army. He followed it so closely through Thessaly as sometimes to be detained for want of horses, which were pressed for the public service. Yet though he heard many reports of violence and misconduct, they all fled before him; and upou bis arrival at the places where they were said to have happened, he could never discover any traces of excess. The system indeed pursued by the great Albanian Pashaws, who at present govern all Turkey south of Salonika, with the exception of Athens and its territory, is that of a rigorous and indiscriminating police. Turk and Greek are. equally protected and equally punished by these minor sovereigus, whose sole connexion with the former is a religion about which, except as a political engine, they are indifferent, and who are wise enough to perceive that the great strength of their government as to revenue, and no small part of it in point of population, depends upon the Greeks. The revenue indeed, and the means of increase ing it, are the great, we may almost say the sole object of these shop-keeping governors : but in the collection of this, they find abundant reason for conciliating the superior Greeks. Generally speaking, they possess the whole talent and information of the couns try, and from their youth are initiated in all the arts of defrauding that revenue, which they are afterwards employed to collect.

While Greece was, as it still is indeed, " (like every other place under the dominion of the Turks,) treated as a conquered country, the regular revenue consisted principally of the capitation tax, and certain customary duties not very rigidly levied. The deficiency was made up, and the rapacity both of the Porte and the intermediate governors satisfied, by forced contributions from the rich. This necessarily produced a studious concealment of property, while it checked the activity of commercial speculation. Add to this, that the haughty Turk, disdaining that his vassal should in any respect vie with himself, chastised every appearance of luxury in the rayah, and rendered riches the less desirable by taking away their enjoyinent, But the Albanian Pashaws, the descendants of those who had been forced indeed to embrace the religion of their conquerors, but who in so doing had exalted themselves to a political level with them, while they took advantage of this to establish their own authority, under the semblance of being the deputies of the Porte, never seem to have forgotten that they were Albanians before they were Mahometans. Hence while at home they made but little difference, besides the payment of the haratch, between their Greek and Mahomedan subjects, they were disposed to carry the same indifference into the administration of the other parts of Greece, to the government of which they succeeded. Unshackled with Turkish prejudices, they soon discovered that by a little attention to the superior Greeks, they should be enabled to

raise upon them, and through them upon their inferiors, a revenue far exceeding any thing which had yet been derived from the country. The first measure was to free them from the contumelious treatment to which they were before liable from the lowest of the Turks; the next, to secure that property to the occupier, from which the lord expected to derive a benefit. Hence the adoption of a vigorous and, as far as we saw, an effective police. Hence too the popularity among the superior Greeks of both Ali and Veli Pashaw. Upon this ground did the half Italianized physicians, whom Veli keeps about his person, not for his health, but his amusement, assert his claim to the title of ottimo principe. Upon this ground were the virtues of Ali the theme of praise at Livadia, where the principal Greeks, not in private only, but at the anniversary festival of Logotheti, the first man of their nation, made the room resound with vivas,' at the health of • il nostro sorranno Ali Vizir. But while they praised the dis. tributive justice of their sovereign, (the Sultan hinself was not even named,) they did not conceal, what was indeed but too obvious, that while themselves prospered, their country was hastening to decay. The system of farming the revenues by the leading Greeks, while it increased the income of the Pashaws, infamed their cupidity. Conceiving, from the facility with which the sums were collected, that they had only to name them, and leave the rest to the ingenuity of the Greeks, taxation has been carried to a point which threatens the annihilation of the objects of taxation. So long indeed as the money can be raised, it will; for the collectors are interested in the support of a system from which they derive a degree of political consideration, to which they had been long unaccustomed; and they are too well acquainted with the resources of their inferiors, to leave a chance of escape. time, the distress of the lower orders is already arrived at such a pitch, that numbers yearly emigrate to Asia, preferring oppression and contempt at first hand from the Turks, to the misery which results from the intermediate sway of their brethren. One of the principal objects of the Dervanis stationed about the isthmus of Corinth, is to prevent the escape of the inhabitants of the Morea under Veli. The country, in fact, is rapidly declining both in wealth and population.

We cannot indeed confine this observation to the European countries under these Pashaws alone. Throughout Roumelia, with exception perhaps of the part immediately about Salonika, a similar decay has taken place. The observations of an intelligent French physician, who had been resident in Salonika above 40 years, founded upon a general and confidential intercourse with both Turks and Greeks, led him to estimate the diminution of



population in European Turkey at nearly one third. This may perhaps be exaggerated, but to justify such a calculation in any degree, the falling off must be very great; and we may observe that the opinions of several of the oldest merchants there, founded on the diminution in the demand for articles not only of luxury, but of prime necessity, nearly coincided with the above statement.

This view of the depopulation of the country, confirming what we incidentally learn from Mr. Galt of the scarcity of provisions ; and added to what he says of the badness of the roads, and the difficulty of passing through the present seat of war, inclines us to draw conclusions altogether opposite to his, touching the probability, we do not say of the final, but of any very speedy subjugation of European Turkey. Of such an event we have no expectation until the power that undertakes the task shall bend its whole force and attention to that single object. To penetrate the country adjacent to the Danube, to overrun whatever is at no great distance from her own means of supply, has been the easy, we can hardly call it successful, warfare of Russia in the present contest. But to advance with an adequate army to the Great Balkem, to cross it with success, and pursue the road to Constantinople, would require, in every stage of the journey, the establishment of magazines, to be supplied, not from the country subdued, but from that from which the enemy set out. The only other practicable method of supply would be from the shores of the Black Sea ; and to cut off this, were a Turkish fleet insufficient, there would be po great difficulty, we presume, in procuring the assistance of an English one. Nor are we without a hope, that the change which has lately taken place in our diplomatic arrangements at Constantinople may enable us to recover whatever we have lost of influence and good will; and, at no distant period, give us an opportunity of removing, by benefits conferred in the support of an ancient ally, that stain upon our character, which was incurred by the unjust and inglorious expeditions to Alexandria and the Dardanelles.

Our readers will we presume by this time be happy to be released from any farther attendance on Mr. Galt; of whom we now take leave, in the certainty that he cannot complain in our review of what he most seemed to dread, 'verbal criticism ;' and in the hope that he will not, without very mature consideration, visit us with another volume of travels.


ART. VI. Eighteen Hundred and Eleven. A Poem. By Anna

Letitia Barbauld. 4to. London. Johnson and Co. 1812. OUR old acquaintance Mrs. Barbauld turned satirist! The last

thing we should have expected, and, now that we have seen her satire, the last thing that we could bave desired.

May we (without derogating too much from that reputation of age and gravity of which critics should be so chary) confess that we are yet young enough to have had early obligations to Mrs. Barbauld; and that it really is with no disposition to retaliate on the fair pedagogue of our former life, that on the present occasion, we have called her up to correct her exercise ?

But she must excuse us if we think that'she has wandered from the course in which she was respectable and useful, and miserably mistaken both her powers and her duty, in exchanging the birchen for the satiric rod, and abandoning the superintendance of the 'ovilia' of the nursery, to wage war on the reluctantes dracones,' statesmen, and warriors, whose misdoings have aroused her indignant muse.

We had hoped, indeed, that the empire might have been saved without the intervention of a lady-author: we even flattered ourselves that the interests of Europe and of humanity would in some degree have swayed our public councils, without the descent of (dea ex machina) Mrs. Anna Letitia Barbauld in a quarto, upon the theatre where the great European tragedy is now performing. Not such, however, is her opinion; an irresistible impulse of public duty-a contident sense of commanding talents have induced her to dash down her shagreen spectacles and her knitting needles, and to sally forth, band in hand with her renowned compatriot,* in the magnanimous resolution of saving a sinking state, by the instrumentality of a pamphlet in prose and a pamphlet in verse.

The poem, for so out of courtesy we shall call it, is entitled Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, we suppose, because it was written in the year 1911; but this is a mere conjecture, founded rather on our inability to assign any other reason for the name, than in any particular relation which the poem has to the events of the last year. We do not, we confess, very satisfactorily comprehend the meaning of all the verses which this fatidical spinster has drawn from her poetical distaff; but of what we do understand we very confidently assert that there is not a topic in. Eighteen Hundred and Eleven' which is not quite as applicable to 1810 or 1812, and which, in our opinion, might not, with equal taste and judgment, have been curtailed, or dilated, or transposed, or omitted, without

# See Art. II.


any injustice whatever to the title of the poem, and without producing the slightest discrepancy between the frontispiece and the body of the work.

The poem opens with a piece of information, which, though delivered in phraseology somewhat quaint and obscure, we are not disposed to question, namely, that this country is still at war; but it goes on to make ample amends for the flat veracity of this cominouplace, by adding a statement, which startled, as much as the foriner assertion satisfied, our belief. Mrs. Barbauld does not fear to assert, that the year 1811 was one of extraordinary natural plenty, but that, with a most perverse taste,

Man called to Famine, nor invoked in vain.' We had indeed heard that some mad and mischievous partisans had ventured to charge the scarcity which unhappily exists, upon the political measures of government but what does Mrs. Barbauld mean? Does she seriously accuse mankind of wishing for a famine, and interceding for starvation? or does she believe that it is in the power of this country, of what remains of independent Europe, nay, of herself, to arrest the progress of war, and, careless of what Buonaparte or his millions may be about, to beckon back peace and plenty, and to diffuse happiness over the reviving world?

But let us select a specimen of her poetry, which shall be also one of her veracity, prophecy, and patriotism. It is the description of the fallen state of this poor realm.

• Thy baseless wealth dissolves in air away,
Like mists that melt before the morning ray ;
No more in crowded mart or busy street,
Friends meeting friends with cheerful hurry greet.
Yes, thou must droop; thy Midas dream is o'er,
The golden tide of commerce leaves thy shore,
Leaves thee to prove th' alternate ills that haunt

Enfeebling luxury and ghastly want.'--p. 5. We do not know where Mrs. Anna Letitia now resides, though we can venture to assert that it is not on Parnassus: it must, bowe ever, be in some equally unfrequented, though less classical region; for the description just quoted is no more like the scene that is really before our eyes, than Mrs. Barbauld's satire is like her • Lessons for Children,' or her ‘Hymns in Prose.' England, in her prophetic vision, is undone; soon, it seems,

to be only known By the gray ruin and the mouldering stone.' while America is to go on increasing and improving in arts, in arms, and even, if that be possible, in virtue! Young Americans




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