2853. [Josh. x. 22.] Wbeu those nations marched in bodies to war, or to make settlements, they carried Images before them, which hore the same names as their respective chiefs or kings. (See BUCHART, Lib. Phaleg. pp. 372, 374. Or HUTCHINSON's Confusion of Tongues, p. 88.) - In the book of Wisdom, chap xiv, we are told that the idols of the Antients were the figures of their dead children, or the inages of their tyrants.

2860. (Josh. xii. 7, 8.] This Interior Canaan, this winepress of Rev. xiv. 20., did but extend in length from the wilderness in the south to Mount Lebanon in the north, 160 furlongs ; which, after the Eastern measurement of ten furlongs to the mile, amounts only to 160 miles. Its common breadth, from Jordan on the east to the Mediterranean on the west, is computed to be about fifty miles, and not more than eighty, if the kingdoms of Sibon and Og be added as they lie on the other side Jordan. This was the good ground, the Interior of the Church, which, according to 2 Sam. xxiv. 9, literally yielded food to thirteen hundred thousand men, besides women, children, impotent persons, and all the Levites and Benjamites that had been left unnumbered.



The civil rulers of the Amorites were, like the rulers of the Philistines, lords; their religious idols were their kings. Ezek. xliii, 7.


Consequently one Heathen author tells you, that such a god was born and reigned at such a time, in such a country: another says, a god of the same name was born and reigned at another time, and in another country.

See HUTCHINSON's Trinity of the

Gentiles, p. 172.

2861. [-16. The king of Bethel] Thus it appears that at the very Bethel, near Hai, where Abraham bad built an aliar to Jehovah (Gen. xji. 8), there was now an Idol with its concomitant apparatus for worship, which Joshua and the Israelites were required by their law utterly to destroy. Deut. xii. 2, 3.

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2868. [Josh. xvii. 11.) Bethsan stood on the confines of Galilee, hear the mountains of Gilboa, about a mile from the inner side of the river Jordan, 120 furlongs froin the lake of Gennesereth, and 600 furlongs from Jerusalem. It was not adopted by the Israelites, we see, when they converled Palestine ; but remained a Canaanitish town, the most considerable of what were denominated the Decapolis. — In 2 Maccabees xii. 29, it is named Scythopolis, as being inhabited by Scythians : it is now called Elbyzan. —JOSEPHUS says, the dead bodies of Saul and Jonathan were exposed on the walls of this city."

See his Antiq. - Univer. Hist.

ool. ix. p. 6.

2874. { 51. They made an end of dividing the country] Thus we see,

“ when the Israelites were brought by Joshua into the land of Canaan, they had by Divine appointment small inheritances allotted them: but there were no great eslates. The allotments we may suppose were pretty equal; by which means many were made independent, but none could be wealthy tyrants: neither could there be many destitute of the means of subsistence. These family iuberitances were inalienable ; that is, they could not be sold, except for a limited time, or until the Jubilee year when all alienated lands returned to their original fainilies. Thus it was that none could ever monopolize land to any dangerous extent. A man might divide his inheritance ainong his own family, but he could never finally sell it out of his family. – It would be a degree of presumption to say that any improvement could be made to this distribution of property, whiclı was a Divine institution, and made a nation of people, generally speaking, neither rich nor poor, which is the state of all others, most adapted to hainau happiness. And whenever mankind shall have wisdom and goodness sufficient to put the world into the best possible posture for happiness, health, and peace, they will effect that great end by adopting the Divine means, -by dividing land into small portions, and prohibiting its final alienation."

2869. [ 16.] It is probable, that the fram- of these chariots, or cars, were really like Og's, made of iron.

See Deut. iii. 11.

2870. [Josh. xviii. 1.) The Ark was brought from Gilgal to Shiloh, the first sabbatical year after the Israelites entered the promised land. It was on a similar year removed from Kirjath-jearim to the city of David.

USHER's ann.



2875. [Josh. x.. 2 — 9.] Pillars and crosses were, previously to the reformation, placed occasionally in the neighbourhood of churches, to mark the boundaries of those privileged spaces, in which fugitives, whether for debt or crime, were sure to find protection. Of such spaces, to a greater or less extent, all consecrated churches were possessed ; which having been indulged to them, in conformity with the corruptions of pagan practice rather than the purer precepts of the Mosaic law, first by Christian emperors in foreign countries, and, in this country, by Christian kings, were afterwards, by Boniface the Fifth, and his successors in the papal chair, fully established and confirmed.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. p. 41.

2871. (Josh. xix. 13.] Here yuneth is contracted into yath, and means habitaculum, scilicet principis, a palace.

Arrian, as quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus, tells us that Tyre was calied Anatha (Grk.). - The word anath (Neah) means that New Tyre was a residence fixed on a rock.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. pp. 133, 134.

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ACHO, enlarged and beautified by the First of the Egyptian Ptolemies, was from him called Ptolemais. Verse 31.

See Acts xxi. 7.

were the twelve stones erected by Joshua in Gilgal after the Israelites had passed over Jordan. ,


2884. [Judg. i. 36. Akrabim, and the upper Sela] There were two Selas, or Petras : one in Arabia Petrea, the other in Palestine. The latter seems here designated.


2888. [Judg. iii. 24.] In the midst of an Eastern garden is the chiosk, or arbour, which is a large room commonly beautified with a fine fountain, in the midst of it. It is raised nine or ten steps, and inclosed with gilded lattices, round which vines, jessamines, and honeysuckles make a sort of green wall; large trees are planted round this place, which is the scene of their greatest pleasures.

Lady M. W. Montague's Letters,

vol. ii. p. 38.

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In all the warmer climates of the globe, the custom of sleeping after dinner is invariably preserved. It appears

from modern travellers, that many of the present inhabitants of Athens have their houses flat-roofed, and decorated with arbours, in which they sleep at noon.

HERODOTUS, Clio, Ixiii. and note.

2886. [Judg. iii. 6.) Among the natives of Sierra Leone, women are frequently made the bond of union, or the reconcilers of disputes. If two tribes have been at war, and agree on a peace, a mutual exchange of daughters is the basis of the treaty. It is the same with individuals. In order to connect families together, a female child is frequently betrothed as soon as she is born ; but generally the child remains with the mother till of proper age.


2890. [-31.] A parallel case occurs in Homer, where Lycurgus puts to fight the Bacchæ with an ox-goad.

Some suppose Shamgar, at the head of rustics armed with implements of tillage, had an ox-goad in his hand when these Philistines were subdued; not that himself slew them with that instrument.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 208. The phrase is malmad nabakar (Hebr.), which signifies any instrument by which oxen are trained to labor.

Ibid. vol. iii. p. 452.

2887. (19.] These quarries (engraved pillars)


The ox-goad in the East, is of au extraordinary size, measuring about eight feet in length, and at the bigger end six inches. in circumference. Pointed with a sharp prickle for driving the oxen, it has at the other end a smali spade, or paddle of iron, strong and massy, for cleansing the plough from the clay that encumbers it in working. А single person, equipped with this instrument, can both drive the oxen, and also hold and manage the plough. Acts ix. .

See MAUNDRELL, at April 15th.

kept firm and steady, by bracing or stretching down their eves with cords tied down to hooked wooden pins well pointed, which they drive iuto the ground with a mallet; one of these pins answering to the nail, as the mallet does to the hammer, which Jael used in fastening to the ground the temples of Sisera. Judith xiii. 6.

Suaw's Trav. p. 221.

2892. [Judg. iv. 4.] The Indian nalions of America, where the dignity is hereditary, limit the succession to the female line. Whence, on the death of a chief, bis sister's son sometimes succeeds him in preference to liis own son ; and if he have no sister, the nearest female relation assumes the dignity.

Carver's Trad. in N. America,

2897. [Judg. v. 7.] In the Indian councils of North America, the business of certain mothers (or matrons) is to take notice of what passes, imprint it in their ineinories, for they have no writing, and cominunicate it to their children. These women preserve, also, tradition of the stipulations in treaties a hundred years back ; which, says Dr. FranKLIN, when we coinpare with our writings, we always find exact. See No. 203.

See Dr. Franklin's Essays. Rom. xvi. 13.

p. 166.

2893. [ll.] By comparing all the passages that relate to those relations of Moses, I am now of opinion, says Dr. Geddes, that Hobab was a younger brother of Jethro : as it is not probable that Jethro, the elder son, would abandou his father aud the priesthood, or principality, in Midian ; to which his birthright intitled him.

Crit. Remarks, p. 163.

2898. (8.) Here forty thousand Israelites appeared against Sisera without either shield or spear! In a day of battle against the Philistines, there was found neither sword nor spear in Saul's army, though they had but just gained a sigual victory over the Ammonites! See 1 Sam. xii. xiii. Thus also did Joshua gain bloodless victories : the Lord chasing his enemies with thuuder, lightning, hail and storm.

See No. 2006, 2019, 2797.

2894. [-17.) Dr. Pocoke tells us, that the Arabs are not so scrupulous about their women as the Turks; and though they have their harem or woman's part of the tent, yet such as they are acquainted with, come into them. "I was kept, says lie, “in the harem for greater security; the wife being always with me; no stranger ever daring to come into the woman's apartment, uuless introduced.” According to the custom of the present Arabs therefore, it was not absurd in Sisera to hope lie might be received into Jael's tent, the harem of Eber. It appears too that her tent was the securest place in that encampment wherein to secrele himself, as it would bave been the greatest insult to this Kenite emir for any Israelite to have sought him there.

Bib. Research, vol. ii. p. 195.


When the Israelites departed from their precepts and statutes, and fell into the evils of a neighbouring nation, they were punished by that vation : as for example, by the Assyrians and Chaldeans, when they had adopted their soul idolatries.

See SwedeNBORG, on Divine

Providence, n. 251.

2895. - 19.} Oxygal, or sour camels' milk, is not only very cooling, but peculiarly stupifying to the senses. It inebriates like laudanum. See No. 891, 345.


2900. [-10.] In this song Deborah expressly addresses herself to those elders who, in their annual perambulations to execute judgment, rode on white asses. — Cartwright, during his travels iu those parts, beheld every day, he says, on the banks of the Euphrates, large droves of wild beasts, – wild asses in particular, all white.

See Dr. Gill. And Hurdis's Diss. p. 62.
BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii.


87. Tsachar (Hebr.) signifies not only, white, but sleek or shining ; nitentes, as the Vulgate has it. — Тsachar occurs only here, and in Ezek. xxvii. 18.

2896. [21.] The tents of the Bedouin Arabs are

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