counsels in the administration of the sion bound must import, that its world, whether in extraordinary dis. career, of whatever kind, was checked pensations of mercy or of judgment; and restrained by some providential and to cite instances of this must be or extraordinary means, and that altogether needless : but the term of Divine appointment; for as the appears to be used in a lower sense angels are said to be bound, so they in some passages of the Apocalypse are said to be prepared for a certain of St. John; or it may perhaps be period to slay the third part of men: more properly sai that it is used but what we are to understand by symbolically to denote human agents their being bound in or upon the or instruments employed by God to great river Euphrates, is not so plain. carry his purposes into effect, and Understanding the Euphrates literally that, whether the agents themselves to mean that river, the expression may be good or bad. Thus the bishops be referred to the seat or position of of the seven Asiatic churches sym- the power said to be thus bound, or bolized by seven stars, are called the to that of the power by which under angels of those churches ; thus, at Divine Providence it was bound; and least, the expression appears to be the latter sense being perhaps as generally expounded. Similarly admissible as the former, we are under the fifth trumpet, the king not therefore obliged to consider the of the locusts, symbolized also by a dominions of the four angels as nestar fallen from heayen to the earth, cessarily seated upon the very banks, to whom was given the key of the or in the immediate neighbourhood bottomless pit, is called the angel of of the Euphrates. But moreover the bottomless pit; and the false the great river Euphrates may be prophet of Arabia, Mohammed, is also without impropriety understood universally considered as hereby in- with a certain latitude, as denoting tended, and that with a particular simply, and in a general sense, the reference to the false doctrine which Eastern boundary of the Roman he promulgated, and which is so empire. It had long been, as it appropriately symbolized by a smoke were, the sacred boundary between issuing out of the pit, and darkening that empire and Persia, from the the air. Now from the analogy of Parthian dynasty to that of the Sathese cases, it is reasonable to con- racens, and had never been violated clude, that by the four angels in the with impunity. It may, therefore, present vision, some power or other be understood as emphatically deis intended not merely of a temporal noting the eastern limits of the or political character, but as Greek empire ; and the loosing of agent or instrument of some great the angels from the fetters by which religious or spiritual revolution, re- they had been bound, may signify sembling that effected by the sword not so much their being allowed to of Mohammed. The enumeration of break through the barrier of the four angels sufficiently intimates, Euphrates for the first time, as their that the predicted power should be being permitted to prosecute an ineither subdivided under four heads vasion already commenced, but which or principalities, or consist of four had been for a length of time conindependent, but confederate dynas. trouled and restrained. They are ties of the same character, and the said to be prepared for an hour, union of operation ascribed to it; and a day, and a month, and a year;” and the singleness (as it were) of that is, for a period of three hundred character in the description given of and ninety-one years and fifteen it, favours the former supposition. days, the prophetic year containing What we are next to understand by three hundred and sixty prophetic this power being bound in or upon days or natural years, the month the great river Euphrates, is thus far thirty, and an hour the twentysufficiently evident, that the expres- fourth part of a prophetic day or


natural year; that is, fifteen natural plates, and especially by the use of days. They are appointed to “slay fire arms; and moreover by their the third part of men,” that is, either carrying in their train the poison of literally to extirpate the Eastern a false religion, and intolerant perRoman empire, or to overturn the secution of Christianity; and finally Greek church; for this interpretation by their maintaining their tyranny appears to be most consistent with over the Greek empire for a period that given of the fourth trumpet, in of three hundred and ninety-one which the darkening of a third part years and fifteen days. Now it is of the sun, moon, and stars was ap- hardly possible for any one at all plied to the downfal of the Western acquainted with history, not here empire. The Roman empire, or to recognize the conquests of the Christendom, being the subject of Turkish or Ottoman arms, and the the Apocalypse, if we consider the forcible diffusion of the Koran: and western division of it as the third this application of the vision seems part of men, we may by analogy to be universally adopted, the projustly consider the eastern also as phetic period being dated from the another third part. The agent em

latter end of the thirteenth century. ployed to execute this woe, was an Assuming it, therefore, to be the “army of horsemen,” characterized just interpretation, I shall proceed first by their immense numbers, to illustrate and confirm it by the "two myriads of myriads;" secondly, most prominent testimonies to be by the colours of their breastplates, found in the pages of the “ Decline indicated by “ fire, jacinth, and and Fall of the Roman Empire," and, brimstone;" thirdly, by the appear. if I extract largely, the historical ance of the heads of the horses re- light thrown upon the subject will sembling the “ heads of lions," in- be found proportionably full and timating their strength and courage; satisfactory. To form, indeed, any and, fourthly, by the issuing of“ fire, adequate judgment of the fulfilment smoke, and brimstone out of their of the prophecy, it is necessary to mouths,” which seems to be univer- trace the history of the Turks consally referred to the discovery of siderably further back than the thirgunpowder, and the use of fire-arms, teenth century. Gibbon is here imas by these three the “ third part of mediately to our purpose. Speaking men were said to be killed;" fifthly, of the immediate cause of the cruby “ their tails being like unto ser- sades, he observes, that his “ reader pents, and having heads, with which must transport himself beyond the they do hurt." The last symbolbeing Caspian Sea, to the original seat of strictly analogous to that used in the the Turks or Turkmans, against case of the Saracenic locusts, which whom, towards the close of the elewere said to “have tails like unto scor- venth century, the first crusade was pions, and to have stings in their principally directed. Their Scythian tails,” must be consistently inter- empire of the sixth century was preted of the propagation, either of long since dissolved; but the name the same or of some other false re- was still famous among the Greeks ligion. By this exposition of the and Orientals; and the fragments symbols we are led to look in the of the nation, each a powerful and page of history and current of events independent people, were scattered for some quadruple, or quadripartite over the desert from China, to the power, seated upon the eastern fron- Oxus and the Danube....A swarm of tier of the Roman empire, and, after these northern shepherds overspread a period of restraint, at length over. the kingdom of Persia: their princes, whelming it, characterized by cer- of the race of Seljuk, erected a tain distinctive marks namely, splendid and solid empire from Sathe numbers and prowess of its marcand to the confines of Greece cavalry, the colour of their breast- and Egypt; and the Turks have

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maintained their dominion in Asia wisest omrahs. “ Your enemies,"
Minor, till the victorious crescent they repeatedly urged, were in
has been planted on the dome of St. their origin a swarm of ants : they
Sophia.... The first emigration of the are now little snakes; and, unless
Eastern Turkmans, the most ancient they be instantly crushed, they will
of their race, may be ascribed to the acquire the venom and magnitude
tenth century of the Christian æra. of serpents.” But the time was gone
In the decline of the caliphs, and by; Massoud collected his forces too
the weakness of their lieutenants, late : he was attacked on all sides
the barrier of the Jaxartes was often with barbarous shouts and irregular
violated : in each invasion, after the onset, and utterly defeated;
victory or retreat of their country- the memorable day of Zendecan,
men, some wandering tribe, em- founded in Persia the dynasty of the
bracing the Mohammedan faith, ob- shepherd kings,” a.d. 1038.“ The
tained a free enca

campment in the victorious Turkmans immediately plains of Transoviana and Carizme.” proceeded to the election of a king, (Gib.chap.lvii.) We may form some and the lot fell upon Togrul Beg, idea of the number of their horsemen the grandson of Seljuk, whose surfrom the memorable answer given to name was immortalized in the greatMahmud by Ismael, a chief of the ness of his posterity.... Togrul exrace of Seljuk, who, being asked pelled the Gaznevides from the eastwhat supply of men he could furnish ern kingdoms of Persia : in the west, for military service, replied, “ If he annihilated the dynasty of the you send one of these arrows into Bowides; and the sceptre of Irak our camp, fifty thousand of your passed from the Persian to the Turkservants will mount on horseback.” ish nation....By the conquest of “ And if that number," continued Media he approached the Roman Mahmud, should not be suffi- confines; and the shepherd precient ?”

“ Send this second arrow sumed to dispatch an ambassador, to the horde of Balik, and you will or herald, to demand the tribute and find fifty thousand more.” “ But,” obedience of the emperor of Consaid the Gaznevide, dissembling his stantinople. Under his internal adanxiety, “ if I should stand in need ministration, the more rustic portion of the whole force of your kindred of the Turkmans continued to dwell tribes ?" Dispatch my bow,” in the tents of their ancestors, and was the last reply of Ismael," and from the Oxus to the Euphrates, as it is circulated around, the sum- these military colonies were promons will be obeyed by two hundred tected and propagated by their nathousand horse.” The apprehension tive princes....But while they thus of such formidable friendship induced preserved their native character and Mahmud to transport the most habits, they changed their faith, obnoxious tribes into the heart of Togrul himself became a zealous Chorasin, where they would be se- Musselman, and the whole body of parated from their brethren by the the Turkish nation embraced with river Oxus, and enclosed on all fervour and sincerity the religion sides by the walls of obedient cities. of Mohammed.... Since the fall of ......But these Scythian shepherds the caliphs, the discord and degewere converted into robbers; the neracy of the Saracens respected the bands of robbers were collected into Asiatic provinces of Rome; but it an army of conquerors; and the was now assailed by an unknown Turkmans were not ashamed or race of barbarians, who united the afraid to measure their courage and Scythian valour with the fanaticism numbers with the proudest sove- of new proselytes. The myriads of reigns of Asia. Massoud, the son Turkish horse overspread a frontier and successor of Mahmud, had too of six hundred miles from Taurus to long neglected the advice of his Arzcioum, and the blood of one hun

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dred and thirty thousand Christians of the Seljukian dynasty of Roum was a grateful sacrifice to the Arabian was planted one hundred miles from prophet. This tide indeed rolled Constantinople.... The Turkish manback, and Togrul made no lasting ners and language prevailed in the impression on the Roman empire; cities; and Turkman camps were but after his death (A.D. 1063), the scattered over the plains and mounfinal conquest of Armenia and Georgia tains of Anatolia.” (Gib. chap. lvii.) was achieved by his successor, Alp By this conquest, the sacred barrier Arslan, or “ the valiant lion ;” and of the Euphrates was broken, and the Asiatic provinces were exposed to one might be disposed to consider the depredations of his emirs. The the Euphratean horsemen of the valour and energy of Romanus, for sixth trumpet, as let loose at this a time repulsed these inroads, and time; but there are some insupeeven threatened the hereditary do- rable objections to this interpreminions of Alp Arslan; but by one tation : First, the prophetic descripdisastrous battle, the Asiatic pro- tion of the horsemen contains an vinces of Rome were irretrievably unequivocal allusion to the use of sacrificed (A.D. 1071). Upon the fire arms, which the Turks appear assassination of Alp Arslan, on his not yet to have been acquainted invasion of Turkestan (A.D. 1072), with; the Seljukian, like the Parhis son, Malek Shah, not only pro- thian arrows of old, are alone spoken secuted and achieved that conquest, of as the dread of their enemies, and but directed his arms to the west the instrument of their victories :against the Roman empire. For Secondly, the four sultanies, genethis purpose, his kinsman, the valiant rally understood as symbolized by Soliman, was entrusted with the the four angels, said to be bound in royal standard, which gave him the the great river Euphrates, were not free conquest and hereditary com- established as independent sovemand of the provinces of the Roman reignties, until after the death of empire, from Arzeroum to Constan- Malek Shah. “The greatness and tinople, and the unknown regions unity of the Turkish empire,” the of the west. In execution of this historian observes,“ expired in the commission, this prince of the house person of Malek Shah. His vacant of Seljuk passed the Euphrates (A.D. throne was disputed by his brother 1074), the Turkish camp was soon and his four sons; and after a series seated in the neighbourhood of of civil wars, the treaty which reHutaich, in Phrygia ; and his flying conciled the surviving candidates cavalry laid waste the country as far confirmed a lasting separation in the as the Hellespont and the Black Persian dynasty, the eldest and prinSea. Since the first conquests of cipal branch of the house of Seljuk. the Caliphs, the establishment of the The three younger dynasties were Turks in Anatolia, or Asia Minor, those of Kerman, of Syria, and of was the most deplorable loss which Roum; the first of these commanded the church and empire had sus- an extensive, though obscure, dotained....By the propagation of the minion on the shores of the Indian Moslem faith, Soliman deserved the Ocean; the second expelled the name of Gazi, a holy champion; and Arabian princes of Aleppo and Da. his new kingdom of the Romans, or mascus ; and the third, our peculiar of Roum, was added to the tables of case, invaded the Roman provinces oriental geography. It is described of Asia Minor:”—Thirdly, the voice as extending from the Euphrates to which proceeded from the four horns Constantinople, from the Black Sea of the golden altar, while it charges to the confines of Syria....By the the angel which had the trumpet to choice of the Sultan, Nice, the me- loose the four angels, represents tropolis of Bithynia, was preferred them also as being bound, which for his palace and fortress: the seat implies a restraint being antecedently

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put upon their career of conquest. hordes, under Zingis Khan in the Now no such restraint had yet been thirteenth century. This tremendous put upon the Turkish arms, and we conqueror, the scourge of the civilhave yet to look for the events which ized world, after the conquest of bound them upon the great river Eu- China, turned his arms against Mophrates. These appear to have been, hammed, sultan of Carizme, a.d. first, the civil wars and destruction 1218; and from the Caspian to the between Persia and its dependencies, Indus, such was the ferocious chathat is, between the four angels them- racter of this irruption, that a tract of selves; secondly, by the crusades, many hundred miles was so effectuby which the conquests of the Turks ally ruined, that five centuries have were not only checked at the close not been sufficient to repair the raof the eleventh century, but Nice, vages of four years." (Gib.chap.lxiv.) Antioch, and all the intermediate His grandson, Holagou, again incoast of Asia Minor were wrested vaded and achieved the conquest of from the Turks. The Greeks re- Irak or Persia ; After a siege of covered the entire circuit from Tre- two months, Bagdad was stormed bizond to the Syrian gate. The and sacked by the Moguls; and Seljukian dynasty of Roum, was their savage commander pronounced separated on all sides from the sea the death of the Caliph Mostasem, and their Musselman brethren ; the the last of the temporal successors power of the sultans was shaken by of Mohammed, whose noble kinsmen the victories, and even the defeats of the race of Abbas, had reigned in of the Franks ; and after the loss of Asia above five hundred years.... Nice, they removed their throne to They also spread beyond the Tigris Cogni or Iconium, an obscure and and Euphrates, pillaged Aleppo and inland town above three hundred Damascus, and threatened to join miles from Constantinople. Instead the Franks in the deliverance of of trembling for their capital, the Jerusalem.... Their arms overspread Comnenian princes waged an offen- with irresitible violence the kingsive war against the Turks, and the doms of Armenia and Anatolia, of first crusade prevented the fall of which the former was possessed by the declining empire.” (Gib, chap. the Christians, and the latter by the lix.) The Christian arms pressed Turks. The sultans of Iconium

opstill closer upon the original seat posed some resistance to the Mogul of the Turkish power.

“ Baldwin arms, till Azzadin sought a refuge extended his conquest over the hills among the Greeks of Constantinople, of Armenia and the plains of Meso- and his feeble successors, the last potamia, and founded at Edessa the of the Seljukian dynasty were finally first principality of the Franks or extirpated by the khans of Persia.' Latins, beyond the Euphrates, which (Gib. chap. Ixiv.) subsisted fifty-four years." (Gib.

(To be concluded.) chap. lviii.) " Jerusalem also, recently recovered by the Caliph of Egypt from the Turkish yoke, during

A VISIT TO A CATHEDRAL. the contest of the sons of Malek, was taken by the crusaders, and

For the Christian Observer. remained in the hands of the Chris. Some of the remarks in the followtians till retaken by Saladin toward ing cursory letters to a clerical the close of the twelfth century; nor friend, after a visit to an ancient were they wholly dispossessed of and venerable city and cathedral, their conquests on the coast of may possibly interest the readers of Palestine, till A.D. 1291. A third the Christian Observer : they are event by which the Turkish power therefore respectfully submitted to was restrained and paralized, was their indulgent perusal, by their the invasion of Persia by the Tartar obedient servant,


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