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lege, where education of the highest standard may be acquired without reference to creed or any interference with religious opinions. As the promoters say in their prospectus, “Cette institution est entièrement étrangère à tout esprit ou intérêt de communion religieuse, d'école philosophique ou de parti politique : elle proclame seulement le principe de la liberté et de l'inviolabilité de la science, et partant l'indépendance d'indagation et d'exposition, vis a vis n'importe quelle autorité, par la propre conscience du Professeur.” Many shares have been subscribed for in and out of Spain, and when more publicity is given to the scheme, no doubt ample funds will be forthcoming.–Athenæum.
SCIENCE AND ART.
The Moon's CONDITION.- Whatever may be the theories of modern geologists, or whatever changes may yet await some of their conclusions, one thing seems evident, that the eruptive force which has moulded the surface of the moon into its present strange configuration has been decaying down to either comparative or absolute extinction. It is certainly not very material whether our generation may be contemporary with its expiring efforts, or with a subsequent state of quiescence; but it is a question not without much interest; and few observers would not hail with pleasure an opportunity of witnessing the activity of a lunar volcano. However, it is still sub judice whether anything of the kind has occurred since the invention of the tele. scope; and there is more difficulty than might be supposed in forming a reliable opinion, partly from the inaccuracies and mistakes of the earlier observers, partly from the deficiencies of existing maps, and partly from the backwardness to supply those deficiencies at the hands of the possessors of the powerful instruments of the day. Close investigation and careful drawing is required, and that under several angles of illumination ; and though photography may render most important service, as that of an eye which never omits anything, yet the circumstances would be very exceptional which would give to its renderings the keenness and certainty of ocular inspection. Each mode may help the other. It is, of course, among the minutest craters, and, according to that great authority, Schmidt, among the fissures or cracks, that we must seek for the evidence of remaining chemical life. But change of perhaps a less intelligible nature may be detected among the multitude of light streaks and brilliant patches which variegate the fully.enlightened moon with such perplex intricacy. There
is strong evidence of altered brightness in some places, and it is much to be wished that some caresul, patient observer would undertake the task of giving us a portion, at least, of a map of the full moon.
PERIODICITY OF HURRICANES. - Vice-Admiral Fleuriot de Langle has published in the last two numbers of the Revue Maritime et Coloniale a long discussion on the periodicity of cyclones in all parts of the world. The paper scems to have been first read at the Geographical Conference in Paris last autumn. M. de Langle seeks to connect these
directly with astronomical phenomena, as will be seen from the conclusions which he gives in the following sentences :
* We may deduce from the preceding investigations that when the latitude of the place, the declination of the sun or the moon resume the same values respectively, and these phenomena coincide with an eclipse of the sun or the moon, or with a phase of the moon, on its approach to its apogee or perigee, there is danger of a hurricane. If at these critical periods there is any unsteadiness in the winds, extra caution is required when the apogee or perigee occurs near the time of full or new moon.”
Of course the statements are corroborated by a copious array of diagrams and tables, but after a careful study of the paper we fail to find that much has been added to our knowl. edge of the subject. There seems to be one radical defect in the reasoning, which influences all discussions of the relation between the moon and the weather. The hour of occurrence of a phenomenon at one station is taken, and the relation of that occurrence to the moon's age and position is investigated ; but it is persistently ignored that the hurricane moves over the earth's surface, so that if its occurrence at A coincides with the period of any other phenomenon, it must necessarily fail to coincide with it at B.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES IN ROME.The excavations undertaken at the Esquiline to clear what remains of the nympheum, des. ignated the temple of Minerva Medica, have been terminated. The ruins are surrounded with bath-rooms and porticoes of more recent construction. On the south side of the Piazza Dante vestiges have been discovered of a large edifice, having formed a portion of the Lamiani garden, enclosing two large reservoirs for water, and two semicircular rooms, and where were found three fragments of statues, a portion of a column of African marble, and some pieces of sculpture which belong to a group of figures discovered nearly in the same local
ity in 1874. In the Piazza Vittorio-Emman. crystallizes like snow, in a great variety of uele, on the Esquiline, there have been forms of the hexagonal system. And this brought to light thirty-one coffers of white substance is iodoform. To show the multistone, containing iron arms and an Etruscan plicity of forms, M. Dogiel dissolves iodoform vase of earthenware, ornamented with red in boiling (90 per cent) alcohol, and lets the figures on a black ground. Near the ancient solution cool in water of different temper. Villa Casella has been found a cube of ame
He gets mostly tabular crystals, thyst, one inch and a fifth on the side ; and in when a solution containing 15 to 30 per cent some old cellars at Campo Verano, some of iodoform is kept ten minutes in water of amulets in the form of divers animals, two about 14° to 15° C; whereas star-shaped and plates of lead with inscriptions, objects in often very complicated crystals are had at cornelian, and a ring of chalcedony. In the temperatures of 26° to 37o. Some other modnew quarter of the Castro Pretorio, near the ifications of the result are described by M. road which leads from the Porta San Lorenzo, Dogiel, in a paper recently published, and he two mosaic pavements have been discovered, also gives drawings of the crystals he obarranged in geometrical figures in chiaro. tained.
In the garden of the Ara Cali has been found the head of a female, life size, of
A NEW METHOD OF TREATING ASIATIC baked earth, in the Etruscan style, and beauti
CHOLERA.-Asiatic cholera is so well known fuily modelled, with traces of several colors to be such a terribly fatal disease, that any still apparent. In the Strada Nazionale, the plan of treatment that gives promise of suc. terrace works brought to light a statuette in
cess must excite general interest. A method Greek marble, representing a male figure re
has lately been introduced by Surgeon-major cumbent and asleep. The head is covered
A. R. Hall, of the Army Medical Department, with a panula (hood formerly made of leather), which, it is hoped, will lessen the mortality and by the side is an amphora.
caused by this fearful malady. It consists in
putting sedatires under the skin, by means of THE SUN.-Secchi has published a report a small syringe (hypodermic injection), inon solar phenomena during the second half stead of giving stimulants by the stomach. of the year 1875. He finds a minimum of Surgeon-major Hall has served nearly twelve activity, the culminating epoch of which
years in Bengal, and has suffered from the would be in March 1876. The number of disease himself. In most accounts of the protuberances has been very varying, from 2 state of the patient in the cold stage, or col. or 3 one day to io or 12 the next. The jets of lapse of cholera, the heart is described as be. hydrogen were usually straight, even if at- ing very weak, and the whole nervous system taining 2' or occasionally 3' in height; an much exhausted. Stimulants have, therefore, indication of great tranquillity. The chromo- almost always been administered ; but expesphere was low at the equator, but often veryrience has shown that they do more harm elevated (24' to 30'') at the poles, from the than good. Surgeon-major Hall observed, in displacement of maxima in that direction. his own case, while his skin was blue and THE RECENT TRANSIT.–The reduction of
cold, and wher, he could not feel the pulse at the English observations is proceeding vigor
his wrist, that his heart was beating more forci. ously under the superintendence of Captain bly than usual! He therefore concluded that Tupman. The amount of work involved has
the want of pulse at the wrist could not debeen marvellous. About 5000 transits of pend upon want of power in the heart. A stars were taken for the correction of clock
study of the works of a distinguished physiand instrumental errors. The longitudes of
ologist, Dr. Brown-Séquard, with some obserthe stations at Mauritius and Rodriguez were
vations of his own, suggested the idea, that measured from Suez by Lord Lindsay with
the whole nervous system is intensely irritated, fifty chronometers; and Mr. Burton has made
instead of being exhausted ; and that the more than 6000 microscopic measures
heart and all the arteries in the body are in a determine the optical distortion of the photo
state of spasmodic contraction. The muscuheliographs. It is self-evident that a consider
lar walls of the heart, therefore, work violentable time must elapse before the final result, ly, and squeeze the cavities, so that the whole even of the British observations, can be made
organ is smaller than it ought to be ; but it
cannot dilate as usual, and so known; and it is not as yet decided whether a separate value shall be deduced from these,
ceive much blood to pump to the wrist. Suror whether they are to be combined with the geon-major Hall lvoks upon the vomiting and results of all other nations,
purging as of secondary importance, but directs
special attention to the spasmodic condition IMITATION Sxow CRYSTALS.-M. Dogiel, of of the heart and lungs. The frequent vomitSt. Petersburg, selects a substance which ing generally causes anything that is given by
Of Eden shake in the eternal breeze
the mouth to be immediately rejected ; so it martial pomps, the religious ceremonials, the occurred to him that as the nervous system wild festivities of barbarism. Was it not appeared to want soothing instead of stimulat- Layard who discovered small bronze bells in ing, powerful sedatives if put under the skin the palace of Nimroud ? Aaron's robe was would prove beneficial. A solution of chloral fringed with tiny bells of gold in token of his hydrate (which has a very depressing action office, just as the Kings of Persia and the on the hearı) was employed in twenty cases
Princesses of Arabia wore golden bells upon where the patients were either in collapse, or their fingers and in their hair in token of their approaching it, and eighteen of these re- rank. Picture lovely Herodias dancing becovered. They were natives of Bengal. It is fore Herod, probable that, among Europeans, in severe "While from her long dark tresses, in a fall cases, more powerful depressants may be re
Of curls descending, bells as musical
As those that on the golden-shafted trees quired ; and Surgeon-major Hall recommends the employment of solutions of Prussic acid,
Rang round her steps.” Calabar bean, bromide of potassium, and
At the worship of Isis and Osiris, at the rites other true sedatives. Opium (which is not
of Cibele, at the mysteries of Bacchus, sculpreally a sedative, but a stimulating narcotic)
ture proves that bells were used They tolled and all alcoholic stimulants are to be avoided,
in the temples of Brahma, were worn and nothing given to the patient to drink, in golden zone by the nautch girls, were shaken collapse, except cold water, of which he may
in Indian jungles by the fleet courier to scare have as much as he likes.
away the hyæna and the quan-cater. The continual jingling of the camels' bells is the
marked characteristic of the Oriental caravan, VARIETIES.
except in the desert, where their sound might BELLS.—To a greater extent than any other
attract Bedouin freebooters to the spoil. author Charles Dickens recognizes and plays call (ordained by symbols, baptized by bish
They are as distinctively the Christian churchwith the beauty of the bells. Even at an car
ops, christened by Popes) as trumpets were ly age he began instinctively to classify bells as the delightful dinner bell,” and the
the Jewish, as the muezzin was the Mahome"abominable getting-up bell." On his
tan, the tocsin the Mexican, as the symbol was nurse's knee, spell-bound and agape, he lis. peculiar to the mythologies of the East, the
tom-tom to the rites of the African. At the tened to the thrilling legend which tells how
elevation of the Host, on the garments of some infant knight-errant of the reign of Edward III. “ rode a cock-horse to Banbury
Greek bishops, at feasts, funerals, triumphs, Cross, to see the fine lady who wore bells on
massacres, sounds the ubiquitous bell, even her toes, and bells upon her palfrey hung."
in the very anathema of the Church : recollect He heard how the bull tolled the bell at the
how the Pope, when Sir Ingoldsby Bray confuneral of poor Cock Robin ; and that the
fessed to the murder of “only a bare-footed sounds of the Bow-bells, which summoned
friar," exclaimedlittle fortuneless Dick Whittington to “turn
“Go fetch me a book; go fetch me a bell
As big as a dustman's; and a candle as well ; again," echoed through his after-lise, is plain I'll send him where good manners won't let me tell." from the fact that he recurs to the story again Again, recall how the great Lord Cardinal of and again, especially in “ Dombey and Son."
Rheims solemnly called for his candle, his By the mouth of quaint little dreamy Paul
book, and his bell, and then excommunicated Dombey, Dickens evinces his child-love of the sacrilegious little jackdaw, causing its bells, asking the workman who was mending premature moulting and ultimate remorse, the clock at Dr. Blimber's academy for young
and discovery of the ring hidden in its nest gentlemen a multitude of questions about
up in the belfry. Perhaps on account of clocks and chimes, as, whether people watch
their sacred character, perhaps because most ed up in the lonely church-steeples by night nations have endowed music with potency to to make them strike, and how the bells were
dispel delirium, depression, insanity, the peorung when people died, and whether those were different bells from wedding-bells, oronly ple invested church-bells with mysterious
attributes: they could exorcise evil spirits, sounded dismal in the fancies of the living ;"
calm hurricanes, defy lightning, appease the and then proceeding “to enlighten his new
bloodthirsty, expel disease ; lo ! are not these acquaintance on the subject of the curfewbell of ancient days," and on the general his
things all written in Longfellow's “Golden
Legend ?"-Belgravia. tory of bells, as the precocious lad was well qualified to do, doubtless somewhat to this Max MULLER ON CHARLES KINGSLEY:effect: Bells, you must know, have, possibly Never shall I forget the moment when for the from the time of Jubal, always sounded in the last time I gazed upon the manly features of
Charles Kingsley-features which death had colonies, officers, and sailors, the bishop of rendered calm, grand, sublime.
The con- his diocese, and the dean of his abbey: there stant struggle that in life seemed to allow no were the leading Nonconformists of the rest to his expression, the spirit, like a caged neighborhood, and his own devoted curates, lion, shaking the bars of his prison, the mind peers, and members of the House of Com. striving for utterance, the soul wearying for mons, authors and publishers; and outside loving response-all that was over. There the churchyard, the horses and the hounds remained only the satisfied expression of tri- and the huntsman in pink, for though as good umph and peace, as of a soldier who had a clergyman as any, Charles Kingsley had fought a good fight, and who, while sinking been a good sportsman, too, and had taken into the stillness of the slumber of death, in his lise many a fence as bravely as he took listens to the distant sounds of music and to the last fence of all, without fear or tremthe shouts of victory. One saw the ideal man, bling. All that he had loved, and all that had as nature had meant him to be, and one felt that loved him was there, and few eyes were dry there is no greater sculptor than death. As when he was laid in his own yellow gravelone looked on that marble statue, which only bed, the old trees which he had planted and some weeks ago had so warmly pressed one's cared for waving their branches to him for hand, his whole life flashed through one's the last time, and the grey sunny sky looking thoughts. One remembered the young curate down with calm pity on the deserted rectory, and the Saint's Tragedy ; the chartist parson and on the short joys and the shorter sufferand Alton Locke; the happy poet and the ings of mortal men.- Preface to New Edition Sands of Dee; the brilliant novel-writer and of the Roman and the Teuton. Hypatia and Westward-Ho; the rector of
SONNETS. Eversley and his village sermons; the beloved professor at Cambridge, the busy canon at
O Nature! thou whom I have thought to love, Chester, the powerful preacher in Westmin
Seeing in thine the refiex of God's face, ster Abbey. One thought of him by the
A loathed abstraction would usurp thy place, Berkshire chalk-streams and on the Devon. While Him they not dethrone, they but disprove. shire coast, watching the beauty and wisdom
Weird Nature ! can it be that joy is fled,
And bald unmeaning lurks beneath thy smile? of nature, reading her solemn lessons, chuck
That beauty haunts the dust but to beguile, ling, too, over her inimitable fun. One saw
And that with Order, Love and Hope are dead ? him in town-alleys, preaching the Gospel of Pitiless force, all-moving, all unmoved, godliness and cleanliness,' while smoking his
Dread mother of unfathered worlds, assuage
Thy wrath on us,-be this wild life reproved, pipe with soldiers and navvies. One heard
And trampled into nothing in thy rage! him in drawing-rooms, listened to with pa- Vain prayer, although the last of human kind, tient silence, till one of his vigorous or quaint Force is not wrath,-but only deaf and blind. speeches bounded forth, never to be forgotten. How children delighted in him! How young,
Dread force, in whom of old we love to see wild men believed in him, and obeyed him, A nursing mother, clothing with her life too! How women were captivated by his The eeds of Love divine, with what sore strise chivalry, older men by his genuine humility
We hold or yield our thoughts of Love and thee!
Thou art not “calm," but restless as the occan, and sympathy! All that was now passing
Filling with aimless toil the endless ycarsaway-was gone. But as one looked on him Stumbling on thought, and throwing off the spheres,for the last time on earth, one selt tlrat greater Churning the Universe with mindless motion.
Dull fount of joy, unhallow'd source of tears, than the curate, the poct, the professor, the
Cold motor of our fervid faith and song, canon had been the man himself, with his
Dead, but engendering life, love, pangs, and fears, warm heart, his honest purposes, his trust in Thou crownedst thy wild work with foulest wrong his friends, his readiness to spend himself,
When first thou lightedst on a seeming goal,
And darkly blunder'd on man's sutřering soul. his chivalry and humility, worthy of a better age. Of all this the world knew little; yet few men excited wider and stronger sympa
APRIL : SONNET. thies. Who can forget that funeral on the Snow on the ground, and blossoms on the trees! 28th January, 1875, and the large, sad throng
A bitter wind sweeps madly 'cross the moor;
The children shiver at the cottage door, that gathered round his grave? There was And old men crouch beside the fire for ease.
Yet still the happy lark disdains the breeze ; the representative of the Prince of Wales,
The buds swell out, the primrose makes a floor and close by the gypsies of the Eversley com
Of sylvan beauty, though the frost be hoar,
And ships are battling with tempestuous seas. mon, who used to call him their Patrico-rai,
'Tis April still, but April wrapt in cloud, their Priest-King. There was the old squire Month of sweet promise and of Nature's bliss,
When Earth leaps up at Heaven's reviving kiss, of his village, and the laborers, young and And flouts at Winter lingering in her shroud. old, to whom he had been a friend and a
Haste swiftly, Spring, to banish drear decay,
And welcome Summer with the smile of May. father. There were governors of distant