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Anno DOMINI

31.

Anno DOMINI

31.

Christ teacheth in the synagogues,

S. MATTHEW,

and healeth the diseased.
ship and their father, and followed and from Decapolis, and from Jeru-
him.

salem, and from Judea, and from be-
23 | And Jesus went about all yond Jordan.
Galilee, teaching in their synagogues,
and preaching the gospel of the king-

CHAP. V.
dom, and healing all manner of sick-
ness and all manner of disease among 1 Christ beginneth his sermon in the mount :
the people.

3 declaring who are blessed, 13 who are the
24 And his fame went throughout

salt of the earth, 14 the light of the world,

the city on an hill, 15 the candle : 17 that all Syria : and they brought unto he came to fulfil the law. 21 what it is to him all sick people that were taken kill, 27 to commit adultery, 33 to swear : with divers diseases and torments,

38 exhorteth to suffer wrong, 44 to love even
and those which were possessed with

our enemies, 48 and to labour after perfect.
devils, and those which were lunatick,
and those that had the palsy; and he ND seeing the multitudes, he
healed them.

into a mountain : and
25 And there followed him great when he was set, his disciples came
multitudes of people from Galilee, unto him :

ness.

A

went up

Christians must obey Him, by leaving those companies affected the swine, into whom the devils entered to their and engagements, and ways of living, which ensnare destruction. Bp. Pearce. their souls and entangle their affections in the toils of The notion that the demoniacks, mentioned in the sin. All, when their duty to God requires it, must New Testament, were merely persons afflicted with forsake their friends and relations, rather than reject strange diseases, may be clearly confuted by several conthe salvation of Christ. Bp. Horne.

siderations. First, The Scriptures themselves make a 23. teaching in their synagogues,] It was the ordi- constant and plain distinction between the curing of nary custom for the scribes to teach in the synagogues. diseases, and the casting out of devils, Matt. x. 1; Luke It appears however, that the Jews, though they did not liv. 40, 41. Secondly, Circumstances are related which allow this liberty to illiterate persons or mechanicks, shew the persons to have been really possessed with yet granted it to Prophets and such as set up for heads devils; “ Christ suffered not the devils to speak, because or leaders of new sects, in order that they might inform they knew Him” (Mark i. 34) “ to be Christ,” Luke iv. themselves of their doctrines, and not condemn them 41. The devils expostulate with Christ, are sent into unheard and unknown. Under these characters, pro- the herd of swine, acknowledge their name to be Lebably, Christ and His Apostles were admitted to this gion, Mark v. 1-14; Luke viii. 27—33. Thirdly, Our privilege. Dr. Lightfoot.

Lord puts questions to the devils, enjoins them to be synagogues,] The Greek word for synagogue, as silent, to come out of a man, &c. Mark i. 25; ix. 25; well as the Hebrew, signifies in general any assembly, Luke iv. 41. Fourthly, Many symptoms shew the whether sacred or profane; but it was commonly used reality of the possession; as the great strength of the to denote a place of assembly for religious worship. persons possessed, the fear expressed by the devils of Authors are not agreed respecting the time when the being destroyed, being cast into the abyss, &c. It caninstitution of synagogues among the Jews began; but it not be objected that demoniacks were not known before is probable that they did not exist before the Babylonish the coming of Christ ; for Josephus and other writers captivity, as there is not only no mention of them in attest the contrary. Annotations on the Gospels. the Old Testament, but passages occur in some parts It is obvious and easy to find a reason why, in the of it, which seem to disprove their existence. The Jews days of Christ and His Apostles, evil spirits had more erected synagogues not only in towns and villages, but influence and power over the bodies of men, than before also in the country where there was a sufficient congre- or since. When God sent His Son into the world, it gation, especially near rivers, for the purposes of purifi- was to destroy the empire of sin and Satan. Evil spirits cation. Service was daily performed in them, consisting therefore were permitted to range at large, that the of prayers, reading the Scriptures, and preaching or ex- glory of the Son of God might be made manifest, in pounding them. A council, or assembly of grave and expelling them, in rebuking them, in putting them to wise persons well versed in the law, was appointed to open shame, and compelling them to proclaim the digsuperintend and regulate all matters belonging to the nity of Christ, and to be a sort of unwilling preachers synagogue and its service. Dean Prideaux, Beausobre. and witnesses of the Gospel. Thus men beheld at the

24. those which were possessed with devils,] There same time the vile nature and the terrible force of those has been great variety of opinion respecting the de- apostate spirits, and the superiour power and the great moniacal possessions, frequently mentioned in the New goodness of the Saviour of the world, who delivered Testament. Some have thought that persons “posmiserable men from such dreadful enemies. Dr. Jortin. sessed with devils” were merely madmen, and justify 25.— and from Decapolis,] Decapolis was a part of their opinion by what is said at John X. 20, “ He hath a Syria, lying on the east of the lake of Gennesareth ; so devil, and is mad;” but, in this present text, a decisive called because it contained ten cities. Abp. Newcome. proof seems to be afforded that the phrase “possessed with devils,” signifies something distinct from common Chap. V. ver. 1.- into a mountain:] A few points tomadness, because here the possessed with devils are wards the north of mount Tabor stands that which they expressly mentioned as distinct from “lunaticks.” And call the mount of Beatitudes; a small rising, from which it is most clearly proved at chap. viii. 32, that the per- our Saviour is said to have delivered His sermon “on sons there mentioned were really possessed with devils, the mount.” Maundrell. It is not far from Capernaum, because the cure of mere madmen could not have northward of the sea of Galilee. Probably it is the same

Anno

Christ's sermon
CHAP. V.

in the mount. 2 And he opened his mouth, and 4 Blessed are they that mourn: DOMINI taught them, saying,

for they shall be comforted. 3 a Blessed are the poor in spirit: 5 Blessed are the meek: for they a Luke 6. 20. for their’s is the kingdom of heaven. shall inherit the earth.

Anno DOMINI

31.

31.

b Ps. 37. 11.

to which our Lord retired, and where He spent the appears to have been so practicable, or likely to be night in prayer before the election and ordination of the efficacious, as leaving, wherever He came, concise lestwelve Apostles. Dr. Wells.

sons of duty. These circumstances, at least, shew the when he was set,] It was the manner of the necessity He was under of comprising what He deJewish doctors to sit down when they taught, Luke iv. livered within a small compass. In particular, His 16–20. Dr. Whitby.

sermon on the mount should always be considered with 2. and taught them, saying,] Our blessed Lord, a view to these observations. The question is not, having by His miracles established His divine authority, whether a fuller, a more accurate, a more systematick, and acquired a powerful influence over the minds of or a more argumentative discourse upon morals might His hearers, now proceeds to explain to them in some not have been pronounced; but whether more could degree the nature of His religion, the duties it enjoins, have been said in the same room, better adapted to the and the dispositions it requires. This He does in the exigencies of the hearers, or better calculated for the ensuing discourse, which is of considerable length, purpose of impression. Considered in this light, this called His sermon on the mount; which contains a discourse is indeed admirable. It has been thought by greater variety of new, important, and excellent moral some that it was made up of what Christ had said at precepts, than is any where to be found in the same com different times, and on different occasions. But there pass. At the same time, it does not pretend to give a is no sufficient reason for this opinion. It is probable regular, complete, and perfect system of ethicks, or to that our Lord delivered this discourse at one time and lay down rules for the regulation of our conduct in place, in the manner related by St. Matthew; and that every possible instance that can arise. This would have | He repeated the same rules and maxims at different been an endless task, and would have multiplied pre- times, as opportunity or occasion suggested; that they cepts to a degree that would in great measure have were often in His mouth, and were delivered to different defeated their utility and destroyed their effect. Our hearers and in various conversations. Archdeacon Paley. Lord took the wiser and more impressive method of 3. Blessed are the poor in spirit : &c.] That is, the tracing out to us the great outlines only of our duty, of humble and lowly minded—" for their's is the kingdom giving us general principles and comprehensive rules, of heaven”—for they are fitted to enter into that kingwhich we may ourselves apply to particular cases, and dom here, and to enjoy it hereafter. Dr. Whitby. Our the various situations in which we may be placed. Bp. Lord, in the very outset of His publick instructions, Porteus.

marks at once, in the strongest and most decided The manner of our Saviour's teaching was extremely terms, the peculiar temper, spirit, and character of His peculiar ; yet precisely adapted to the peculiarity of His religion, and shews His disciples how completely oppocharacter and situation. His lessons did not consist of site they were to all those splendid and popular quadisquisitions, of any thing like moral essays, or set lities, which were the great objects of applause and treatises upon the several points which He mentioned. admiration in the heathen world. Bp. Porteus. When He delivered a precept, it was seldom that He the kingdom of heaven.) The expressions,“ kingadded any proof or argument: still more seldom, that dom of heaven,” and kingdom of God,” in the New He accompanied it with, what all precepts require, limi- Testament refer to the prophecies of Daniel, (Dan. ii, tations and distinctions. His instructions were con- 44; vii. 13, 14,) and denote that everlasting kingdom ceived in short, emphatick, sententious rules, in occa- of the God of heaven, which He would set up and give sional reflections, or in sound maxims. This perhaps was to the Son of man; or in other words, the spiritual and not a very natural or proper method for a philosopher eternal kingdom of Christ, both God and Man, which or moralist, nor a method which can very successfully was to subsist first in more imperfect circumstances on be imitated by us. But it was admirably suited to the earth, and afterwards was to appear complete in the character which our Saviour assumed, and to the situ- world of glory. In some places of Scripture, the kingation in which He, as a teacher, was placed. He pro- dom of heaven" more particularly signifies the former duced Himself as a messenger from God. He put the of these, and denotes the state of it on earth : see Matt. truth of what He taught on authority, (Matt. v. 34, 39, xiii. 41, 47 ; xx. l. And sometimes “the kingdom of 44.) In the choice, therefore, of His mode of teaching, God” signifies only the state of glory, 1 Cor. vi. 9, 10; the purpose by Him to be consulted was impression ; xv. 50 ; Gal. v. 21. But, generally, both the one and because conviction, which forms the principal end of the other expression includes both. Parkhurst.

4. lowers from a different source, from their respect to for their sins with a godly sorrow," for they shall be His person and authority. Now, for the purpose of comforted” with the assurance of the pardon of their impression singly and exclusively, nothing could have sins, and the hope of future happiness. Dr. Whitby. Or, so great force as strong ponderous maxims, frequently as the words are general, a wider sense also may

be urged, and frequently brought back to the thoughts of given to them: Blessed are they who endure afflictions the hearers. It must also be remembered, that our of any kind with a humble submission to Divine proviLord's ministry was, compared with His work, of short dence; but still more blessed, if the sorrows and hardduration ; that within this time He had many places to ships, which they undergo, are for the sake of duty and visit, various audiences to address ; that His person was religion. God will certainly support them under their generally beseiged by crowds of followers ; that He was distress, and hereafter they shall rest for ever in those sometimes driven away from the place where He was mansions where no sorrow enters. Dr. Jortin. teaching by persecution, and that, at other times, He 5. they shall inherit the earth.] Shall inherit the thought fit to withdraw Himself from the commotions greatest blessings upon earth, calmness and composure of the populace. Under these circumstances, nothing of spirit, peace and comfort of mind. Bp. Porteus.

: mourn

Anno DOMINI

31.

31.

с

c Isai. 65. 13.

Ps. 24. 4.

Who are blessed.

S. MATTHEW.

Who are the salt of the earth. 6 Blessed are they which do hun- | shall say all manner of fevil against DOMINI ger and thirst after righteousness: you + falsely, for my sake. for they shall be filled.

12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad:
7 Blessed are the merciful: for for great is your reward in heaven: f 1 Pet.4.14.
they shall obtain mercy.

for so persecuted they the prophets
8 a Blessed are the pure in heart: which were before you.
for they shall see God.

13 | Ye are the salt of the earth :
9 Blessed are the peacemakers : but if the salt have lost his savour, Mark 9. 50.
for they shall be called the children wherewith shall it be salted ? it is
of God.

thenceforth good for nothing, but to
10 e Blessed are they which are be cast out, and to be trodden under
persecuted for righteousness' sake: foot of men.
for their's is the kingdom of heaven. 14 Ye are the light of the world.

11 Blessed are ye, when men shall A city that is set on an hill cannot
revile you, and persecute you, and be hid.

Luke 14,34,

e I Pet. 3. 14.

6. — which do hunger and thirst &c.] Who earnestly here and in other passages, annexes blessedness and desire to become truly virtuous and religious. Dr. S. eternal life to the practice of single virtues, yet we are Clarke. Who, having a true sense of their own defects to understand His promises as founded on a supposition and spiritual wants, and of the excellence of religion, that such persons take care not to be deficient in the desire above all things to be assisted and instructed in rest of their duty. To think otherwise would be to fall the performance of their duty, and to become eminent into a gross mistake ; a mistake, however, into which in piety; and who are as industrious and active in this some Christians have fallen, when, magnifying single wise pursuit, as men oppressed with hunger and thirst Christian virtues, they have thought by the practice of are glad to satisfy those natural appetites. So rational them to compound for the neglect or habitual violation and so earnest a desire shall never be disappointed ; of other duties. Dr. Jortin. they shall become righteous, and enjoy the present and 11. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, &c.] future rewards of righteousness. Dr. Jortin.

See the note on ver. 10 from Bp. Blackall. It is a - for they shall be filled.] Shall be satisfied with complete perversion of our Saviour's meaning here, to the enjoyment of their righteousness here, and the com- suppose, as some fanatical Christians have done, that pletion and reward of it hereafter. Dr. Whitby. there is any merit in the mere fact of being persecuted

7.--they shall obtain mercy.) They may expect to find for the sake of religion, and that therefore, voluntarily to that favour and mercy from God which they shew to court the persecutions and revilings of men, can ever be men, and also to experience mercy, forbearance, and the means of securing the Divine favour. kindness from their fellow creatures. Dr. Jortin.

12. - the prophets] As Joseph, Moses, Samuel, Da8. the pure in heart :) That heart is pure which is vid, Isaiah, Jeremiah, &c. Grotius. sound in the faith, submissive to the will, obedient to 13. Ye are the salt of the earth :] Salt is used to make the law, constant in the service, and zealous for the things savoury, and to preserve from putrefaction. Thus glory of God, which is meek, humble, just, and cha- the meaning of this expression is, Ye are appointed, by ritable towards others; in short, that exercises itself to that pure and holy doctrine which you are to preach, have “ always a conscience void of offence toward God, and by the savour of your good conversation, to purge and toward men.” Bp. Beveridge.

the world from the corruption in which it lies; but, if shall see God,] Shall peculiarly enjoy His favour you yourselves should lose your savour and become and protection here, and hereafter shall have a nearer putrefied members in My body, you would become access to His glorious presence and that fulness of joy wholly useless to these good ends, must be rejected by which shall attend it. Dr. Jortin.

Me, and cast off, as unsavoury salt is cast into the dung9. the peacemakers :] Those who are of a peaceable hill. Dr. Whitby. Salt in the hot climate of Judea was temper themselves, and endeavour to promote peace so necessary a thing, that without it meat could not be among others. Dr. Whitby. For they shall be called” preserved sweet, even for a short time; hence the fre&c.; that is, they shall be owned and received by God quent allusion made to salt and its uses. See Mark ix. as His peculiar children. Dr. S. Clarke. Shall be happy 50; Luke xiv. 34, &c. Bp. Pearce. in being like unto God, who is called the God of

peace,

if the salt have lost his savour,] Our Lord's and happy in that inward peace and serenity of con- supposition of the salt losing its savour is illustrated by science which their heavenly Father will confer upon Mr. Maundrell, who tells us, that, in the valley of Salt, them. Dr. Jortin.

near Gebul, when he broke a piece which had been ex10. Blessed are they which are persecuted &c.] The posed to the sun, rain, and air, though it had the sparkblessedness here promised is not merely to such as are ling of salt, yet it had perfectly lost its savour ; but that persecuted for Christ's or for righteousness sake, but to the inner part, which had not been exposed, still resuch only as bear these sufferings with courage and tained its savour. Burder. patience, and who, notwithstanding the persecutions 14. Ye are the light of the world.] You are placed as they sustain, continue firm and constant in the belief light which gives light to others, and is itself seen by and profession of their Christian faith, and in the exer- all, as a city on an eminence which cannot escape obcise of a spirit of piety and virtue. Bp. Blackall. servation. You are neither to conceal your light, which

- for their's is the kingdom of heaven.) For they, would be contrary to the purposes of God, who gave having given the greatest possible proof of their sin- you that distinction, nor to forget that your conduct, in cerity and constancy, will receive an extraordinary the distinguished situation which you hold, will attract crown and a peculiar reward in heaven. Dr. S. Clarke. the attention of the whole world.

It should be well observed, that although our Saviour, A city that is set on an hill] Not far from the

Anno DOMINI

31.

31.

That ex

11. 33. I The word in the

a reasure
eosidisting
4sse
@pir! less

sness

Christ came not to destroy,

CHAP. V.

but to fulfil, the law. Anno DOMINI

15 Neither do men h light a can- | do and teach them, the same shall be
dle, and put it under || a bushel, but called great in the kingdom of heaven.
on a candlestick; and it giveth light 20 For I

say
unto

you,
h Mark 4. 21.
Luke 8. 16. & unto all that are in the house.

cept your righteousness shall exceed 16 Let your light so shine before the righteousness of the scribes and

men, i that they may see your good Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter original sizdifieth works, and glorify your Father which into the kingdom of heaven. is in heaven.

21 q Ye have heard that it was 17 1 Think not that I am come to said || by them of old time, m Thou ! Or, han a peck. destroy the law, or the prophets : I shalt not kill; and whosoever shall m Exod. 20. i 1 Pet. 2. 12.

am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. kill shall be in danger of the judg- Deut. 5. 17.

18 For verily I say unto you, ment:
k Luke 16.17. * Till heaven and earth pass, one jot 22 But I

say
unto
you,

That who-
or one tittle shall in no wise

pass
from soever is

angry

with his brother withthe law, till all be fulfilled.

out a cause shall be in danger of the 1 James 2. 10. 19 1 Whosoever therefore shall | judgment: and whosoever shall say

break one of these least command to his brother, Raca, shall be in dan-
ments, and shall teach men so, he ger of the council : but whosoever
shall be called the least in the king- shall say, Thou fool, shall be in dan-

dom of heaven: but whosoever shall ger of hell fire. hill, now called the mount of Beatitudes, is the city Ye are to be teachers of a higher and purer morality Saphet. It stands upon a very eminent and conspicuous than the Scribes and Pharisees. The “ righteousne mountain, and is seen far and near. May we not sup- of the Scribes and Pharisees” is described in the verses pose that Christ alludes to this city in the words, “A which follow. city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.” Maundrell. The righteousness of all Christians must exceed the

16. Let your light so shine &c.] Let the truth of that righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, by their grace and faith which you have now received, and with performing internally as well as externally the whole of which you are enlightened, not be obscured by the their duty both to God and man; by obeying every works of darkness, or by the interference of earthly command, to the exclusion and neglect of none; and, affections; but let it be so clear, so manifest, so perspi- above all, by obeying with real integrity and sincerity of cuous and apparent in your lives and conversation unto heart, not to advance their temporal interest or to gain all men, “ that they may see your good works ;” that the applause of men, but to the end that their righteousis, that all may see clearly how far you excel others in ness may be accepted with God, through Jesus Christ the performance of all your duties both to God and our Lord. Bp. Beveridge. men. Bp. Beveridge.

21. Ye have heard, &c.] Our Saviour here proceeds Although Christ's first Apostles and disciples seem to set down some of the many instances in which the principally concerned in some of these precepts, yet are Christian religion has exalted our duty above what the they also intended for all Christians; for it is the duty Jewish doctors held men to be accountable for. They of all Christians “to shine as lights in the world,” condemned gross crimes, but palliated less, and were Philip. i. 15. Dr. Whitby.

content with such an obedience as the letter of the law 17. Think not that I am come &c.] Do not think that directed. He, on the contrary, requires all those qualiI am come to destroy or abrogate the Law and the Pro-fications and dispositions, which secure and promote the phets : no, I am not come to dissolve any one natural true intent of the law : He cuts down wickedness at or moral obligation ; but, on the contrary, to fulfil what the very root, and prevents the act by suppressing the was typified, to explain what was obscure, and to com- first irregular motions, and every tendency to it. Dean plete what was imperfect. Dr. S. Clarke. “I am not Stanhope. come to destroy, but to fulfil;” to carry on the same by them of old time,] Some prefer to translate as design which was intended by the Jewish religion, and the Greek admits, “to them of old time," namely, by to perfect and accomplish it ; to supply all the weakness Moses. Drs. Whitby and Campbell. and defects of that less perfect dispensation. Abp. Til- 22. But I say unto you, &c.] Our Saviour in this lotson.

verse pursues an analogy between the punishments 18. — one jot or one tittle) Alluding probably to the inflicted by the Jewish courts, and the punishments of little strokes or dashes, by which the difference was a future life. Whosoever shews causeless anger, shall made, in Hebrew and Syriack writing, between letters be in danger of "the judgment,” or of a punishment almost alike. Dr. Lightfoot.

corresponding to the capital punishment imposed by the 19. — one of these least commandments,] One of the lesser council of twenty-three members. Whoever calls precepts of the moral law. In the following words, his brother vain or worthless, shall incur a punishment, “shall teach men so,” He seems to reflect on those answering to that of stoning, inflicted by the Sanhedrim, Scribes and Pharisees, who by their traditions exempted or great council of seventy-two. But whosoever violently themselves and others from observing the moral pre- rails at his neighbour, shall be subject to a most grievous cepts. Dr. Whitby,

punishment, compared to that of burning the children - shall be called the least &c.] The object of the alive in the valley of Hinnom. Dr. Hammond, Grotius. disciples was a high place in the kingdom of heaven. Your teachers tell you that the commandment of God The expression, “ shall be called the least," seems to is, Thou shalt not kill. But I, says our Lord, go much refer to this hope.

further; I

say, thou shalt not indulge any resentment 20. — except your righteousness shall &c.] He ad against thy brother; thou shalt not use any reproachful dresses His disciples principally as instructors of others. or contemptuous language towards him; for these are

с

Anno DOMINI

31.

Anno DOMINI

31.

14.

Against anger
S. MATTHEW.

and adultery.
23 Therefore if thou bring thy said by them of old time, • Thou shalt
gift to the altar, and there remem- not commit adultery:
berest that thy brother hath ought 28 But I say unto you, That who-
against thee;

soever looketh on a woman to lust Exod. 20. 24 Leave there thy gift before the after her hath committed adultery altar, and go thy way; first be recon- with her already in his heart. ciled to thy brother, and then come 29 P And if thy right eye || offend p. Chap. 18, 8. and offer thy gift.

thee, pluck it out, and cast it from Or, do 25 ^ Agree with thine adversary thee: for it is profitable for thee that cause thee to quickly, whiles thou art in the way one of thy members should perish, with him ; lest at any time the adver- and not that thy whole body should sary deliver thee to the judge, and be cast into hell. the judge deliver thee to the officer, 30 And if thy right hand offend and thou be cast into prison.

thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: 26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou for it is profitable for thee that one shalt by no means come out thence, of thy members should perish, and till thou hast paid the uttermost far- not that thy whole body should be thing

cast into hell. 27 Ye have heard that it was 31 It hath been said, 9 Whosoever q Deut. 24. 1.

n Luke 12,58.

the things that lead and provoke to the most atrocious for this from God, if we ourselves be not ready to fordeeds. Bp. Porteus.

give one another ? Abp. Tillotson. - without a cause] For a light cause, or immode- 26.- Thou shalt by no means come out &c.] It is to rately for any cause. Dr. Hammond.

be inferred from these expressions, how much more it Raca,] This is a Syriack word, meaning light concerns us to repent in time of our offences towards or vain; it is thought by some to mean the same as what God, and to endeavour to be reconciled to Him, lest we is translated “vain man” at James ii. 20. Bp. Pearce. be cast into the infernal prison. Dr. Whitby.

Thou fool,] A stronger expression than Raca; 28.— whosoever looketh on a woman &c.] But I say, the original importing wicked or reprobate. Dr. Light- Let not thine heart or thine eye commit adultery; for foot. The Hebrew word should rather be left untrans- here it is that sin begins, and here it must be crushed. lated, as was Raca; “ Moreh,” thou rebel, apostate. This is wisdom, this is morality, in its most perfect Bp. Pearce.

form, in its essence, and in its first principles : bad hell fire.] In Greek the expression is, The Ge- thoughts quickly ripen into bad actions; and if the henna of fire. Gehenna is a Hebrew word, signifying latter only are forbidden while the former are left free, “the valley of Hinnom,” and by this name the Jews all morality will soon be at an end. Our Lord therewere wont to express the place of torment for the fore, like a wise physician, goes at once to the bottom wicked; as the valley of Hinnom near Jerusalem was of the evil; he extirpates the first germ and root of the a place infamous for the foul idolatries committed there, disease, and leaves not a single fibre of it remaining to for the cries of infants offered by fire to Moloch, the shoot up again in the heart. Bp. Porteus. A most filth carried out thither from the city, and a fire that was striking proof of the superiority of that morality which always burning; on which account it was deemed a fit is taught in the New Testament, is the great stress representation of hell. Dr. Lightfoot.

which is laid by our Saviour on the regulation of the 23.-thy gift to the altar,] The Scribes and Phari- thoughts : see chap. xv. 19; xxiii. 25, 27. There can sees taught that the gifts and sacrifices brought to the be no doubt with any reflecting mind, that, in order to temple were sufficient to expiate all offences, which were regulate effectually the propensities of our nature, the not to be punished by the judge, and that without check is to be laid, not upon the action, but upon the amendment of life; and therefore Christ teaches, in thought. And, as to this matter, the judgment of our opposition to them, that no sacrifice or other worship Saviour is decisive. He makes the controul of the can be acceptable to Him, without justice and charity thought essential; with Him, internal purity is every Dr. Whitby.

thing. In speaking of this very declaration of our SaIn the doctrine of the Scribes and Pharisees, provi- viour, " Whosoever looketh on a woman,” &c. Boersion had been made for pecuniary damages only, and haave was wont to say, “ Our Saviour knew mankind bare restitution, which might be done without a chari- far better than Socrates.” Archdeacon Paley. table mind, or a brotherly heart. But Christ urges 29.— if thy right eye offend thee,] If thy right eye reconciliation of mind, and a sincere desire of being ensnare thee; cause thee to offend." Dr. Campbell

. As reunited to our offended brother; and that, not only every wise man would consent to suffer the most painwhere property is concerned, but in every case in which ful operation, or even to lose a limb, if necessary, to our neighbour complains that he is aggrieved. Dr. save his life; so every good Christian will subdue his Lightfoot.

lusts and passions, and part with whatever is dearest to 24.- first be reconciled to thy brother,]. Till the duty him, rather than forfeit his hopes of everlasting happiof forgiveness be discharged by ourselves, God will ness. Bp. Mann. Our Saviour's expressions here are accept of no service or sacrifice at our hands. And highly figurative and alarming, but not more than the therefore our Liturgy does with great reason declare it occasion demanded. Every one must understand that to be a necessary qualification for our worthy receiving the eye to be plucked out is the eye of concupiscence ; the sacrament, that we be in love and charity with our that the hand to be cut off is the hand of violence and neighbours, because in the blessed Sacrament of Christ's vengeance; that is, these passions are to be checked and body and blood, we hope to have the forgiveness of our subdued, let the conflict cost what it may. Bp. Porteus. sins ratified and confirmed to us; and how can we hope 31. It hath been said, &c.] See Deut. xxiv. 1. Here

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