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The King, in one of his morning at home expect, and have a right to dewalks, accompanied by the Prince of mand, from you.' Wales, (now bis present majesty) met Previous to General Clinton's return a farmer's servant travelling to Windsor to America, in April 1777, he demandwith a load of commodities for market. ed a formal audience of the king, and Unhappily, however, the cart was stuck particularly requested that his letter on fast in the mud, nor could the poor fel- the affair at Charlestown should be publow extricate it, though labouring with lished in the Gazette, unmutilated. all bis might. Both the king and the His majesty answered, Clinton, you prince were dressed in a style of great would injure yourself in appealing from simplicity; and as if with one impulse the crown to the people. I am perfectly of humanity, they immediately rushed satisfied with your conduct. Why are -forward to the assistance of the embar- you so solicitous what the multitude - Tassed rustic. Having through dint think of you? If you are right, twenty of main strength enabled him to set his to one but they condemn you.' . But cart fairly on the road, the poor fellow, my honour, Sire, appears • Leave glowing with gratitude, asked them very your honour to me; it will be in as cordially if they would acơept of a cup good hands as if with the people.' of ale from him at the next house; add- “ Your majesty shall be obeyed. If ing, that as the road was dirty, they were you, Sire, are satisfied, I shall always heartily welcome to take a seat on the be happy.” cart. Both these offers were of course declined, and they parted; the king hav To the publishers of the Atheneum. ing previously slipped a guinea, and the

Gentlemen, prince two guineas, into the hands of I observed in your Number 76. p. 244, that you the rustic.

The man was thunder- had selected an interesting biographical sketch of the struck ; nor could be help relating the life of the late king of England. The conversation

which passed between the King, and Mr. Adams particulars of his adventure the moment our Ambassador, is there misstated, and as the real be reached Windsor. He was assured sentiments which each delivered at that time, are it must have been to the king and prince highly honourable to both,please to insert the followthat he was so much indebted : and the

ing only circumstance that seemed to puz

“The King then asked me, whether zle the man himself, and make him I came last from France, and upon my doubt the fact,was, that the prince should - answering in the affirmative, be put on have given him two guineas, wbile the an air of familiarity, and smiling or raking gave him but one. Every thing, ther laughing said, “ there is an opinion as here related, soon reached the ears of among some people that you are not the monarch ; and happening the week the most attached of all your countryfollowing to meet the same man again men, to the manners of France.” 'I on his way to market, be stopped him, was surprised at this, because I thought and smiling, said, "Well, my friend, it an indiscretion, and a descent from I find you were rather dissatisfied with his dignity. I was a little embarrassed, the little present I made you when we but determined not to deny the truth last net; the son you thought more on one hand, nor leave him to infer mutificent than the father. He was so, from it apy attachment to England, on I confess ; but remember, my good fel- the other. I threw off as much gravity low, that I am obliged to be just before as I could, and assumed an air of gaiety I can be generous ; my son has at pre- and a tone of decision, as far as was sent nobody to care for but himself; decent, and said, “ That opinion, Sir, and I (with an infinite deal more anxi is not misstated : I must avow to your jety in my mind than you can possibly majesty, I have no attachment but to experience) am bound to promote the my own country.The king replied happiness of millions, who look to me as quick as lightning, “ An honest man for that protection, wbicb your children will never


other." 2K ATHENEUM VOL. 7.

From the New Monthly Magazine,


S public attention is likely to be for great injustice to the regular clergy of

a the theatre of events, from which the bordes of monks and friars scattered statesman and the philosopher of every over the face of the Peninsula ; some country may draw important lessons, possessing rich and well-stored conwe shall endeavour somewhat minutely vents, large estates, and accumulating to illustrate the condition of the people wealtb; and others (the mendicant orprevious to the recent change ; and thus ders) who prey more directly on the lafurnish the best means of accounting bours of the poor, and compel the infor it on the most satisfactory data. It dustrious to administer to their holy,

The former, is only by investigating the causes which uninterrupted laziness. pluoge nations into anarchy, or raise though doubtless by far too numerous, them to prosperous tranquillity, that are for the most part intelligent and we can profit by the impressive admo- humane; dispensing benevolence and nitions of history.

consolation in their respective parishes ; Our account of M. Llorente's first friendly in many instances to liberty, volume, showing how severely human and devoted to literature. The latte: nature has suffered from the endless per- with few, but striking, exceptions, are secutions of the Inquisition, will, per- unmanageable masses of ignorance and haps, be followed up, in a future Num- indolence. They live, as one of the ber, with a few remarks on the conclu- Spanish poets happily observes ding portion of that writer's interesting Desde el coro al refectorio, work, and has suggested the utility of in a state of sensual enjoyment between our collecting some facts more immedi- the organ-loft and the refectory, to ately connected with the actual state of which, as the same writer (Montalvan) religion in Spain. In pursuing our en says, all other enjoyment is but purgaquiries on this subject, we have been tory in their estimation ; the link which favoured with the sight of an unpublish- should connect them with the common ed tract, containing the result of a jour- weal for ever broken ; the ties of faminey through the Peninsula last year; ly and friend dissolved; their authority which presents a faithful, lively, and founded on the barbarism and degradaable picture of the present Spanish tion of the people, they are interested hierarchy. To the exact truth of many in stemming the torrent of improvement of Mr. Bowring's (the author) state- in knowledge, which must inevitably ments, and the justice of his remarks in sweep away these cumberers of the general, an intercourse of some time soil.' No society in which the sound with the southern provinces of Spain principles of policy are at all understood, * enables us to bear ample testimony. would consent to maintain a numerous

“ There are,” says he,“ in Spain, body of idle, unproductive members in according to Antillon's* calculations

, opulence and luxury, at the expense of two hundred thousand ecclesiastics. the active and laborious, merely because They possess immense revenues, and they had chosen to decorate themselves an incalculable influence over the mass with a peculiar insignia—to let their of the people ; though it is certain that beards grow, or shave their heads ; influence is diminishing, notwithstand- though the progress of civilization in ing the countenance and co-operation of Spain bas been greatly retarded, or rao a governınent deeply interested in pre- ther it has been compelled to retrogade serving their authority. It would be under the present despotism, yet, that

A distinguished literary character and patriot, great advances have been made since the not long since murdered by a hired assassin.

beginning of the French invasion is too

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obvious to be depied. Much was ap- fellow-men. He who, in the imposing prehended from the recalled Jesuits : procession, or at the illumined altar, apthey came—not the learned, the illus- peared a saint or a prophet, was little trious fathers of former days, but a when miogling in the common relations handful of ignorant, holpless old men, of life ; he stood unveiled before his incapable of good; and, I trust, inca- undazzled observers. For the first pable of evil.

time it was discovered that the monks “ The above event has, in fact, pro- were not absolutely necessary for the duced, and will continue to produce, a preservation even of religion. Masses very favourable influence on the eccle were celebrated as before ; the host pasiastical government of Spain. Leave raded the streets with its accustomed ing out of consideration the immense pomp and solemnity: the interesting number of priests and friars who per- ceremonials which accompany the enished during the invasion of their coun- trance and exit of a human being in this try, the destruction of convents, the valley of vicissitude, were all conducted alienation of church property, and the with their wonted regularity. Still less most unfrequent abandonment of the were they wanted to implore the blessreligious vow, unnoticed amidst the ca- ing of heaven on the labours of the buslamities of active war, more silent, but bandman, whose fruits grew and were more extensive changes have been going gathered in with unvarying abundance. on. The Cortes, when they decreed Without them the country was freed that no noviciates should be allowed to from the degrading yoke of usurpation, enroll themselves, gave a death-blow to while success and martial glory crowned the monastic influence, and since the the arms of their military companions re-establishment of the ancient despo- (the British), who cared little for all tism, the chasm left by this want of sup- the trumpery' of " friars, wbite, black, ply has not been filled up, nor is it likely or grey'; and if the contagion of their to be; for the greater part of the con contempt did not reach their Catholic vents, except those very richly endowed, friends, they lessened, at least, the recomplain that few candidates propose spect with which the inmates of the themselves except from the poorer class. convent had been so long regarded. es of society, who are not able either to “But in anticipating a period in maintain the credit or add to the influ- which the Spaniard shall be released ence of the order. Examples are now from monkish influence, it must not be extremely rare of men of family and forgotten how interwoven is that ivflufortune presenting themselves to be re ence with his most delightful recollecceived within the cloisters, and offering tions and associations. His festivities, all their wealth and power as the price his romerias, his rural pastimes are all of admission. Another circumstance, connected with, and dependent on, the the consequence of the late war, has annual return of some saint's day, in tended greatly to lessen the influence of honour of which he gives himself the regular clergy among the peasantry the most unrestrained enjoyment. A and poor tradesmen. Driven from their mass is with him the introductory scene cells by the bayonets of enemies, or to every species of gaiety, and a procesobliged to desert them that their con- sion of monks and friars forms a part of vents might become hospitals for their every picture on which his memory most sick and wounded friends, they were delights to dwell; and a similar, though compelled to mingle with the mass of perhaps, a stronger impression is created the people. To know them better was on his mind by the enthusiastic 'love to esteem chem less, and the mist of of song,' so universal in Spain. He lives vederation with which popular preju- and breathes in a land of poetry and dice had so long surrounded them was fiction: he listens with ever-glowing rapdispersed, when they became divested ture to the romanceros who celebrate the of every outward distinction, and exhib- feasts of his heroes, and surround bis ited the same follies and frailties as their monks and hermits with all the glories



of saints and angels : he hears of their “ But, alas !" says Mr. B.,

« this is mighty works; their sufferings, their only one side of the picture, for bowmartyrdom; and the tale, decorated ever soothing, however charming the with the charms of verse, is dearer to contemplation of contented ignorance him than the best of holy writ. The may be to the imagination, in the eye of peculiar favourites of the spotless Vir- reason the moral influence of such a gin, their words fall on bis ear like the system is haneful in the extreme. All voice of an oracle, their deeds have the error is evil; and the error whicb substi- solemn sanction of marvellous miracles. tutes the external form of worship for

To them he owes that his country is the its internal influence on the heart is a special charge of the queen of angels, the colossal evil. Here we have a religion, mother of God, and in every convent be if such it may be called, that is purely sees the records of the wondrous inter- ceremonial. Its duties are discharged positions of Heaven, which has so often in the daily walk of life, not by the culavailed itself of the agency of sainted tivation of pure and pious and benevoinmates, while every altar is adorned with lent affections, but by attending masses, the grateful offerings of devout wor- by reciting Paternosters and Ave-Mashippers miraculously restored 10 health, rias, by pecuniary offerings for souls in or preserved from danger. He feels him- purgatory, and by a thousand childish self the most privileged among the faith- observances, which affect remotely, if ful. On him our lady of protection they affect at all, the conduct and the (del amparo), smiles"; io him the Vir- ' character. The Spaniard attends his gin of Carmen bows her gracious head. parish church to hear a service in an unIn his eye ten thousand rays of glory known tongue ; he bends his knees and encircle the brow of his patron saint, the beats his bosom at certain sounds familfancied tones of whose voice, support, iar to his ear, but not to his sense : he ensure, and encourage him: he believes confesses and communicates with unde that his scapulary, blessed by a Carme-viating regularity; and sometimes, perlite friar, secures him from every evil : haps, he listens to a sermon in the elobis house is adorned with the pope's quent style and beautiful language of bull of indulgences--a vessel of holy bis country, not indeed instructing him water is suspended over his bed, and in the moral claiins of his religion, huť

can he want, wbat danger celebrating the virtues and recounting can approach him? His mind is one the miracles of some saint or martyr to mass of undistinguishing, confiding, whom the day is dedicated. He reads comforting faith. That faith is his reli- bis religious duties, not in a Bible, but gion, his Christianity! How difficult an almanack; and his almanack is but will it be to separate the evil from the a sort of Christian mythology. His saints good, if indeed they can be separated! are more numerous than the deities of What a fortress must be overthrown the Pantheon, and, to say the trutb, before truth and reason can advance a there are many of them little better than single step; what delightful visions must these. be forgotten, what animating recollec “ He is told, however, that his coudtions, what transporting hopes ! Have try exhibits the proudest triumphs of we a right to rouse him from these orthodox Christianity. Schism and beblessed delusions ? This is indeed the resy have been scattered, or at least siignorance that is bliss. Is it not folly lenced : and if in Spain the eye is conto wish him wise ?"

stantly attracted, and the heart distressHaving thus described the effects of ed, by objects of unalleviated buman their peculiar religious belief on the peo- misery; if the hospitals are either wholple of Spain, the author proceeds to ly unprotected,or abandoned to the care discuss another and not less important of the venal and the vile ; if the prisons part of the subject—the species of de- are crowded with a promiscuous mass votion which they are called upon to of innocence and guilt in all its shades pay the Divinity

and shapes of enormity—what does it

what more

matter? Spain, catholic Spain, bas pre- trolled the malignity and petty tyranny served her faith unadulterated and un- of its inferior agents. Its vigilance and changed'; and ber priests assure us that its persecutions, are indeed continually an error in creed is far more dangerous at work, yet, I believe its flames will (or, to use their owo mild language), far never be lighted. Its greatest zeal is more damnable than a multitude of er now directed against Freemasons, of rors in conduct. A depraved heart may whom immense numbers occupy its be forgiven, but not an erring head. prisons and dungeons. I have converThis is in fact the fatal principle, whose sed with many who have been incarcer-4 poison spreads thro' this strongly ce-ated by the Inquisition, and they agree mented system. To this we may at- in stating that torture is no longer adtribute its absurdities, its errors,its crimes. ministered. But its influence on literIo a word, intolerance, in its widest and ature is perhaps greater than ever : for worst extent, is the foundation on which though Spain possesses at the present the whole of the Spanish ecclesiastical moment, a great number of admirable edifice rests. It has been called the writers, the press was never so inactive. main pillar of the constitution, and is so The despotism exercised over authors inwrought with the habits and prejudices and publishers, is so intolerable, that of the nation, that the Cortes, with all few have courage voluntarily to submit their general liberality, dared not allow to it. Often after authorizing the pubthe profession of any other religion than lication of a work, they ordered it to be the “Catolica Apostolica Romana unica suppressed, and every copy to be burnt, Verdadera." The cry of innovation be- and never think of reparation to those came a dreadful weapon in the hands of who are so cruelly injured. Their prethose who profess to believe that errors sumption in condemning whatever they became sanctified by age. Too true it is, cannot understand, their domiciliary that if long usage can sanction wrong, visits, their arbitrary decrees, against persecution might find its justification in which there is no security and no apevery page of Spanish history, from the peal, make them fearful enensies and time when Recaredo, the Gothic mon- faithless friends. With the difficulty, arch, abandoned bis Arian principles. delay, expense, and frequent impossiLong, long before the Inquisition had bility of obtaining a license for the erected its frightful pretensions into a publication of any valuable work, may system, or armed itself with its bloody well be contrasted the ridiculous trash sword, its spirit was abroad and active. which daily issues from the Spanish Thousands and tens of thousands of press. Accounts of miracles wrought Jews and Moors had been its victims, by the different Virgins, lives of holy and its founders did no more than ob- friars and sainted nuns, romances of tain a regal or a papal license, for the marvellous conversions, libels against murders wbich would otherwise bave Jews and heretics, and freemasons, bisbeen probably committed by a barbarous tories of apparitions, and so forth, are and frenzied mob, excited by incendiary generally introduced, not by a mere limonks and friars."

cense of the Inquisitor, but by long and Althongh the author is of opinion laboured eulogiums !" that the influence of the holy office has Mr. Bowring very justly observes diminished, bis remarks on the subject that the advocates of intolerance and tend strongly to corroborate the state- persecution are most frequently found ments we quoted from Llorente's work. amongst those who are devoid of relig

“ The loquisition,” he observes,“ has ious principles themselves. No plea of no doubt been greatly bumanized by modest inquiry, of conscientious doubt, the progress of time; as, in order to or bonest difference of opinion, is permaintain its influence in these more en. mitted to oppose their wishes. He lightened and enquiring days, it has a- adds, with equal truth, that such men vailed itself of men of superior talent, are the prime movers of restraints on these have softened the asperity,or con- toleration ; that they are to be found

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