
(c) The gerundial infinitive is attached (1) to a noun; and (2) to an

adjective. Thus we have such phrases as-
(1) Bread to eat ; water to drink; a house to sell.

(2) Wonderful to relate ; quick to take offence; eager to go. 17. A Gerund is a noun formed from a verb by the addition of ing. It may be either (i) a subject; or (ii) an object; or


(iii) it may be governed by a preposition. It has two functions : that of a noun, and that of a verb—that is, it is itself a noun, and it has the governing power of a verb.

(i) Reading is pleasant. (ii) I like reading. (iii) He got off by crossing the river. In this last sentence, crossing is a noun in relation to by, and a verb in relation to river.

Gerund comes from the Lat. gero, I carry on ; because it carries on the power or function of the verb.

(ii) The Gerund must be carefully distinguished from three other kinds of words : (a) from the verbal noun, which used to end in ung ; (6) from the present participle; and (c) from the infinitive with to. The following are examples :(a) “Forty and six years was this tem (a) “He was punished for robbing the ple in building." Here building is a orchard." Here robbing is a gerund, beverbal noun.

cause it is a noun and also governs a noun. (b) “Dreaining as he went along, he (b) He was tired of dreaming such fell into the brook." Here dreaming is dreams." Here dreaming is a gerund, an adjective agreeing with he, and is there. because it is a noun and governs a noun. fore a participle.

(c) “He comes here to write his letters." (c) "To write is quite easy, when one Here to write is the gerundial infinitive ; has a good pen." Here to write is a pres it is in the dative case; and the O.E. ent infinitive, and is the nominative to is. form was to writanne. Here the to has (It must not be forgotten that the oldest a distinct meaning. This is the so

infinitive had no to, and that it still exists called “infinitive of purpose;" but it is • in this pure form in such lines as “Better a true gerund. In the seventeenth cen

dwell in the midst of alarms, than reigntury, when the sense of the to was weakin this horrible place.”

ened, it took a for,-“What went ye out for to see ?"

(iii) The following three words in ing have each a special function :

(a) He is reading about the passing of Arthur (verbal noun).
(6) And Arthur, passing thence (participle), rode to the wood.
(c) This is only good for passing the time (gerund).

18. A Participle is a verbal adjective. There are two participles : the Present Active and the Perfect Passive. The former (i) has two functions: that of an adjective and that of a verb. The latter (ii) has only the function of an adjective.

(i) “Hearing the noise, the porter ran to the gate.” In this sentence, hearing is an adjective qualifying porter, and a verb governing noise.

(ii) Defeated and discouraged, the enemy surrendered. AT 1. We must be very careful to distinguish between (a) the gerund in ing, and (6) the participle in ing. Thus running in a “running stream”

is an adjective, and therefore a participle. In the phrase, “in running along," it is a noun, and therefore a gerund. Milton says,

“ And ever, against eating cares,

Lap me in soft Lydian airs !” Here eating is an adjective, and means fretting; and it is therefore a participle. But if it had meant cares about eating, eating would have been a noun, and therefore a gerund. So a fishing-rod is not a rod that fishes; a frying-pan is not a pan that fries; a walking-stick is not a stick that walks. The rod is a rod for fishing; the pan, a pan for frying; the stick, a stick for walking ; and therefore fishing, frying, and walking are all gerunds.

2. The word participle comes from Lat. participăre, to partake of. The participle partakes of the nature of the verb. (Hence also par. ticipate.)


19. Tense is the form which the verb takes to indicate time. There

are, in human life, three times : past, present, and future. Hence there are in a verb three chief tenses : Past, Present, and Future. These may be represented on a straight line :



Future. I wrote.

I write.

I shall write. (i) The word tense comes to us from the French temps, which is from the Lat. tempus, time. Hence also temporal, temporary, etc. (The modern French word is temps; the old French word was tens.)

20. The tenses of an English verb give not only the time of an action or event, but also the state or condition of that action or event. This state may be complete or incomplete, or neither that is, it is left indefinite. These states are oftener called perfect, imperfect, and indefinite. The condition, then, of an action as expressed by a verb, or the condition of the tense of a verb, may be of three kinds. It may be

(i) Complete or Perfect, as Written. (ii) Incomplete or Imperfect, as Writing. (iii) Indefinite, as


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(i) The only tense in our language that is formed by inflexion is the past indefinite. All the others are formed by the aid of auxiliaries. (a) The imperfect tenses are formed by be + the imperfect

participle. (6) The perfect tenses are formed by have + the perfect par

ticiple. (ii) Besides had written, have written, and will have written, we can say had been writing, have been writing, and will have been writing. These are sometimes called Past Perfect (or Pluperfect) Continuous, Perfect Continuous, and Future Perfect Continuous.

(iii) “I do write,” “I did write,” are called Emphatic forms.


21. Verbs are modified for Number. There are in verbs two numbers : (i) the Singular and (ii) the Plural.

(i) We say, "He writes” (with the ending s).
(ii) We say, “ They write" (with no inflectional ending at all).


22. Verbs are modified for Person—that is, the form of the verb is changed to suit (i) the first person, (ii) the second person, or (iii) the third person.

(i) I write.” (ii) “Thou writest.” (iii) “ He writės.”


23. Conjugation is the name given to the sum-total of all the inflexions and combinations of the parts of a verb.

The word conjugate comes from the Lat. conjugare, to bind together.

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