Brethren for the conversion of the heathen. The 21st of August, 1832, was celebrated throughout the church of the Brethren; a century having been then completed from the day of their first effort in behalf of the pagans. Their missions were commenced in the West Indies.

« The missionary spirit manifested itself as early as the year 1727, and every opportunity was gladly embraced of yielding to its blessed influence.

“Thus, on the 21st of August, 1732, the first two missionaries of the Brethren's church-Leonard Dober and David Nitschman-set out for the island of St. Thomas: on the 19th of January, 1733, three brethren-Matt. Stach, Christian Stach, and Christian David- burning with like zeal, took their departure for Greenland: John Töltschig and Anthony Seiffarth proceeded, in 1734, to North America; otheres in 1735, to Surinam and Berbice, Lewis Chr. Dehne and J. Güttner, forming the first settlement in Berbice in 1738: in 1736, George Schmidt proceeded to the Cape of Good Hope.

“During the ten years which followed the period now alluded to, the missionary spirit lost much of its energy. Another period of ten years now succeeded of a different complexion.

“ The mission in Jamaica was begun in 1754, by Zach. George Caries; and that in Antigua in 1756, by Samuel Isles : both these missions were, in the sequel, crowned with the most encouraging

Neither was the wild and inhospitable coast of Labrador forgotten at that time, though the establishment of a mission among the predatory and murderous Esquimaux could not be effected till 1770, by the Brn. Jens Haven, Lawrence Drachart, and Stephen Jensen.

“In the year 1765, the mission in Barbadoes took its rise ; and the first settlement was formed in 1767, by Benjamin Brookshaw-in 1775, that in St. Kitt's, by the Brn. Birkby and Gottwald—and in 1790, that in Tobago, by Br. J. Montgomery: this was afterwards suspended, but was renewed in 1827.

“In the year 1792, the mission at the Cape of Good Hope was renewed by the Brn. H. Marsveld, D. Schwinn, and J. Kühnel ; and, in subsequent years, was greatly enlarged. The inspection of the leper hospital was also committed by government to the Brethren. In 1828, our missionaries in South Africa ventured to go beyond the boundary of the Cape Colony, into the country of the Tambookies, a Caffree tribe, and the settlement of Shiloh has, in a short time, obtained an unexpected increase from the surrounding population.

“ On this festive day, we see 209 brethren and sisters diligently employed on 41 missionary stations, in sowing the gospel seed; and VOL. I.



count upwards of 40,000 Greenlanders, Esquimaux, Indians, Negroes, Hottentots, and Caffres, including about 17,000 communicants, whom we are favored to call our brethren and sisters in the Lord. And how many thousands are already standing before the throne of the Lamb, who, while here below, were turned by the ministry of our brethren from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God!

"It is on this day a subject of thankfulness and joy, that the Lord has hitherto raised up brethren and sisters, who were willing to give up their worldly prospects, their native land and connections, their personal comforts, yea, their health and life, to engage in that missionary work, which He himself has graciously intrusted to our church. During the past century, 1,199 persons (740 brethren, and 459 sisters, have been employed in the same.

"At the present time, there are 57 superannuated or retired missionaries (viz. 24 brethren and 33 sisters), who reside in our German, English, and American congregations, and are either wholly or partially supported by our mission fund; constituting a charge on this fund of about £1,200, on an average of several years past. The allowance to a married missionary in retirement does not therefore exceed £35, and to a widow £12-an economical provision, to which it would be impracticable to adhere, were it not for the peculiar advantages afforded for this purpose by the settlements of the brethren, especially on the continent of Europe.

"Not a few of those who were born in our missionary stations have blessedly followed the footsteps of their parents. In the year 1830, there were twelve brethren and sisters employed in various stations, who were themselves the children of missionaries."

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Egypt, under the enlightened policy of Mohammed Ali, seems about to re-appear in her former glory. This celebrated chieftain is of Turkish origin, and was born at Cavala, in Macedonia, in 1769. From his youth, he exhibited extraordinary penetration, dexterity, and ambition. The Turkish governor at Cavala, gave him a common education, and then an office, and a rich wife. He learned reading and writing after he became a pacha. A merchant of Marseilles, named Lion, inspired him with friendly feelings towards the French, and with religious toleration. On this account, the residence of strangers in Egypt has been facilitated. His first campaign was in Egypt, against the French in 1800. He established his reputation as a soldier in the contest of the pachas with the mamelukes, after the French had abandoned Egypt, in 1802. In April, 1806, the Porte

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confirmed him as governor of Egypt, and elevated him to the rank of a pacha of three tails. He soon restored the distracted country to order. He assimilated his army and navy to those of Europe, and subjected them to European discipline. He attached regular bands of military music to each of his regiments, with European instructors, who teach the Arab musicians to play on European instruments, the marches and airs of England, France, and Germany. A short distance from Cairo, he has established a permanent military hospital, and placed it under European surgeons; and has formed a school of medicine and anatomy, in which not only botany, mineralogy, and chemistry are taught, but human bodies are publicly dissected by students who profess the Mohammedan religion. At Alexandria, he has a naval school, in which Mohammedan students are instructed in the several branches of geometry, trigonometry, mechanics and astronomy; and a dock-yard, under the control of an European naval architect, in which, besides frigates and other vessels of smaller dimensions, four ships of the line, three carrying 110 guns upon two decks, and one of 130 guns, have been recently built. He has encouraged the formation of regular insurance offices, has improved all the canals in the country, introduced steam-boats on the Nile, patronized two Englishmen, who have been employed in boring for water in the desert, has encouraged the growth of indigo, cotton, and opium, has established schools for the instruction of all orders of his people, has sent, at a great expense to himself, young men, both of the higher and lower ranks, to England and France, for the purpose of acquiring useful knowledge. He has constituted a public assembly at Cairo, who hold regular sittings for forty days in each year, and publicly discuss, for his information, the interests and wants of his different provinces. He patronizes the publication of a weekly newspaper in Arabic and Turkish. And, finally, he protects all Christian merchants, both in war and in peace.

Egypt is an interesting station for missionary labors. The pacha has subdued all the southern nations, even to the frontier of Abyssinia; and these countries can now be visited with considerable security. The vernacular tongue of Egypt is the Arabic, which is spoken by almost all the strangers, as Armenians, Jews, Greeks, and Turks, and it is spreading in the countries which the pacha has brought under his government.

The Mohammedans in the cities, are, in general, more to be trusted than the Christians, and as they are the predominant party, they show less fraud and cunning, and have less of the spirit of slavery. They may be divided into the learned, merchants, shop-keepers, craftsmen, and the servile class. The Bedouins are a well-shaped,

fine-looking race of people, and generally answer to the description given of Ishmael, in Genesis. The pacha has induced a large number of them partly to settle themselves in villages. The Copts are the remnants of the old Egyptians. They consider themselves almost exclusively as the accountants of the pacha. They are generally represented as a stupid and perfidious people, enormously addicted to brandy drinking. The Syrians, who are generally Greek catholics, are merchants, accountants, and craftsmen. Some of them fill high stations in the service of the pacha. They are said by Mr, Lieder to be the French of the east. The Greeks are artisans, architects, shop-keepers, and coffee men, and resemble the Syrians. The Armenians are the most respected and opulent part of the oriental Christians in Egypt. They and the Jews are the bankers of the country. The Europeans are in general extremely deficient in moral character. The Jews are the same in character and manner of living, as in Europe.

It ought not to be inferred from the preceding remarks, respecting the enlightened policy of Mohammed Ali, that the moral state of the people is essentially improved. Swearing, lying, adultery, stealing,

. and other similar vices, are fearfully prevalent. Mr. Lieder, a Christian missionary, who has resided several years in Egypt, says that, “ among all the different denominations of oriental Christians, as Greeks, Armenians, Maronites, Greek Catholics, Armenian Catholics, Roman Catholics, Syrians and Copts, he had not met with one truly converted man."

From missionary labors, considerable results have followed. The Holy Scriptures have been widely diffused in the various languages. They have been received, in many instances, with eagerness and gratitude. Several hundred children have been taught to read, and a flourishing school for poor children established at Cairo,


Jews in Europe. A society has existed for a number of years in England, which has labored with considerable vigor and success, in attempting to impart to the Jews scattered over Europe and Western Asia, the blessings of Christianity. To show the spirit and extent of their labors, we make a few extracts from a report.

“There are now 30 boys in the school, six having gone out and the same number having been admitted during the year; and 37 girls, two haying gone out and two others having been received in their place. This small number is owing to the restriction which it was thought necessary to adopt during the past year; but there are sey

eral applicants, who have been waiting some time for the admission of their children.

“ The present number of missionaries in immediate connection with the society is 34: there are, besides, 4 agents employed by the local committees in Calcutta and Madras, making a total of 38; of whom, 13 are converted Jews. There are also 5 individuals employed as school-masters at Dantzic and in the grand duchy of Posen; amounting to the number of FORTY-THREE missionary agents engaged in promoting the cause of the society.

“ There are at least six millions of Jews in the world. They have been, for ages, neglected, despised, and persecuted. Your society found them living in great ignorance and moral degradation-having very little knowledge of their own Scriptures, and none whatever of those of the New Testament. Many had fallen into the prevailing infidelity of the age.

“ During the last few years, there has been a great increase of scriptural knowledge among them: many Jews are now well acquainted with the doctrines of the New Testament. By means of the society, the pure Scriptures have been introduced into a great many Jewish schools, where formerly only the talmud was read. Many thousands of Jews have, for the first time, heard the word of the gospel ; and though a faithful missionary has often to encounter opposition and disappointment, yet, on the whole, there is great encouragement in preaching the gospel to this people: they often listen with great attention: they regard missionaries as their friends; and a spirit of inquiry is very widely diffused. One striking proof of their desire for God's word, is their willingness to purchase it, of which the accounts from some of the missionary stations afford continual proof: only to allude to one instance :-A missionary sold 81 Hebrew Bibles, 53 Psalters, and 5 Pentateuchs, besides giving away a few Hebrew New Testaments, to the Jews of Algiers, during a short visit to that newly opened sphere of labor.

“The Rev. J. J. Banga, has been obliged to try the effect of a temporary residence in the warmer climate of the South of Italy. The Rev. P. J. Oster continues to travel with much activity through different parts of France: in some instances he found a decided blessing: in the majority of cases he encountered indifference and skepticism; and, on some occasions, was even in danger of personal violence.

“Mr. R. Bellson, who is of the Jewish nation, has already commenced his labors in Holland; having previously visited Cassel, his native town, where he has testified of the truth as it is in Jesus to his unbelieving brethren. Mr. W. Davenport is to join Mr. Bellson


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