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pestilence in Rome the snake brought frescoes and in the mosaics, or found, like over from the temple of Æsculapius at the bean and the walnut, solely in the exEpidauris is said to have glided out of the cavations. He has recognized about fifty ship, on arriving at Antium, and to have kinds. Schouw, who had gone over the wound itself round the palm-tree in the same ground previously, mentions a few sacred grove of Apollo ; after having re- which Comes has not been able to identify, mained there three days it quietly re- but Comes has found a larger number. turned to the ship, which continued its The fruit and flowers in the representavoyage to Rome.
The oleander, the tions of still life are executed with great rhododendron, rhododaphne, or nerium fidelity ; where they are introduced as orof the Greeks and Romans-so frequently daments or accessories they are not so seen on the Pompeian walls, --is not men- easily recognized, as the decorators of the tioned in Greek literature, and not in Ro- latter period gave free scope to their fancy, man literature till Virgil. Hehn believes and made Nature entirely subservient to that it came from Asia Minor into Greece art. In the celebrated Flower Gatherer, after Theophrastus's time, and did not for instance, found at Gragnano, and now pass into Italy till much later. It was first in the Naples Museum, the plant from cul ed in gardens, but it soon began which she gathers the flowers has been to grow wild by the sides of streams, drawn not from Nature, but from the imwhere it had free play, as sheep and goats agination of the artist. would not touch it on account of its being The vegetation in Italy was much more poisonous to them-a fact already men- limited then than at present. In the days tioned by Pliny. It is now so common of Virgil and Pliny, even
as now, the that it has been thought to be indigenous vine“ married to the elm, or in Camin Italy.
pania to the poplar, hung in festoons from The peach, the apricot, and the melon tree to tree, and the pale green of the olive did not come into Italy till the first cen- blended with the soft blue sky, but the tury of the Christian era. The peach (the orange and lemon-trees, now so inseparamalum persicum, or Persian apple of the bly associated with Italy, were absent. Romans) is, according to A. de Candolle, They were unknown to the Greeks and a native of China as well as the apricot, Romans. The lemon, which came origwhich Pliny calls precocia, and which inally from India through Persia and Arawas believed to have come from Armenia. bia, was not cultivated in Europe till about The same botanist shows that the pome- the middle of the thirteenth century. The granate (the malum punicum or granatum bitter orange, also a native of India, had of the Romans) is a native of Persia and come into Europe a century and a half of a few adjacent countries, and not of earlier, when it was first cultivated in North Africa ; and that the cherry, Sicily.
cherry, Sicily. Both were most likely introduced brought to Italy by Lucullus from Pontus by the Arabs. The sweet orange was, in 64 B.C., was probably an improved according to some authorities, brought variety of a tree which existed in Italy from China by the Portuguese in 1548. long before,
A cut melon found among De Candolle, howerer, believes this was the fruit painted on the Pompeian walls, only an improved species, and that the and also a representation of a melon in an fruit had already come into cultivation in ancient mosaic in the Vatican, have proved Europe in the fourteenth century. The conclusively that the melon of the Romans citron tree, a native of India, first seen was the same as ours —á fact for a long by the Greeks in Persia and Media during time disputed. De Candolle remarks that Alexander's campaigns, and described by its quality was probably inferior, as the Theophrastus, probably became acclimaancient writers give it but faint praise. tized in Italy in the third century of the Dr. Comes assumes that the cucumis which Christian era. Virgil, in the Georgics, was cultivated under glass for the Emperor describes it as a foreign fruit-tree, and Tiberius, was the melon, but this is very Pliny speaks of vain attempts that had doubtful, and it was more probably the been made to transplant it, saying that in cucumber. The native regions of the his time it only grew in Media and Persia. melon were India and Western Africa. It is, therefore, an anachronism to suppose
Dr. Comes gives an interesting account that any of these fruits could have repreof the plants represented on the Pompeian sented to the ancients the golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides, with worn in the temples and at the banquets. which the citron was afterward sometimes The Romans distinguished between the identified. Pliny speaks of a kind of corone and the serta, the latter representquince called the chrysomela (golden ap- ing chiefly the garlands or festoons for ple), and it is probable that the apples of decorating altars, doors, and drinking the Hesperides and of Atalanta were vessels. A good example of the serta may nothing but idealized quinces, the only be seen sculptured on a Pompeian tomb golden apples known to the ancients. Dr. known as the tomb of the Garlands. Comes shows that this is corroborated by The tradition about the origin of the the fact that the Hercules Farnese holds banqueter's wreath was that it had origi. three quinces in his hand. The quince, nally been worn as a tight band round the like the apple and the pomegranate, was head to avert the effects of wine-drinking, dedicated to Aphrodite. They all came and that the first wreath bad been made under the denomination of apples, and the of ivy and worn by Bacchus himself, for quince was called the cydonian apple be- which reason the ivy was dedicated to cause the best came from Cydonia, in Bacchus. Alexander the Great returned Crete. It had, according to Solon's Laws, from India crowned with ivy in imitation to be tasted by the bride before marriage. of Bacchus, the conqueror of India. AcIn poetry, it is frequently used as a meta- cording to another tradition, wreaths were phor, as in some pretty lines of Leonidas worn in remembrance of the chains of of Tarentum in the Greek Anthology. On Prometheus. Strict laws among the Rothe Pompeian frescoes there are two rep. mans forbade their being worn indiscrimresentations of a bear eating a quince, and inately on all occasions. Pliny tells the the qnince also appears in the mosaic of story of a banker, L. Fulvius, who was the house of the Faun.
imprisoned by order of the Senate for Among the fruit which are generally having at the time of the Second Punic represented in the triclinia, we find the War looked down from the balcony of his peach, the melon, the gourd, the pump- house into the forum with a chaplet of kin, the fig, the almond, the pomegranate, roses on bis bead. It was customary to the grape, the cherry, the date, the pear, approach the gods with a crown on the and the apple. The peach, which had head because, according to Aristotle, no not been long introduced into Italy in mutilated gift could be offered to the gods Pliny's time, and was still a rare and ex. but only such as were perfect and compensive laxury, only appears once, in the plete, and crowning anything indicates house of Sirieus. The salve lucru (m) in completing it. At the banquets wreaths mosaic letters on the threshold of this were provided by the host, who thus did house, bas led to the supposition that the honor to his guests. As a crown on the owner was a merchant, and the decora- head expressed the fulness of life and joy, tions and objects found in it showed that it was out of place in the house of mournhe was a wealthy man who liked sur. ing. rounding himself with the luxuries of life. The Greeks and Romans carried a great The asparagus was found represented on refinement into the art of garland-making. the wall of the triclinium of the Casa del They studied the language of flowers and Gallo. This was an indigenous plant, al- how to blend the perfumes as well as the ready cultivated with great care in Cato's colors. This art had been developed by time. Pliny praises the kind that grew the Greek flower-girl Glycera and the wild in the island of Nesis off the Cam- painter Pausias in their ingenious contest panian coast.
to outvie each other in the most subtle ex. The fora of the Greeks and Romans pression of the beautiful, she, in plaiting was much less varied than ours, but they the wreaths, he in reproducing them in cultivated flowers in great profusion, and painting, “a contest, says Pliny,“ in they used them largely for making gar- reality between Art and Nature.” Somelands. These were woven either of leaves times wreaths were worn round the neck or flowers, and the flowers were chiefly that the wearer might enjoy the perfume roses and violets. They were used for more, and roses were scattered over the religious and funeral purposes, for reward- table for the same purpose. An illustraing the brave, crowning the victors in tion of this may be seen in one of the games, as love offerings, and they were lately excavated houses at Pompeii, the Casa del Simposio, where there are three planted there from Mount Pangæus, where representations of a symposium; the floor it grew in great abundance. Pliny says and table are strewn with rose-leaves, and that the rose which flourished best in Camone of the guests wears a red garland pania was also the centifolia, but his deround his neck. The utmost refinement scriptions of the roses, though no doubt of luxury consisted in sewing together the intelligible to bis contemporaries, are very petals of the roses alone--the corona suti- perplexing to modern botanists, and some lis. A perfect wreath of this kind was of them have even doubted whether the found last year by Mr. Flinders Petrie in ancients knew the centifolia of the presthe ancient cemetery of Hawara in Egypt. ent day. Schleiden believes the rose of The lemnisci, or ribbons made of the del. Midas was the rosa gallica, the earliest icate membranes of the lime-bark, were
rose cultivated in Greece, and now growattached to the wreaths.
ing wild there. Comes identifies the The rose was in antiquity, as it is now, rosebuds on the Pompeian walls with the the qneen of the garden, and Campania damask rose, which Sprengel believed to was the land of roses. It was represented have been the celebrated rose of Pæstum on the coins of Rhodos, Pæstum, Neap- that blossomed twice in the year. Other olis, Cyrene, and other places famous for authorities think that the damask rose did the tower. The cultivated rose was one not come into Europe till the time of the of the few double flowers known to the Crusades, or even later. The demand for ancients. It had come to the Greeks from roses was so great in the days of Martial, Media, and can be traced through Phry- that in winter the Romans cultivated them gia, Thraco, and Macedonia. Athenæus under glass or imported them from Egypt, quotes from the poet Nicander :
which, on account of its beautiful climate, The poets tell
had proved a fruitful soil for the acclimaThat Midas first, when Asia's realms ho left, tization of plants when the Ptolemies had Brought roses from th' Odonian hills of carried Greek culture thither. Thrace,
The Florentine and the German iris, And cultivated them in th’Emathian lands, Blooming and fragrant with their sixty petals. daffodil, the hollyhock, the red corn
the yellow water-iris, the narcissus, the Einathia was part of Macedonia, and the poppy, the reed, the corn-flag, the aster rose garden of Midas was, according to amellus or Italian starwort, Herodotus, at the foot of Mount Bermion by the winding streams of Mella, in Macedonia.
corn-cockle, the ox-eye, the aloe, the soft Every flower and tree in antiquity had acanthus, the laurel of Alexandria, the Indits myth, and was dedicated to some di- ian millet, the wheat, are all represented vinity. The rose had, according to one either on the Pompeian walls or in the legend, sprung from the blood of the dy- mosaics. The tamarind, the papyrus, and ing Adonis ; according to another the the lotus flower appear only in the Egypwhite rose bad been colored red by the tian scenery. Among the trees on the blood of the goddess Aphrodite herself walls are the oak, the chestnut, the stone when she ran through the thorns to succor pine, the cypress, the laurel, the myrtle, her favorite. The symbol of all that is the olive, the ivy, the vine, the palm, the most beautiful, most enjoyable, and most plane, the gum arabic, the black mulberry, perishable, it was dedicated to Aphrodite, and the cherry trec. The importance the and it was also the flower of Dionysus in Romans attached to their gardens implies his double character of the god of bloom- that the gardener was a person of some ing nature and the god of the under-world, consequence, and we learn from Cicero the mystic form in which his worship had that the topiarii ranked among the supecome with the Greek colonies froin the rior slaves. Hehn and Friedländer give Peloponnesus into Southern Italy. It good reasons for believing that the Roman was the flower of the feast and the flower gardeners were chiefly Orientals. At the of the tombs. The best authorities con- very time when Roman power and luxury sider it almost impossible now to identify were in the ascendant, İtaly was overrun the roses of the ancients. Theophrastus with Semitic slaves, who were better suited mentions that in his time, the inhabitants than those of any other race for the serof Philippi in Macedonia were cultivating vile condition. Their gentleness, and pa. the rosa centifolia, which they had trans- tience, their peaceful, laborious tastes,
ós that grew
while rendering them unfit to be soldiers I saw an old Corycian to whom belonged and gladiators, eminently qualified them a few acres of neglected land. not rich for domestic service, and especially for enough for the plough, nor fit for grazing, the care required in tending plants. More- nor kindly for vines. Yet here planting over, gardening in the East was held in among the bushes a few pot-herbs, white great esteem, whence the Greek proverb, lilies, vervain and slender poppies, he *There are many vegetables in Syria." matched in his content the wealth of Born and bred among such traditions they kings ; and returning late at night was had brought with them a natural taste, a used to load his board with unbought superior knowledge and aptitude highly dainties. He was the first to gather the useful to the Romans in their attempts at rose in spring and fruit in autumn; and acclimatization. They had been trained even while stern winter was still splitting in the arts of grafting, of creating new the rocks with cold and bridling tbe rivers species by judicious selection, of turning with ice, in that very season he would every sport of Nature to account, and even pluck the tender hyacinth, chiding the of dwarfing the trees —an art which is now late spring and the lazy zephyrs. His carried to such a high degree of perfec- teeming bees were the first to swarm, he tion in Japan. Virgil's old man of Ta- was the first to strain the frothing honey rentum, who had made the wilderness from the pressed combs : abundant limes blossom like the rose, was himself from and pines were his, and for every blossom Corycus in Cilicia, the country adjoining the fertile tree had borne in early spring, Syria.
it bore fruit in autumn ripeness. He also Amid the passing fashions of a luxn- was the last to plant out his elms and pearrious age Virgil's picture of the old Cory- trees when they had hardened, and the cian's garden stands out in immortal beau- sloes already bearing plums, and the planes ty and simplicity : “I remember that grown broad enough to shade the feast.' under the lofty turrets of Æbalia, where -- Macmillan's Magazine. black Galæsus moistened the yellow fields,
CHANT DE GOLIAS.
BY B. MONTGOMERIE RANKING.
With silver strings my lute I strung,
Never a maid may wrestle time;
Rose hath canker, and Christmas rime.
The moon bath waning and eclipse,
Never a maid may wrestle time ;
THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF MURRAY'S HANDBOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS.
BY JOHN MURRAY.
I have no desire to intrude myself be- fact, may be said to have had no little infore the Public, and as regards the sub- fluence in producing the result of Trayject of Handbooks for Travellers I have elling made easy. never put forward any statement of my Since so many thousands of persons claims as author and originator of them. have profited by these books, it may be Having been requested, however, to give of some interest to the public to learn some account of the origin of Murray's their origin, and the cause which led me Handbooks, I have consented to do so the to prepare them. Having from my early more readily after reading an article re- youth been possessed by an ardent desire cently contributed to the Pall Mall Ga- to travel, my very indulgent Father aczette on the subject of Baedeker's Guides. ceded to my request, on condition that I
The writer of that article would appear should prepare myself by mastering the to claim for Mr. Baedeker the credit of language of the country I was to travel in. inventing this class of work, and he en- Accordingly in 1829, having brushed up tirely ignores the existence of Murray and my German, I first set foot on the Conhis Handbooks for Travellers, omitting all tinent at Rotterdam, and my “Handallusion to them. Now there are already book for Holland” gives the results of in existence twenty-nine of my Hand- my personal observations and private books--including the Handbooks to the studies of that wonderful country. Cathedrals—dealing with the British Isl- At that time such a thing as a Guideands alone ; and if the compiler of a new book for Germany, France, or Spain did Guide to Great Britain has in no not exist. The only Guides deserving the made rise of this mass of material, he has name were : Ebel, for Switzerland ; Boyce, exhibited a remarkable example of for- for Belgium ; and Mrs. Starke for Italy. bearance and abstinence.
Hers was a work of real utility, because, No doubt the Editor of such a book amid a singular medley of classical lore, would be called upon to travel over a con- borrowed from Lemprière's Dictionary, siderable part of the country himself, and interwoven with details regulating the in dealing with a vast number of facts, charges in washing-bills at Sorrento and and of matters liable to constant change, Naples, and an elaborate theory on the he could not fail to find much to correct origin of Devonshire Cream, in which she and supplement in the work of his prede- proves that it was brought by Phænician cessors; but the claim of originating this colonists from Asia Minor into the West species of Literature, and of having brought of England, it contained much practical it to "the level of a fine art,” which the information gathered on the spot. But I wiiter in the Pall Mall broadly asserts on set forth for the North of Europe unprobehalf of Messrs. Baedeker, would, I feel vided with any guide, excepting a few sure, be repudiated by them, since at the manuscript notes about towns and inns, outset of their series they acknowledged &c., in Holland, furnished me by my once and again the obligations they were good friend Dr. Somerville, husband of under to Murray ; not only confessing the learned Mrs. Somerville. These were that they inade bis Guides the basis and of the greatest use. Sorry was I when, framework upon which their own were on landing at Hamburg, I found myself founded, but that in some instances they destitute of such friendly aid. It was this directly translated from his work.
that impressed on my mind the value of In consequence of this challenge, how. practical information gathered on the spot, ever, I feel bound not to allow myself to and I set to work to collect for myself all be deprived of what credit attaches to me the facts, information, statistics, &c., as the author, inventor, and originator of which an English tourist would be likely a class of works which, by the invariable to require or find useful. I travelled thus, testimony of Travellers, during more than note-book in hand, and whether in the half a century, have been of the greatest street, the Eilwagen, or the Picture Galutility and comfort to themwhich, in lery, I noted down every fact as it oc