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poor, weak-kneed, peace-loving individual, reigned in his stead. After a brief six months' reign, the Sunnis persuaded him to resign in favor of Mu'awiyeh, it being understood that after the latter's death Hassan should resume the khalifat. Yezid, Mu'awiyeh's son, however, had designs of his own and persuaded Hassar's wife to poison her husband, promising to marry her as a reward, which promise was not carried out.
Thus died Hassan in the year of the Hejira 49. He left a goodly family of fifteen sons and five daughters; from these are descended the seyds or lords. The treacherous Yezid succeeded as khalifa and was welcomed by the Sunnis, but the Shiahs elected Husain, Ali's third son, to the khalifat in the city of Mecca. Shortly the inhabitants of Cufa becoming dissatisfied with Yezid, sent to Husain, begging him to come and take command of the army of the faithful in Babylonia, so he set out, accompanied by sixty-two relations. The governor of Bussorah, Obe'dallah, a partisan of Yezid, sent his general, Ameer, to intercept Husain and cut him off from the water (the river Euphrates), and he overtook him at a place called Kerberla (anguish and vexation). Here terms were offered him if he would surrender, and he asked till morning to consider them. Next day Husain told his followers to leave him and save their lives, but they one and all refused to do so. He therefore entrenched his camp and sent word to the enemy to say that as the people of Cufa had chosen him, he would only retire at their bidding. Next day the strife began and the gallant little band made a brave struggle against desperate odds.
On the ninth day of the Moharram, Husain celebrated the marriage between Cassim, son of Hassan, and his own daughter, in spite of the slaughter raging round them. His son Ali-Akbar and his youngest child Abdallah were killed on that same day, and also his newly-wedded nephew Cassim. At last the fatal tenth day dawned; nearly all the warriors had been killed and Husain, wounded and unable to fight
any longer, was overpowered killed, while Zeinat, his favorite sister, stood by and cursed his murderers. All the males were put to the sword excepting only Zeinid Abidin, another of Husain's sons, who was ill and unable to fight, and was taken captive to Yezid with the women.
The stern Obe'dallah wept when he heard of the death of his enemy and ordered the corpse to be buried with honors, and when the obsequies were over a lion came from out of the desert and mounted guard on the saint's tomb.
All this was duly acted with a multitude of side characters and their histories introduced, making the play somewhat difficult to follow. acting was energetic and good. Persians are born actors, and the dresses and accoutrements were gorgeous, every one's wardrobe and treasurestore being laid under contribution. All the female characters were of course undertaken by men, but as the charms of Persian women are veiled from curious eyes in long, opaque coverings of blue or black cloth, and the actors carefully modulate their voices, the illusion was not destroyed. Distrusting their memories, or more probably to save themselves trouble, for a Persian is nothing if not lazy, the actors read their parts from rolls of ancient and grimy paper which have served their fathers and grandfathers before them. The sight of a man in death agonies defending himself with his sword and reading his last words from a scroll somewhat destroys the pathos to Western ideas.
All day long from noon till dusk the play went on, always ending at sunset with prayers, in which the whole audience joined, and recited their profession of faith, turning towards Mecca.
The part of the hero-saint was taken by a wealthy young merchant, one of the principal people in the village, and he also provided light refreshment for the spectators, coffee, sherbet, and of course the ubiquitous Kalian. When not acting himself, he came and sat among the spectators and criticised the performance.
The tenth day was the great day, and the audience were all arrayed in mourning for the blessed martyr. The closing scenes of the battle and bloodshed excited the people to the highest pitch; the women howled and writhed to and fro, the men beat their breasts and tears poured down their cheeks as they saw one after another of the faithful little band fall by the sword, their blood being realistically represented by red wine, while the whole air was rent with frenzied shouts of "Husain, Hussan; Hassan, Husain.”
The tears shed by the spectators were carefully preserved, caught on pieces of cotton and afterwards squeezed into a tiny glass bottle and sealed up. These tears are of great value, and when administered to a dying person have been known to revive him when all other means have failed.
In glittering array Ja'faah, king of the Jinns, comes with supernatural powers to the saint's assistance, but it is too late, and Husain declines his aid.
"The light of my eyes, my son Ali Akbar, is dead, and with him all my faithful followers. Why should I therefore live longer? It is the will of Allah I should die," he cries resignedly. The excitement grows intense.
The wounded Husain is surrounded and overpowered, and the general orders his soldiers to stone him to death.
In the midst of his death agonies the Prophet himself appears, encouraging him, and holding the rewards of Paradise before his eyes, eternal rest in the arms of dark-eyed houris, and waters sweeter than the longed-for Euphrates, and the dying hero is faithful to his trust.
At last the tragedy is over and the saint is dead. Stillness among the spectators, and my moonshee, dressed in a long, dark robe and veil, comes for ward in the character of Zeinat, and reads a long oration over the corpse. He is a finished performer, and the poetry and pathos of the scene are really touching; his aged, quavering voice might well pass for a woman's.
The sun sets, and the corpse of the
From Blackwood's Magazine. NAPOLEON'S VOYAGE TO ST. HELENA. Major-General Sir George Ridout Bingham, K.C.B. and T.S., the writer of the following diary, was born July 21, 1777, the son of Colonel Bingham (Dorset Militia) of Bingham's Melcombe in Dorset, which has been held by the family from the time of Henry III. In his sixteenth year he entered the army as ensign in the 69th Foot, and served with that and other regiments in Corsica, on board the fleet in the Mediterranean, at the Cape, and in Minorca. He went through almost the whole of the Peninsular War and the campaigns in the south of France, as lieutenant-colonel of the 2d battalion of the 53d Regiment, and, from August, 1812, in command of the brigade, taking part in the battles of Talavera, Salamanca, where he was severely wounded, Vittoria, the Pyrenees, and the Nivelle. For these services he received a cross and one clasp, was allowed to accept the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword, and was nominated K.C.B.
When Napoleon was consigned to St. Helena, the 2d battalion of the 53d was selected to accompany and guard him. Colonel Sir George Bingham commanded the troops employed in this ser vice, and continued in the island as
second under Sir Hudson Lowe till 1819, when he was promoted to the rank of major-general. From 1827 to 1832 he was in Ireland in command of the Cork district, an appointment which he was about to relinquish when he died of heart complaint in London, January 3, 1833. In 1831 he had been appointed colonel-commandant of the 2d battalion of the Rifle Brigade.
He had married in 1814 EmmaSeptima, youngest daughter of Edmund Morton Pleydell, Esq., of Whatcombe, Dorset. She survived him forty years, dying in 1873. The papers here printed were left by her to her nephew, Arthur Edmund Mansel, late captain 3d Hussars. They were placed by Captain Mansel in the hands of Captain C. W. Thompson, 7th Dragoon Guards, who has edited them for this magazine.
DAIRY OF SIR GEORGE BINGHAM, K.C.B., WITH EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS WRITTEN FROM ST. HELENA BY SIR GEORGE AND LADY BINGHAM AND LIEUT.-COL. MANSEL.
1815. August 6th.-Having embarked at Portsmouth, and working down channel in the Northumberland, with the wind at west, we perceived at eight o'clock in the morning three large ships apparently coming out of Plymouth. Signals being exchanged, they proved to be the Tonnant, 84, having Lord Keith's flag on board, Belerophon,1 and Eurotas frigate. On their coming up with us, Admiral Sir George Cockburn went on board the Tonnant. We made all sail towards the land, and anchored west off Berryhead on the outside of Torbay, and on the Admiral's return, heard that Napoleon Bonaparte was to be removed the next day at ten o'clock. Monday, 7th.-Early in the morning the baggage of Napoleon came on board, and several servants, and persons of his suite, to prepare the cabin that was to receive him. About two o'clock he left the Belerophon and came alongside the Northumberland, accompanied by Lord Keith. The guard was turned out and presented arms, and all the officers stood on the quarter-deck
1 The spelling of the original MS. has been retained throughout.
to receive Lord Keith. Napoleon chose to take the compliment to himself. He was dressed in a plain green uniform, with plain epaulets, white kerseymere waistcoat and breeches, with stockings, and small gold shoe-buckles, his hair out of powder and rather greasy, his person corpulent, his neck short, and his tout ensemble not at all giving an idea that he had been so great or was so extraordinary a man. He bowed at first coming on deck, and having spoken to the Admiral, asked for the Captain of the ship. In passing towards the cabin he asked who I was. The Captain introduced me. He inquired the number of the regiment, where I had served, and if the 53rd was to go to St. Helena with him. He then asked an officer of Artillery the same questions. From him he passed to Lord Lowther, to whom he addressed several questions, after which he retired to the cabin. The Admiral, who was anxious that he should as early as possible be brought to understand that the cabin was not allotted to him solely, but was a sort of public apartment, asked Lord Lowther, Mr. Lyttleton, and myself to walk in. Napoleon received us standing. The lieutenants of the ship were brought in and introduced, but not one of them spoke French; they bowed, and retired. We remained: Mr. Lyttleton, who spoke French fluently, answered his were tired of questions. After we Half an hour standing, we retired. afterwards he came on deck, and entered into conversation with Mr. Lyttleton: he spoke with apparent freedom and great vivacity, but without passion. He rather complained of his destination, saying it had been his intention to have lived in a retired manner in England, had he been permitted to have done so. He replied freely to several questions Mr. Lyttleton put to him relative to what had happened in Spain and other parts. This interesting conversation lasted at least an hour, at the end of which he retired. At six o'clock dinner was announced. He ate heartily, taking up both fish and meat frequently with his fingers; he drank claret out of a tumbler mixed with a
very little water. Those of his attendants who were received at the Admiral's table were-Bertrand (Grand Marshal); the Countess, his wife; Montholon, General of Brigade and A.D.C.; and Las Casas, in the uniform of a captain in the navy, but called a Counsellor of State. The discourse was on general and trifling subjects, after which he talked to the Admiral of Russia and its climate, and of Moscow, without seeming at all to feel the subject; he spoke as if he had been an actor only instead of the author of all those scenes which cost so much bloodshed. We rose immediately after dinner, and the Admiral begged me to attend Napoleon. He walked forward to the forecastle: the men of the 53rd Regiment and the Artillery were on the booms; they rose and took off their caps as he passed. He appeared to like the compliment, and said he was formerly in the Artillery. I answered, “Yes, you belonged to the Regiment De la Fère," on which he pinched my ear with a smile, as if pleased to find I knew so much of his history. He walked for some time, and then asked us in to play cards; we sat down to vingt-un. He showed me his snuff-box, on which were inlaid four silver antiques (coins) -Sylla, Regulus, Pompey, and Julius Cæsar-with a gold one on the side of Timoléon. Madame Bertrand told me he had found these coins himself at Rome. He did not play high at cards, and left about fifty francs to be distributed amongst the servants. The latter part of the evening he appeared thoughtful, and at a little past ten he retired for the night.
Tuesday, 8th. - The weather was squally, and there was a heavy sea. Most of the party were affected by the motion of the vessel. Napoleon did not make his appearance.
Wednesday, 9th.-Napoleon at dinner asked many questions, but appeared in low spirits. He brightened up after wards, and came on the deck. He asked if amongst the midshipmen there were any who could speak French: one of them had been at Verdun and under stood it a little. The captain of marines
(Beatie) appeared on deck; he inquired who he was, and where he had served. When he told him he had been at Acre he appeared particularly pleased, and took him by the ear, which I find he has always been in the habit of doing when pleased. He talked a good deal with this officer, walking the deck with his hands behind him. At eight o'clock he retired to the cabin. He lost at cards, and observed that good fortune had of late forsaken him. About ten o'clock he retired for the night.
Thursday, 10th.-Napoleon did not appear till dinner-time. He was affected by the motion of the ship, and said very little. He made an attempt to play at cards, but was obliged to give it up and retire early.
Friday, 11th.-Blowing weather, and Bonaparte invisible the whole day.
Saturday, 12th.-Napoleon made his appearance early, and looked better than usual; he walked the deck sup. porting himself on my arm. How little did I ever think, when I used to consider him as one of the first generals in the world, that he would ever have taken my arm as a support! He spoke but little at dinner, but conversed for half an hour afterwards with the Admiral, in the course of which conversation he denied having had any knowledge of the death of Captain Wright, and said he had never heard his name till, mentioned to him by an English gentleman at Elba; that it was not probable that, having the cares of a great nation, he should interest himself in the fate of an obscure individual. This reasoning, I own, appears more specious than solid. Of Sir Sidney Smith he also spoke, and said that he had once (when commanding the army in Egypt, inserted in his orders that he was mad, as a means of checking the intrigues he had attempted to carry on with his generals. At cards this evening he was evidently affected with the motion of the vessel, and retired early.
Sunday, 13th.-The chaplain dined with the Admiral. Napoleon asked a number of questions relating to the Reformed religion; he did not display
much knowledge of the tenets of our Church, or of the English history at the period of the Reformation. He played with his attendants at cards as usual; the English did not join.
Monday, 14th.-Napoleon asked at dinner a number of questions relative to the Cape, and whether any communication was carried on by land with any other part of Africa by means of caravans. His information on these, as well as on other topics connected with geography, appeared very limited; and he asked questions that any welleducated Englishman would have been ashamed to have done. The evening passed off with cards, as usual.
Tuesday, 15th.-Napoleon's birthday. The Admiral complimented him on the occasion, and his attendants appeared in dress uniforms. After dinner a long conversation took place, which turned on the intended invasion of England. He asserted that it was always his intention to have attempted it. For this purpose he sent Villeneuve with his fleet to the West Indies, with orders to refresh at some of the French isles, to return without loss of time, and immediately to push up the Channel, taking with him the Brest fleet as he passed (it was supposed that this trip would have withdrawn the attention of our fleets); two hundred thousand men were ready at Boulogne (of which six thousand were cavalry) to embark at a moment's notice. Under cover of this fleet, he calculated he would have debarked this army in twenty-four hours. The landing was to have taken place as near London as possible. He was to have put himself at the head of it, and have made a push for the capital. He added, "I put all to the hazard. I entered into no calculation as to the manner in which I was to return; I trusted all to the impression the occupation of the capital would have occasioned. Conceive then my disappointment when I found that Villeneuve, after a drawn battle with Calder, had stood for Cadiz -he might as well have gone back to the West Indies. I made one further attempt to get my fleet into the Channel. Nelson destroyed it at the battle
of Trafalgar, and I then, as you know, fell with my whole force on Austria, who was unprepared for this sudden attack, and you remember how well I succeeded."
At cards this evening he was successful, winning nearly eighty napoleons; he evidently tried to lose it again. He was in good spirits at the idea of his success on his birthday, having been always of an opinion that some days are more fortunate than others. It was nearly eleven o'clock before he left the card-table.
Wednesday, 16th.-Bonaparte did not appear till dinner-time; he was in good spirits, and asked as usual a variety of questions. After dinner, in his walk with the Admiral, he was quite loquacious, having, besides his usual allowance of wine (two tumblers of claret), drank one of champagne, and some bottled beer. He said he apprehended that the measure of sending him to St. Helena might have fatal consequences. He hinted that the people of France and Italy were so much attached to him and his person, that they might revenge it by the massacre of the English. He acknowledged, however, that he thought his life safe with the English, which it might not have been had it been intrusted to the Austrians or Prussians. Of this life he appears tenacious; one of his valets de chambre sleeps constantly in his apartment: nor does it appear, either from his own accounts or those of his attendants, that he was very prodigal of it at the battle of Waterloo, certainly the most interesting one of his life, and on which his future destiny turned. Not one of his personal staff was wounded; and had he been in the thickest of the fight, as Wellington was, they could not all have escaped. But to return to his conversation, he said that, after the Austrian war, Beauharnais and the people about him told him it was absolutely necessary that he should marry again, to have heirs, for the sake and succession of France. The Emperor of Russia offered him the Arch-duchess Ann, A council was held on the subject, and in taking into consideration this mar