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training; but he must have been getting “The Earthly Paradise," and ends the his special mental education in his own first period. way long before he left Oxford, for his “Love is Enough" (1873), a dramatic Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, pub- and lyric morality, derives the more lished monthly during the year 1856, marked features of its poetic method teems with work from his own hand, from the Icelandic; and it is to the secsaturated with mediævalism. The pro- ond period that both this and several fession of an architect being selected, renderings of Icelandic sagas belong, he was articled to Street, but aban- though some of them remained in mandoned his articles. His first serious uscript till a recent date. The period and independent appeal to the public is that in which Morris shows a preas a man of letters was “The Defence vailing feeling of Northern hardiness, of Guenevere, and other Poems” (1858), has abandoned the three Chaucerian although “Sir Galahad” had appeared stock metres, and developed a metric separately a few months earlier; and system with anapæstic movement surlong before his "Jason” came out he passing in every vital particular all that had founded, with the co-operation of has been done in anapæstic measures Gabriel Rossetti, Burne-Jones, Madox since Tennyson showed the
way Brown, and others, the commercial un- in "Maud.” In the much higher dertaking conducted under the style of qualities, which derive from knowlMorris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co., fine edge of life, feeling for national art decorators-a business over which myth, epic action and tragic intenhe presided up to the time of his sity combined, “The Story of Sideath.
gurd the Volsung" (1877), the epic in In literature, as in life and its varied anapæstic couplets which rounds this pursuits, bis work divides itself into period, stands among the foremost clefiuite periods, of wluich the chrono. poems not only of this century, but of logical iæ would be here mis- our literature. placed. Considered in the light of a The third period, from 1878 to 1890, poet and story-teller, he may be said is chiefly an epoch of lectures, pamto have started on his career as an phlets, leaflets, and periodical press Anglo-Norman mediævalist, drawing, work; but the literary artist gradually however, considerable inspiration from gets the upper hand again. “Chants the Greek and Latin classics, and grad- for Socialists," "The Tables Turned, or ually, with a widening area of knowl- Nupkins Awakened,” “The Pilgrims of edge and reading, taking in at first Hope,” “A Dream of John Ball,” and hand influences from the sturdy litera- “News from Nowhere,” are all works ture of the Northmen who peopled Ice- of art, though saturated with Socialist land. From the pure mediævalism of intention. The translation of the “The Defence of Guenevere,” “Sir “Odyssey” in anapæstic couplets came Peter Harpdon's End,” “The Haystack out in this period (1887), which may be in the Floods,” and the Chaucerian said to close in effect somewhat before classicism of “The Life and Death of the disruption of the Socialist League Jason,” (1867), we pass through “The and the death, early in 1891, of its jourEarthly Paradise" (1868-70) to find the nal, the Commonweal, which contained flavor far
Northern at the less and less of Morris's work towards end than at the beginning; the actual the close, though “News from Nowork of translating large Icelandic where” in its first form appeared in the sagas in conjunction with Mr. Eric journal. Magnusson had effected the change Meanwhile, 1889 had been signalized and had led to the transformation of by a wholly new thing in literature—the one Icelandic prose masterpiece, the wonderful myth-romance of the Goths "Saga of the Laxdale Men," into that and Romans called, “A Tale of the poetic masterpiece, "The Lovers of Gu- House of the Wolfings," chiefly in drun," which closes the tale-cycle of prose, but with a considerable mass of
poetry woven in: and here begins Mor- the handicraftsman's life joyful. In ris's last period in literary art. “The developing his views for the workmen, Roots of the Mountains" (1889), a story he enlarged his scope; from importing of the Goths and Huns, “The Glitter- rough but comely pottery out of ing Plain” (1890-91), the revised “News France, he got to influencing the manufrom Nowhere” (1891-92), “Poems by facture and securing the distribution the Way” (September, 1891), “The of de Morgan lustre-a lost art revived. Wood Beyond the World" (May, 1894), From bringing home Eastern carpets “Beowulf” in English verse (done in he grew to see that after all these were conjunction with the Rev. A. T. Wyatt, not the fittest and best for a Western January, 1895), “Child Christopher and civilization, and he set up his dye-works Goldilind the Fair” July, 1895), “The and looms and made fabrics and carWell at the World's End” (March, pets which will influence the taste of 1896), and several volumes of trans- the Western world when he has been lations, from mediæval French tales, dead a century. He entered into the etc., form
of high-class practical side of the Socialist propawork, in all the original part of ganda and went on fearlessly till conwhich Morris has shown great grij vinced not that he would come to harın, of character and intimate knowl- but that "ructions with police," as he edge of the doings of men and commu- phrased it, would injure the cause. nities in various ages. Altogether, Lastly, he saw what a base, mechanical counting "John Ball,” here are eight thing was become this great art of works of fiction in which this master printing of ours; and he set up the of all the leading crafts that can be Kelmscott Press, to issue books in named has devised a new method and which every letter should be beautiful. a fresh form of speech, has laid out He had his own hand-made paper made his stories with admirable clearness, from pure linen rag, set up handfilled their fabric with beautiful le- presses, obtained the best of ink, emgends, or visions of what has been and ployed the best labor he could get, and what may be, and created a living gal- set good binders to put his sheets tolery of men and women, all unmistak- gether in seemly vellum or parchment; able in the differentia of their charac- and he issued a great series of masterters and personalities. If there were pieces in the art of printing. Many of no first, second, and third periods at his own fourth-period books appeared all, these books of his fourth, and, alas! first in this sumptuous form; and now, final period, would alone suffice to se- as he lies at peace in the quiet little cure him a place among the greatest Oxfordshire village which gives his literary artists of the age, and, indeed, press its name, the fortunate possessors of the world.
of the great folio Chaucer edited by his Leaving literature aside, the epochs old friend Frederick Ellis and beautiof his life are so many important chap- fied by the lovely pictures of his older ters in the history of arts and crafts friend Edward Burne-Jones, whom he in England, and in the social and po- playfully called “the Baronet,” are litical movement which is still going turning in wonder the pages of the noon for the benefit of the handicrafts- blest book ever printed. It is good to man. Not to be too nicely discrimina- temper our grief with the thought that tive, there is the period when he started the brave man and great artist who his undertaking on aesthetic grounds to crammed the joyous labor of three lifereform our views of color, curve, line, times into sixty-two years and a half, texture—in a word, our tastes. This to benefit his humbler fellow-craftsthrew him into those relations with men, saw with his eyes this crowning handicraftsmen which could lead his work of many applied arts and crafts generous heart but one way-to make before he entered into his rest.
H. BUXTON FORMAN, ? From The Speaker.
take three characteristic specimens of GOLDSMITH'S CONVERSATION. this initial stupidity in order to suggest There is no triter quotation from Bos- that Goldsmith was not altogether to well than that of Goldsmith's retort to blame if he failed to play a brilliant the ridicule that Johnson poured upon game of fives against a haystack. "Sir," him for his contention that it was diffi- replied Cooke to Sam Rogers' inquiry cult to make little fishes in fables talk as to Goldsmith's conversation, "Sir, in character. “Why, Mr. Johnson, this he was a fool. The right word never is not so easy as you seem to think; for came to him. If you gave him a bad if you were to make little fishes talk shilling, he'd say, "Why, it's as good a they would all talk like whales.” The shilling as ever was born.' You know complementary difficulty of getting he ought to have said 'coined.' 'Coined,' great whales to understand the prattle sir, never entered his head.
He was of little fishes explains much of the a fool, sir.” Cooke was himself an social contempt of the Club for Gold- Irishman, while Mrs. Thrale, who shall smith. An Irishman in England talks be put into the box next, will be algenerally too much, too fast, too lowed to come as near, in the matter of lightly, too discursively; but talk of this frivolity, to the level of the average kind seems idiotic only when taken se- Irish mind as any English woman could. riously. If you insist on handling a Here is her instance of “Poor Dr. Goldsoap-bubble, its grace, lightness, and smith’s” idiocy: "Poor Dr. Goldsmith iridescence disappear; and in the Club said once, 'I would advise every young a soap-bubble was solemnly weighed fellow setting out in life to love gravy.' and found wanting. Even Burke could alleging for it the serious reason that not blow one with impunity. “When a glutton once disinherited his nephew Burke does not condescend to be merry, because of his unconquerable distaste his conversation is very superior in- to that condiment." If Mrs. Thrale deed. When he lets himself down to had come upon this advice where it that he is in the kennel,” says Johnson had originally appeared-in Goldof jocularity which Windham, Rey- smith's burlesque specimen of a maganolds and even Boswell himself thought zine in miniature—it is just possible admirable. Burke, however, was not that she might have understood it to disconcerted by the failure of his flashes be a joke. No such Bottom prologue of merriment, whereas Goldsmith was. could save the sage Boswell from maliFrom his earliest childhood his natural ciously misunderstanding the most ob-self-distrust had been deepened to mor- vious of jokes, since “the Jessaniy bidity by the taunts of friends, rela- Bride,” in telling the following anec. tives, schoolmates and masters. He dote, spoke of the sally of Goldsmithi's was pitiably conscious of his ugliness, as unmistakably playful. She and his awkwardness, his “brogues and his her sister, while standing with Goldblunders,” and in uncongenial society smith at the window of an hotel, atthis disconcerting self-consciousness ag- tracted by their loveliness the admiragravated these defects in its endeavor tion of a passing company of soldiers. to conceal them. When he uttered in “I, too, have my admirers elsewhere,” such society those random absurdities cried the poet in affected pique. This that an Irishman in high spirits some light and luckless jest had but to pass times lets escape him, like steam from through the dense mind of Boswell to a safety-valve, the stolid stare of his come out a petulant outburst of envy, matter-of-fact audience disconcerted as gas under tremendous pressure is him. Instead, however, of reducing transmuted into a grosser element. him to a safe silence, it but stimulated “When accompanying two beautiful him to such stumbling and staggering ladies with their mother on a tour in attempts to regain his lost foot-hold as France," writes Boswell, "Goldsmith sank him deeper in the bog. But the was seriously angry that more atteninitial stupidity was not his.
tion was paid to them than to him."
Yet it is to Boswell's blunt burin that “muddy river" theory of Macaulay? we owe our picture of Goldsmith! Disregarding, therefore, as simply silly,
It should be remembered, too, that the way in which all Goldsmith's critics the wise and witty sayings of Gold- and some of his biographers speak of smith's grudgingly recorded by the his exquisite style, as though it were jealous Boswell are only those that something as separate from his mind were complementary to the conversa- as au exquisite voice is from the mind tion of Johnson. Boswell was re- of a singer, and allowing style to be but solved that “all should show like two thought incarnate, then the limpidity gilt two-pences” to Johnson; why other- of every line of work done in such perwise has he given to Burke so small a emptory and perfunctory haste is itself place in the biography? Burke was and alone a confutation of the theory the only conversationalist Johnson that “poor Goldy's” thoughts were alfeared or envied. "That fellow calls ways born aborted, and needed as forth all my powers,” he said of Burke. much nursing as an infant kangaroo "Were I to see him now"—i.l., when he to be presentable. Surely it is strange was out of sorts—“it would kill me!” that his writing should be conspicuYet how little of Burke ther is in ously distinguished for what is preBoswell, and of that little how much sumed to have been conspicuously abis altogether unworthy of the greatest sent from his talk-ease, order, and purely extemporary speaker, probably, lucidity; though this style characterized that ever lived! In truth, Boswell was work which must have been as extemjealous on Johnson's behalf of Burke, porary as speaking. Strangely, too, this and on his own behalf of Goldsmith: style characterized also his extempohence the inadequate representation rary speeches. In the archives of the of the two Irishmen in his pages.
“Robin Hood” Debating Club, where The truth is, as the librarian at Bath Burke first, in London, proved his trs:ified, Goldsmith, when at ease and powers, this note was entered about in congenial company, was not only an Goldsmith long before he became faeltertaining, but a lucid and even bril- mous: “A candid disputant with a clear liaut talker. No man who wrote with head and an honest heart, though comhis ease and speed and crystal clear. ing but seldom to the society." Perness could be the addle-pated "Poorhaps the fault of having been found Poll” he is represented to have been. the reverse of this did not lie wholly “Style,” says Schopenhauer, “is the with Goldsmith. The present writer physiognomy of the mind, and a safer remembers a formal and wooden Yorkindex to character thaa the face. An shireman complaining to him once of obscure or bad style weans a dull or an Irish clergyman, who had the repucoufused brain." Consider the condi- tation of being the most genial and tions under which all Goldsmith's hack jovial of men. "I sat with him," said work was done-always at racing my ponderous Yorkshire friend—“I speed, and sometimes with the dun- sat with him for two hours and more, uing bookseller or printer's devil in the and he seemed anything but cheerful room--and consider again its exquisite the whole time." limpidity, and what becomes of the
The Anti-Toxin Serum.-An interest- first and second day of the illness the ing report of its first year's work has percentage of deaths was only 6.7. just been issued by the Austrian State After the third day, however, the morInstitute for the preparation of anti- tality reached 19 per cent., rising to 33 toxin serum. Of 1,100 cases of diph- per cent. after the sixth day. Of 318 theria treated with the serum, 970 cases of preventive inoculation only 20 recovered, a very favorable result were attacked by the disease, mostly in compared with the previous mortality. a mild form, and all recovered. When the remedy was applied on the Vienna Correspondent of London Times,
IX. PHILIP II. IN IIS DOMESTIC RELATIONS.
By Martin 1. S. lume,
IN THE ILANDS OF THE TAI-PING
THE REAL "THRUMS,"